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09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit11)

2009-06-12 16:09  自考365论坛 【 】【我要纠错

  Text A   The Great American Garage Sale

  本课主要单词

  1.garage n. 车库,汽车修理厂

  1)Jim jumped out the car and opened the garage doors.(杰姆跃出车外,把车库门打开。)

  2)It is already 6:30. I think the garage must be closed.(已经六点半了,我想汽车修理厂准已关门了。)

  3)Mr. Henderson worked as a garage mechanic before he retired. (退休前亨德森先生做汽车修理工。)

  4)They decided to have a garage sale to get rid of some unwanted stuff.(他们打算进行一次现场旧货出售,把一些不需要的物品清除掉。)

  2.unwanted adj. 没人要的;不需要的,多余的

  1)The little girl felt unwanted when both her parents left her. (父母丢下了她,小姑娘觉得自己是多余的。)

  2)Herbicides can be used to keep down unwanted plants.(除莠剂可以被用来控制多余的植物的生长。)

  3)The unwanted objects are set out on the front yard of their home.(那些不需要的物品就展示在他们家的前院里。)

  在英语中,用前缀 un——加动词的过去分词构成的形容词很多,如:unexpected( 想不到的),uneducated(没受教育的),undisturbed( 没受到干挠的),unhurried(不慌不忙的)等等。

  3.rid v. 使摆脱,使去掉

  1)We must rid ourselves of the illusions and be more practical. (我们必须去掉幻想,更加务实。)

  2)Who do you think can rid the country of this wickedness?(你觉得谁能使这个国家摆脱邪恶?)

  3)You should try to get rid of the uneasy feeling. (你应该尽量使自己摆脱这种不安的感觉。)

  4)Jack got rid of the old van and bought himself a new Buick. (杰克卖了那辆旧货车,给自己买了辆新别克。)

  5)He just didn't know how to get rid of that annoying boy.(他就是不知道怎么摆脱那个恼人的男孩。)

  4.homemade adj. 家里做的;自制的;本国制造的

  1)The cake is really tasty. I didn't expect it is homemade.(这蛋糕味道真好,我没想到这是家里做的。)

  2)The woman told the boy that candy was homemade.(那位夫人对男孩说糖果是自制的。)

  在英语中,像homemade 这类词很常见,如:handmade, machine-made, man-made, China-made等等。

  5.neighborhood n. 四邻,邻近地区,附近

  1)He told the police that he lived in a wealthy neighborhood. (他对警察说他住在富人区。)

  2)They didn't know they lived in the same neighborhood.(他们不知道他们俩在同一地段。)

  3)The noise from the construction site disturbed the entire neighborhood.(工地的噪声骚扰了整个地区的居民。)

  4)She sent the child to the neighborhood nursery, as she had to go to work.(她把孩子送进了附近的托儿所,因为她得去上班。)

  5) He lives in the neighborhood of a shopping center.(他住在一个商店区附近。)

  6.advertisement n. 广告;启事;公告

  1)Today's newspaper has an advertisement for air-hostesses.(今天的报纸载有一则招聘空姐的广告。)

  2)They decided to place an advertisement on TV for the child as lost.(他们决定在电视上登走失儿童的广告。)

  在使用中,我们常用ad. 作为advertisement的简写。

  advertising也可用作名词,意思是“广告业,登文选”,或“广告(总称)”

  1)He runs a firm that does big advertising.(他经营着一家做大规模广告生意的公司。)

  2)The newspaper carries much advertising.(这报纸上登有大量广告。)

  3)The supermarket attracted many customers by advertising.(这家超市用广告吸引了众多顾客。)

  advertise 做动词用,意思是“(为)…做广告;宣传”

  He saw a teaching post advertised by the local newspaper.(他在当地报纸上看到一则招聘教师的广告。)

  7.ever-increasing adj. 不断增长的

  1)They are trying hard to meet the ever-increasing demands of the neighborhood.(他们正在努力满足这地区的人们不断增长的需要。)

  2)The ever-increasing number of students put a great strain on them.(不断增长的学生人数给他们带来了很大的压力。)

  英语中这一类的形容词也不少见,如:ever blooming (四季开花的),ever lasting (永久的)

  8.stuff n. 原料;东西   v. 塞满

  1)He has got all the stuff ready for building his new house. (他已备齐新房所需的全部材料。)

  2)She is always eating sweet stuff.(她总是吃甜食。)

  3)He is unwilling to read the stuff he has written to the whole class.(他不愿意把自己写的东西读给全班听。)

  4)The old man stuffed his pipe with tobacco.(老人把烟斗装满烟丝。)

  5) The boy stuffed the bills carelessly into his pocket. ( 那男孩随便地把钞票往口袋里一塞。)

