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09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit23)

2009-06-12 17:05  自考365论坛 【 】【我要纠错

  Text A    non-verbal connunication

  本课主要单词

  1.non-verbal adj.   wordless, without involving the use of language (非词语的,非语言的)

  non-是一个常用前缀,通常加在形容词,名词或副词前,表示“非”,“无”,“不是”,“不重要的”,“无价值的”。如nonbeliever (无信仰的人)

  nonsmoker (不抽烟的人),nonstop (不停的,直达的), nonviolence(非暴力的),

  nondegree (非学位的),nonbook (无真实价值的书)

  1)Gesture is a form of non-verbal expression. (手势是一种非语言的表达方式。)

  2)Professor Wang is going to give us a lecture on non-verbal communication. (王教授将给我们做关于非语言交际问题的讲座。)

  3)You will have a better idea of it after you read the verbal instructions.(看了文字说明你就会对此有更深的了解。)

  2.oral adj. 口头的

  1)He gave us an oral report after inspecting the factory. (视察了那家工厂后,他给我们作了口头汇报。)

  2)They will have an oral English test tomorrow afternoon. (明天下午他们将有一个英语口试。)

  3)He broke the oral thermometer and had to buy a new one. (他摔坏了口腔温度计,不得不去买个新的。)

  3.approval n.

  agreement to an idea, plan, decision, etc.(赞成,同意);

  a formal statement that sth. is acceptable (认可批准)

  -al是一个名词后缀,用在动词后面构成名词,表示“动作”,“过程”。如:

  arrive——arrival  deny——denial  refuse——refusal

  survive——survival  try——trial  withdraw——withdraw 等等

  我们以前也学习过-al做形容词后缀,如:brutal 的),mortal (致命的),racial (种族的),social (社会的)等等

  1)He nodded his approval when we informed him of our plan. (当我们把计划告诉他时,他点头表示同意。)

  2)His proposal won the approval of many people. (他的建议赢得了许多人的支持。)

  3)My idea is unlikely to meet with the approval of my parents. (我的想法不可能得到我父母的认可。)

  4)This project has the approval of the National Treasury. (这个项目得到了国家财政部的批准。)

  5)She didn't conceal her disapproval of what we had done. (她毫不掩盖自己对我们所为的不赞成。)

  6)The colonel looked at the soldier with disapproval. (上校以非难的目光看着那个士兵。)

  7)His marriage was not approved by his family. (他的家人不赞同他的婚姻。)

  8)My boss approved of my attending the conference. (老板同意我出席会议。)

  本句中的approve作不及物动词用,后面接of + (动)名词,不接复合宾语。

  4.frown n. v. 皱眉;不满

  1)He gave me a frown of disapproval. (他向我做了个不赞成的表情。)

  2)She frowned at her mother when she was asked to do some housework.(要她做点家务事时,她朝母亲皱眉头。)

  3)Critics frowned on/upon the idea. (评论家对这种意见表示不赞同。)

  5.reaction n. 反应;对抗

  在前一单元中,我们学习了动词react, reaction是react的名词形式。无论用动词还是名词,当表示“对…作出反应”时,后面要用介词to.如:

  1)How did he react to the news? (他对此消息如何反应?)

  2)What was their reaction to your proposal? (他们对你的建议有何反应?)

  3)I am not sure how he will react to such a straightforward answer. (我吃不准他会对如此直率的回答作出什么反应。)

  4)What was the audience's reaction to his speech? (听众对他的发言有何反应?)

  6.embarrass v. 使窘迫,使为难;麻烦,妨碍

  1)She was embarrassed by her husband's drunken behavior. (她丈夫的酒后举止使她难堪。)

  2)It embarrasses me even to think about it. (我连想想这件事都觉得不好意思。)

  3)We didn't want to embarrass him in any way. (我们一点也不想使他为难。)

  4)We found him embarrassed with debts. (我们发现他已经负债累累。)

  7.staff n. 全体职工、参谋部     v. 为…配备工作人员

  1)The company has got a staff of more than 800. (这家公司有800多名职工。)

  2)The editorial staff of a newspaper demanded pay increases. (一家报纸的全体编辑人员要求增加工资。)

  3)He served as a chief of staff in the army. (他在部队做参谋长。)

  4)The labs are staffed with two engineers. (实验室里配备了两名工程师。)

  5)We must staff the center with men with a formal training. (我们必须为中心配备受过正规训练的人员。)

  在第七单元中我们学过stuff这个词,并把staff和stuff做过比较,再请看几个例句,注意stuff的意思和用法。

  1)The secretary has to get all the stuff ready before the meeting starts.(会议开始前秘书得把所有的东西准备好。)

  2)——Do you want some jelly? (你想来点果子冻吗?)