  6) The book is stuffed with interesting stories. (这本书里全是有趣的故事。)

  请注意区别stuff 与staff,staff通常用做名词,意思是“全体职员”

  1)The school has got a staff of 800. (这所学校有800名教员。)

  2)They have large stuffs of language experts (他们有大批语言专家。)

  9.cast off adj. 抛弃的;穿旧的    n. 被抛弃的人(或物)

  1)He was reluctant to dress in his older brother's castoffs.(他不愿意穿哥哥丢下的旧衣服。)

  2)He felt himself a social castoff (他觉得自己是一个被社会抛弃的人。)

  cast off 是一个词组动词,意思是“把…放开”,“丢弃;与…断绝关系”。

  1)He cast off the hunting dog to chase the wounded hare.(他放开猎狗去追受伤的野兔。)

  2)Cast off all restraints and do with you like.(抛掉一切限制去做你喜欢的事。)

  10. extra adj. 额外的    adv. 非常

  1)She could get some extra sleep at weekends.(周末时她可以多睡一会儿。)

  2)Mother needs extra help in the kitchen.(妈妈需要额外的人手帮厨。)

  3)He was extra nice to them. (他对他们特别好。)

  4)Mr. Jones arrived extra late.(琼斯先生到得格外迟。)

  11.original adj. 起初的;独创的     n. 原作

  1)Philadelphia was the original capital of the united states. (费城是美国的旧都。)

  2)What is the original meaning of this word?(这个词的原义是什么?)

  3)The original plans were changed (原先的计划改了。)

  4)he has some original ideas in his book.(他的书里有创新思想。)

  5)The teacher asked us to read some novels in their original versions.(老师让我们读一些原版小说。)

  12.remnant n. 残余,剩余

  1)They dumped the remnants of the feast into the garbage can. (他们把残羹剩菜倒进了垃圾桶。)

  2)The remnant of the defeated army withdrew to a valley.(战败部队的残兵撤进了山谷。)

  3)The remnant is large enough for an apron.(这块零头布足够做个围裙了。)

  13.bargain n. 交易;特价商品    v. 讨价还价

  1)I was sure it would be a losing bargain at the beginning.(我开始就认定这是一笔赔本买卖。)

  2)She showed me how to shop bargains. (她让我看看该怎样觅购特价商品。)

  3)I'm considering the possibility of bargaining with our opponent.(我在考虑和对手谈判的可能性。)

  4)She refused to bargain over the price. (她不愿讨价还价。)

  14.fabulous adj. 神话式的,惊人的

  1)He is a fabulous figure in history.(他是历史上的传奇式人物。)

  2)Mr. Wang really didn't know what to do with fabulous fortune at the moment. (王先生一时不知如何处置这笔巨额财富。)

  3)We had a fabulous time at the party.(我们在晚会上玩得很痛快。)

  15.mercy n. 慈悲,宽容

  1)Have some mercy on the poor child (对可怜的孩子发发慈悲吧。)

  2)He showed no mercy on (to) his opponents. (他对对手毫不手软。)

  3)The jury found him guilty and did not recommend mercy.(陪审团认为他有罪,所以未提请法庭宽大处理。)

  4)What a mercy that you could survive the air crash.(你能在空难中幸存是多么幸运啊!)

  at the mercy of 任凭…的摆布

  for mercy's sake 看在上帝的份上

  leave…。to the mercies of 听由…任意摆布

  16.reluctant adj. 不情愿的

  1)He was reluctant to give them any help. (他不愿意给他们任何帮助。)

  2)She gave us a reluctant promise (他勉强地给了我们允诺。)

  17.bound adj. 一定的;受约束的;开往…

  1)We are bound to succeed.(我们一定会成功。)

  2)He is bound to refuse.(他一定会拒绝)

  3)She has no time to go shopping as she is bound to her job.(她被工作束缚住了,没时间去购物。)

  4)Where are you bound for?(你上哪儿去了?)

  5)He is bound for home from Shanghai(他在从上海回家的途中。)

  本课简介

  “ The Great American Garage Sale”这篇课文通过对一户普通的美国家庭把家里不再需要的物品整理出来进行现场旧货出售一事的描述,告诉读者现场旧货出售在美国深受普通百姓的喜爱,买卖双方都乐在其中。究其原因不外乎如下几点:

  1)充抵不断上扬的生活费用;

  2)享受结识新朋友的快乐;

  3)希冀有意外收获的美梦成真。Garage sale 既降福予者也降福取者,只是有一天买东西的人会成为卖东西的人,因为他也遇到了同一个问题-如何打发掉家里多余的物品。

  本课主要语言点

  1.Not long ago, Charles Erickson and his family decided to do some Spring housecleaning.