  ——No, I hate the stuff. (不,我讨厌那东西。)

  3)The buses are always stuffed with passengers during the rush hours.(上下班高峰时间,公共汽车上总是挤满了乘客。)

  4)He really wanted to stuff his ears with cotton-wool when his mother rattled on. (母亲喋喋不休时,他真想用棉托把耳朵堵上。)

  8.gesture n. 姿势,手势;(外交等方面的)姿态   v. 做手势

  1)He gestured to me to sit down. (他示意我坐下。)

  2)She gestured with her head towards the closed door. (她用头朝紧闭的门示意了一下。)

  3)The old man gestured me to his study. (老人示意我去他的书房。)

  4)He raised his hands in a gesture of despair. (他举起双手以示绝望。)

  5)What he has done is just a political gesture to draw popular support. (他所做的只是争取民众支持的一种政治姿态。)

  9.proximity n. 接近,亲近,近似

  这个词用得很正式,意思相当于closeness.如:

  1)Much of the town's attractiveness lies in its proximity to Niagara Falls.(这座城市吸引人的地方主要在于它离尼亚加拉瀑布很近。)

  2)I have grown accustomed to the continual proximity of the animals. (我已习惯总有动物在我附近。)

  3)be in close proximity to (非常接近于)

  4)in the proximity of (在…附近)

  5)proximity of blood (近亲)

  6)proximity effect (邻近效应)

  7)proximity talks (近距离间接会谈)

  10.cultural adj. 文化的

  在讲第三个单词approval时,我们提到-al可以做名词后缀用,也可以做形容词后缀用。在cultural这个单词中-al做形容词后缀用。

  1)Cultural differences caused a lot of misunderstandings. (文化方面的差异造成了许多误解。)

  2)These peoples have different cultural traditions. (这些民族有着不同的文化传统。)

  3)This city is often referred to as a cultural desert. (这个城市常被称为文化沙漠。)

  11.invasion n. 入侵,侵略

  这个单词的动词形式是invade.In是个前缀,意思是 “into”,vade是个词根,意思是 “to go”。

  -sion是个常用的名词后缀,加在动词后面构成名词。如:

  decide——decision (决定)  pervade——pervasion (弥漫)

  evade——evasion (逃避)

  1)Japan launched an invasion into China. (日本入侵中国。)

  2)This is an evasion of individual privacy. (这是对个人隐私的干预。)

  3)What you are doing now will undoubtedly invade the rights of others. (你现在的所为无疑将侵犯他人的权利。)

  4)No one would allow his family privacy to be invaded. (谁也不会允许自己的家庭私生活受到侵扰。)

  12.fiddle n. 小提琴  v. 拉提琴;不停拨弄;闲荡

  在口语中人们常用fiddle来表示演奏民间音乐的小提琴。请看几个例句,注意fiddle的意思。

  1)In his eyes father plays first fiddle in the family. (在他看来父亲在家里居首要地位。)

  2)His face was as long as a fiddle when his request was refused. (他的要求遭到拒绝时他拉长了脸。)

  3)Don't worry about him. He is as fit as a fiddle. (别为他担心,他非常健康。)

  再请看fiddle做动词用时的意思:

  1)He sat nervously fiddling with his spectacles. (他坐在那儿紧张地拨弄他的眼镜。)

  2)He didn't like anyone to fiddle with his bicycle. (他不喜欢任何乱动他的自行车。)

  3)Don't fiddle about, go and help your mum with the housework. (别再闲荡了,去帮妈妈做家务。)

  4)Father was angry because Tom fiddled away the whole day. (父亲很生气,因为汤姆浪费了整整一天的时间。)

  13.wriggle v. / n. 蠕动,扭动,蜿蜒

  英语中以wr开首的单词,w通常不发音,如write (写),wrap (包扎),wrestle (摔跤),wretched (痛苦的),wring (拧),wrinkle (皱纹),wrong (错误的)

  1)The child wriggled out of his mother's arms. (那孩子扭动着挣脱了母亲的怀抱。)

  2)A snake wriggled across the road. (一条蛇蜿蜒游过公路。)

  3)He got through the hole with a wriggle. (他扭动着身子从洞口钻了出去。)

  14.confess v. 承认;坦白,供认

  1)He confessed his crime in the face of the evidence. (在证据面前,他认罪了。)

  2)He confessed hating his present job. (他承认他恨目前的工作。)

  3)I have to confess that I didn't understand what she said. (我不得不承认我没听懂她说的话。)

  4)He confessed to being a drug addict. (他承认自己有毒瘾。)

  5)The student refused to confess to having cheated on the exam. (那个学生拒绝承认考试作弊。)

  从以上的例句中我们可以看出confess可以作及物动词用,也可作不及物动词用。作及物动词用时,confess的后面可以接名词、动名词和宾语从句等。作不及物动词用时,confess的后面要接介词to,其用法同于admit to sth/doing sth

  15.intense adj. 强烈的,紧张的;热烈的

  1)Because of the intense heat, I slept very little last night. (由于天气酷热,我昨夜没怎么睡。)

  2)The intense light dazzled my eyes. (强光使我目眩。)

  3)He has intense interest in computer. (他对计算机有极大的兴趣。)

  4)Diplomatic activity has been intense recently. (近来外交活动紧张频繁。)

  16.brief adj. 简短的,简洁的  v. 作简要的介绍,汇报

  1)He will go to England for a brief visit. (他将去英国进行短期访问。)

  2)She only made a brief statement at the meeting. (她在会上只作了简短的陈述。)

  3)They briefed the press about the recent happenings. (他们向报界通报最近发生的事情。)

  4)They had been well briefed about the political situation. (对政治形势他们已被简要告知。)

  17.volume n. 卷册,书卷;体积;音量

  1)The community has a library of 12,000 volumes. (这个社区有一个藏书12,000的图书馆。)

  2)The passenger volume this May was not as big last May. (今天五月的客流量没有去年的大。)

  3)Turn down the volume please. The baby is sleeping. (宝宝在睡觉,请把音量调低。)

  本课简介

  谈到人与人之间的交流方式,人们会很自然地想到语言(口头语言或书面语言),而另一种人们在无意识之中常常运用的交流方式(非语言交际或称肢体语言)也正受到越来越多的关注和研究。

  一般的欧洲人会对自己所赞同的东西以微笑和点头的方式表示赞许,对自己所不赞同的东西则皱眉和摇头。不用说一句话,人们就可以此来表明自己的态度。肢体语言与文化是密切相关的,比如中国人的微笑不一定表示赞许,倒可能是出于不安。

  肢体语言可被分为五类:1)身体姿势和脸部表情 2)目光交流 3)肢体距离 4)服装和外貌 5)语言特性。关于第三点,不同的文化有不同的反映。在某些文化中,人们在交谈时紧挨在一起是很自然的事,而在其他中,如美国,这样做则是不甚妥当的。

  有些信号对所有的人来说都很熟悉。比如一个正跟你交谈的人不停地摆弄铅笔或眼镜,这就表明他很紧张。一个用手捂着嘴巴讲话的人则缺少自信。如果你坐在椅子里扭动身体,悄悄看手表,用手掩着嘴巴打哈欠,这就表明你感到倦了。

  某些信号可以人为地控制,但眼神不易控制。如果不是想表达心中挚爱,请别长时间地盯着别人的眼睛看,那样会令人尴尬。

  本课语言点

  1.That isn't a catch question.

  catch多用作动词,意思是“抓住;赶上;感染到;着(火);领会”。如:

  1)The thief was caught by the police on the scene. (小偷被警察当场抓住。)

  2)He didn't catch the last train. (他没赶上末班火车。)

  3)He caught a bad cold last week. (他上周得了重伤风。)

  1)The building caught fire and many people were trapped in it. (大楼着了火,许多人被困在里面。)

  2)Sorry, I didn't quite catch you. (对不起,我没听清你的话。)

  在本课文的这个句子中,catch用作名词,意思是a hidden problem,difficulty,or obstacle in sth. (难人的问题,诡计)。如:

  1)There is a catch in it. (这里面有蹊跷。)

  2)Don't worry. There are no catch questions in the paper. (别担心,试卷里没有怪题。)

  3)He was taken surprise by the catch question. (那个怪题使他诧异。)

  Unit23(第68讲-第70讲)

  2.It would almost certainly refer to means of communication that involve the use of words.