  动词do 常与一些名词连用。表示从事某种普通的活动或工作,比如:do you teeth ( brush your teeth ) ,

  do the flowers ( arrange the flowers ) , do the dishes ( wash the dishes )。再请看一些例句:

  1)When mother was away, I did the cooking and Tom did the cleaning.(妈妈不在家时,我做饭,汤姆搞卫生。)

  2)Who does the washing up after each meal?(每顿饭后谁洗餐具?)

  3)I will go to supermarket to do some shopping this afternoon.(今天下午,我要去超市买点东西。)

  2.Sorting through their possessions, they cane up with some 1,500 old, unwanted items-all sorts of things they wanted to get rid of.

  sort 通常做名词用,意思是“种类、类别”,如:

  1)What sort of iron did she buy this morning? (她今天上午买的哪一种熨斗?)

  2)I don't think he will be interested in this sort of book.(我想他不会对这一类书感兴趣。)

  3)He would find all sorts of excuses for his failure.(他会为自己的失败找寻各种借口。)

  在本句中sort用作动词,意思是“整理;分类”。Sort常用于短语sort out,但out也常可省略。

  1)He was alone in the post office sorting letters.(他独自一个在邮局里分拣信件。)

  2)Old John was sorting through a pile of old shoes.(老约翰正在整理一堆旧鞋。)

  3)The teacher asked Mary to sort out the bigger balls.(老师让玛丽把大一点的球拣回来。)

  4)I need to sort out my own problems first.(我需要先把我自己的问题解决。)

  come up with 这个短语我们在前面碰到过,意思是“提供,提出,想出”,在本句中该短语意为“产生,制造出”。

  1)We always count on Xian Li to come up with help of one kind or another.(我们总是可以指望小李提供这样或那样的帮助。)

  2)He came up with a good idea after 2 hours' of thinking.(经过两个小时的思考,他想出了一个好主意。)

  3)The company has come up with a new time-saving device. (这家公司已制造出一种新的省时装置。)

  get rid of 这个短语已在词汇部分做了讲解,请再看两个例句:

  1)It is not easy to get rid of a bad habit (去掉不良习惯不是一件容易的事)

  2)I want to get rid of this old bike and buy a new one.(我想卖掉这辆旧自行车,买辆新的。)

  3.The Ericssons needn't have worried

  表示姓名的专有名词变成复数,前面加定冠词the,指此姓的一家人,或夫妇俩,如:

  1)The Blacks were in France when the earthquake happened in their hometown(家乡发生地震时,布莱克一家正在法国。)

  2)The wangs were holding a birthday party when the police paid them a visit.(警察来访时,王先生夫妇在举行生日聚会。)

  “needn't + have + 过去分词”表示在某时之前本无必要做某事,如:

  1)We needn't have worried so much about him. He is old enough to take care of himself.(我们本无必要为他如此担心,他是大人了,该会照顾自己了。)

  2)You needn't have told him everything about it. It has nothing to do with him.(你本无必要把一切都告诉他,这件事跟他无关。)

  3)I needn't have worked so hard if you could give me a little help.(如果你给我一点帮助,我本不用如此辛苦的。)

  4.Eager buyers bought all but 50 of the items in one weekend leaving the family $442 richer.

  all but是一个常用短语,意思是“几乎,差不多;除了……都”,如:

  1)Give me one more minute. I have all but finished.(再给我一分钟,我差不多要做完了。)

  2)He found all but one exit blocked.(除了一个出口外,其余的出口都被封了。)

  3)All the boys but him went camping last weekend.(上周末除了他之外,所有的男孩都出去野营了。)

  leave在本句中的意思是“使……处于某种状态”,如:

  1)Leave the door open.(让门开着吧。)

  2)The seven-day strike left the company in great confusion.(为期七天的罢工使公司极其混乱。)

  3)The result has left everybody dissatisfied.(结果使每一个人都不满意。)

  4)The new policy would leave taxpayers worse off.(新政策使纳税人处境更糟。)

  5.Rising living costs are considered by almost everyone as a reason both for holding sales and for attending them

  本句中的rising可以看作为形容词,做定词,修饰其后的名词短语,

  如:rising prices (上涨的物价),the rising rate of inflation(上升的通货澎胀率),

  rising sun(升起的太阳朝阳)

  consider 是一个常用动词,请看下面的例句,注意consider的用法:

  1)They consider themselves to be very lucky. ( 他们认为自己很幸运。Consider to be)

  2)They don't consider it as important.(他们认为这个不重要。consider as, 用被动语态则是be considered as )

  3)He is considering moving to a smaller city.(他正在考虑搬到小一点的城市去。Consider doing sth.)