  在第四单元中我们已经学过refer to (提到,涉及)这个短语。再请看几个例句。

  1)In his speech he referred to the difficulties they had overcome. (在发言中,他提到了他们所克服的困难。)

  2)What he said at the meeting doesn't refer to you. (他在会上所说的不是指你。)

  在第二单元和第二十二单元中,我们已学过动词involve和名词involvement,再请看下面的例句,

  注意involve在本课文中的意思和用法。

  1)If I were you,I wouldn't get myself involved in this problem. (如果我是你,我不会让自己卷进这个问题中。)

  2)She didn't want to be involved in trouble. (她不想卷入纠纷。)

  以上两例句中,involve都是“卷入,陷入,牵涉”的意思。

  3)To accept the job would involve my living in London. (若接受这份工作,我必须得住在伦敦。)

  4)Building this road will involve the construction of some tunnels. (造这条路包括建造一些隧洞。)

  在例句3)和4)中,involve的意思是“必须包括某种结果”。在involve后面必须用名词或者动名词。

  3.NVC for short.

  这是一个省略句,补充完整应该是Non-verbal communication is called NVC for short.

  (非语言交际被简称为/缩写为NVC.)

  for short是个常用短语,意思是“简称;缩写”。如:

  1)Unidentified flying object is called UFO for short. (不明飞行物被简称为UFO)

  2)People's Republic of China is ften written as P.R.C. for short. (中华人民共和国常被缩写为P.R.C.)

  4.…the average European will smile and nod approval.

  在第三单元中我们已经学过average这个词。average可以做形容词、名词和动词用。如:

  1)The average driver thinks that accidents only happen to other people.(司机一般都认为事故只发生在其他人身人。)

  2)We averaged 70 miles an hour. (我们平均每小时行70公里。)

  3)His performance is above the average. (他的成绩在一般水平之上。)

  在本课文的这个句子中,average做形容词用,意思是“普通的”。

  nod可以用作及物动词、不及物动词和名词。如:

  1)They nodded agreement. (他们点头表示同意。)

  2)He nodded me a welcome when I went in. (我进去时,他向我点头表示欢迎。)

  3)I nodded to him in greeting. (我向他点头打招呼。)

  4)Father nodded in approval when he listened. (父亲听着时点头表示赞同。)

  5)Homer sometimes nods. (智者千虑,必有一失。)

  6)He didn't give our plan the nod. (他没有同意我们的计划。)

  5.…because body language is very much tied to culture…

  本句中的be tied to sth.意思是be related to, have to do with (与…有关),如:

  1)Many diseases are tied to smoking. (许多疾病与吸烟有关。)

  2)The misunderstanding was tied to cultural differences. (这个误会与文化差异有关。)

  be tied to 也可以表示be restricted by (受…约束),如:

  1)She was tied to housework and wouldn't be able to come. (她被家务事束缚,无法前来。)

  2)If you have small children, you will be tied to your home. (如果你有小孩子,你就会被束缚在家了。)

  6.Quite a lot of work is now being done on the subject of NVC, which is obviously important, for instance, to managers, who have to deal every day with their staff, and have to understand what other people are feeling if they are to create good working conditions.

  本句中,which引导非限定性定语从句,修饰NVC;who引导的也是非限定性定语从句,修饰managers;what引导的是宾语从句,做understand的宾语。

  一般说来,用which引导非限定性定语从句,修饰表物的先地词;用who引导的非限定性定语从句则修饰表人的先行词;也可用关系 副词where或when引导非限定性定语从句。非限定性定语从句常用逗号与主句分开,而且引导从句的关系代词which,that和关系副词 where, when不能省略。

  1)I want to buy the house, which has a garden. (我想买那座房子,它有一个花园。)

  2)The students, who wanted to go out on a picnic, were disappointed when it rained.(学生们想出去野餐,天下雨了大家都感到失望。)

  3)The football match will be put off till next week, when we can get everything ready.(足球赛将推迟到下周,那时我们能把一切准备就绪。)

  4)The place, where we stayed, has changed so much. (那个地方我们住过,那儿的变化很大。)

  deal with的意思是“对付,打交道”。如:

  1)He is not easy to deal with. (他不容易打交道。)

  2)I don't know how to deal with this situation. (我不知道如何应付这种局面。)

  7.I expect you understand all those, except perhaps “proximity”。 动词expect通常有如下用法:

  1)except + 宾语(名词或代词)

  I am expecting a letter. (我在等信。)

  The teacher is expecting you. (老师在等你。)

  2)expect +(宾语)+ 动词不定式

  I expect to be back next week. (我预计下周回来。)

  I didn't expect him to come so early. (我没料到他会来得这么早。)

  3)expect + that从句

  He didn't expect that the work could be so difficult. (他没料到这工作会如此艰难。)

  They expected that the war would end soon.(他们期望战争早日结束。)

  在本课文的句子中,except后面跟的是省略了that的宾语从句。

  8.A person who holds a hand over his mouth when he is talking is signaling that he is lacking in confidence.

  在第十六单元中我们学过lack这个词。lack可以用作动词或名词,lacking用作形容词。lack和lacking用法如下:

  1)lack用作名词:(for) lack of (因)缺乏

  He showed a complete lack of confidence. (他显得毫无信心。)

  The case was dismissed for lack of evidence. (因缺乏证据,那个案子被驳回了。)

  2)lack用作及物动词:lack sth

  Your article lacks concert example. (你的文章缺少具体的例子。)

  She lacks patience in dealing with children. (与孩子打交道她缺少耐心。)

  3)lacking用作形容词:be lacking in sth.

  Philip was not lacking in ability. (菲力普并不缺少能力。)

  His reception of us was lacking in warmth.(他对我们的接待缺少热情。)

  9.These are both pretty obvious signals.

  通常pretty用作形容词,而在本句中pretty作副词用。如:

  1)She was happy to live in the pretty valley. (住在美丽的山谷里她很开心。)

  2)The pretty little girl brought much delight to her family. (那个漂亮的小姑娘给全家带来了莫大的快乐。)

  3)I will be back pretty soon. (我不久就回来。)

  4)She felt pretty tired. (她感到相当累。)

  5)I am pretty certain the performance will be a success. (我相当有把握演出会成功。)

  10.In fact, non-verbal communication car, as the saying goes, speak volumes.

  as the saying goes意思是“正如成语所说,俗话说”。在本句中,as the saying goes做插入语。

  speak volumes意思是“很有意义;含义很深;充分说明”。如:

  1)The one photograph speaks volumes. (这一张照片就很有意义。)

  2)The look on her face spoke volumes.她的脸色意味深长。)

  3)Her silence spoke volumes for her attitude. (她的沉默清楚地表明了她的态度。)

  本课主要词组

  1.means of

  2.involve sth/doing sth

  3.refer to

  4.agree with

  5.communicate sth. to sb.

  6.tie to / be tied to

  7.in order to

  8.be categorized into

  9.be common to

  10.fiddle with

  11.be lacking in

  12.start doing sth.

  13.and so on

  14.in fact

  15.give off

  16.look away

  17.in embarrassment

  18.for short

  19.as the saying goes

  20. speak volumes

  Text B    body talk

  短语表达

  1.talk a liking to

  He couldn't understand why the boss suddenly took a liking to him.

  2.chances are that…

  Chances are that he will not be able to get the job.

  3.anything… but

  It is not anything you say but something you do that counts.

  4.devote to

  Father asked him to devote his attention to his study.

  5.apart from

  Apart from this consideration, there is no other reason why we should not go.

  6.be involved in

  He was not involved in the scandal.

  7.tend to

  He tends to get irritated if you press him for an answer.

  8.be aware of

  He is not aware of the mistake he has made.

  9.according to

  You have to do according to what he said.

  10.complain of

  The moment he got in, he began to complain of the weather.

  11.let alone

  He wouldn't hesitate to die for her, let alone give her some help.

  12.be hostile to

  No knows why he is so hostile to his brother.

  13.impress sb. with sth.

  He impressed us with his sincerity.

  14.take note of

  He didn't take note of the weather forecast and was caught in a heavy rain.

  15.go on

  I didn't know anything about what was going on outside.

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本文转载链接:09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit23)

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