  4)I consider that one computer is not enough. (我估计一台电脑不够用。Consider+a clause)

  在前一单元我们讲到过,reason后面可以跟for, 也可以跟why,只是在for后面必须用名词或名词短语,在why后面必须用句子。请再看两个例句:

  1)Nobody knows the reason why he is so upset.(谁也不知道他为什么如此沮丧。)

  2)The reason for his going to France was unknown.(无人知晓他去法国的原因。)

  6.But beyond that, they are fun.

  beyond 是一个常用词,在本句中做介词用,意思是“除…以外”,相当于besides,多用于否定句和疑问句中,如:

  1)I know nothing of it beyond what you told me.(除了你告诉我的以外,别的我都不知道。)

  2)Beyond that, there is nothing more I can say.(除了那个,我再也没什么可说的了。)

  3)He owns nothing beyond the shabby house.(除了那个破旧的房子,他一无所有。)

  beyond做介词用时,还有“在…的那边;迟于;超出”等意思,如:

  1)What lies beyond the mountain?(山那边有什么?)

  2)Don't stay there beyond midnight.(别在那儿待到半夜后)

  3)What he said is beyond my understanding.(他说的话我不懂)

  4)How he managed to find us is beyond me.(我不清楚他是如何设法找到我们的。)

  7.One psychologist suggests that people are fed up with the computerization of their lives.

  在动词suggest (建议,提议)后面可以用doing sth.和that从句,在that从句中用虚拟语气,请看例句:

  1)I suggest bringing the meeting to an end(我建议结束会议。)

  2)He suggested that the work (should) be started at once.(他建议立即动工。)

  3)Her parents suggested that she (should) have a medical examination.(她父母建议她做一次体检。)

  当suggest的意思为“认为;暗示;启发;表明”时,that从句中不用虚拟语气,如:

  1)Jane's pale face suggested that she was ill (珍妮苍白有脸色表明她病了。)。

  2)He suggested that accident was my fault. (他认为那起事故是我的过错。)

  be fed up with意思是“厌倦,”相当于be tired of 或 be weary of,如:

  1)I'm fed up with his complaints(对他的抱怨我厌倦之极。)

  2)Many students are fed up with some of the dull courses(许多学生对一些乏味的课程甚为厌倦。)

  8.Many of the younger buyers say they are turned off by the poor quality of modern goods and are looking for remnants of a stringer and firmer era, when things were built to last.

  turn off是个常用短语,通常表示“关掉;解雇;避开,”在本句中的意思是“失去兴趣”,请看例句:

  1)Be sure to turn off the lights before you leave.(请你离开前务必把灯关掉。)

  2)She was turn off by the boss as she couldn't type fast enough.(她因打字不够快而被老板解雇。)

  3)He turned off the question with a shrug of the shoulder.(他耸耸肩回避开了这个问题。)

  4)This music really turns me off.(这种音乐真叫我倒胃。)

  5)A number of students are turned off by this subject.(这门课使许多学生厌烦。)

  句中的when是一个关系副词,引导非限定定语从句,也可把when看作是并列连词,意思相当于at the time,如:

  1)The meeting will be put off till next week, when all the participants will arrive from different parts of the country.(会议被推迟到下周,届时所有的与会者将从全国各地赶来。)

  2)I'll join you next month, when I will have made all the preparations.(我下个月加入你们当中,那时我将做好一切准备。)

  9.……it blesseth him that gives and him that takes

  blesseth 为古英语动词现在时第三人称单数,相当于现在的blesses.句中的that引导的是定语从句,如:

  1)God help those that help themselves.(自助者天助。)

  2)Give it to whoever that is in need of help.(把这个给任何一个需要帮助的人。)

  本课主要词组

  1.sort through    2.come up with       3.all sorts of

  4.get rid of      5.set out            6.all but

  7.put up          8.be considered as   9.be fed up with

  10. search for     11.turn off          12.run across

  13.in the back of one's mind         14.(be) of great value

  15.separate…from   16.be bound to     17.be faced with

  短语表达

  1.urge sb. to do sth./be urged to do sth.

  They urged the management to give them a definite answer.

  2.without adv.

  Never mind, we can manage without.

  3.instead of

  He stayed at home reading instead of going to see a film.

  4.range from …to

  The boys range in age from 7 to 13.

  5.specialize in

  He specialized in biology.

  6.at low prices

  This small shop offers goods at low prices.

  7.be likely to

  He is likely to come late.

  8.refer to

  He used to be referred to as “the Iron Man”。

  9.be known for

  China is known for its silk and tea.

  10. keep the flavor

  The vegetable cannot keep its flavor if overcooked.

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本文转载链接:09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit11)

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