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09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit20)

2009-06-12 16:57  自考365论坛 【 】【我要纠错

  Text A    You Can't DO It Because It Hurts Nobody

  本课主要单词

  1.tough adj. 强壮的;粗暴的;老的;艰苦的

  1)The tough mountaineer succeeded in getting to the top of the mountain.

  (那位强壮的登山运动员成功地登上了山顶。)

  2)Camels are tough and hardy creatures. (骆驼是能吃苦耐劳的动物。)

  3)Those tough law-breaking youngsters should be dealt with seriously. (应该严肃对待那些无法无天的青少年。)

  4)She complained about the tough steak.(她抱怨牛排太老。)

  5)They had a tough time during the war. (战争期间她们苦熬度日。)

  6)He'll be tough on you if you bother him. (如果你麻烦他,他会对你不客气。)

  7)It was tough to get a satisfactory job.(找一份令人满意的工作很不容易。)

  2.crime n. 罪;罪行

  criminal n. 罪犯  adj. 犯罪的;刑事的

  1)He committed a crime against the security of the state. (他犯了危害国家安全罪。)

  2)It is a crime to waste so much food. (浪费那么多食物是一种罪过。)

  3)The president is determined to bring down the crime rate. (总统下决心使犯罪率下降。)

  4)The wanted criminal had no place to hide. (被通缉的罪犯无处可藏。)

  5)The man was found to have a criminal record.(那人被发现有犯罪记录。)

  6)The criminal police are working on a major case. (刑警队在着手一起大案。)

  3.drunk adj. 醉的

  1)He was so drunk that he could not walk. (他醉得路都走不起来了。)

  2)He was charged with drunk driving. (他被指控酒后驾车。)

  3)The young man was drunk with success. (那个年青人因为成功而喝醉了。)

  4.custom n. 习惯;风俗

  customs n. 海关

  customary adj. 习惯上的

  1)It is her custom to go for a walk every morning. (她惯常每天早上去散步。)

  2)They didn't know much about the customs of the country they were going to visit. (对他们将要访问的那个国家的风俗习惯他们了解得不多。)

  3)It won't take you long to pass the customs. (通过海关检查不会花你们太多时间。)

  4)It is customary to exchange gifts at Christmas. (圣诞节时人们互赠礼物是一种习俗。)

  5.admit v. 承认;准许进入

  admission n. 承认;准许进入

  1)He admitted his guilt to the police. (他向警方承认犯罪。)

  2)The boy admitted to his teacher that he was wrong. (那男孩向老师承认自己错了。)

  3)There were no windows to admit air. (没有窗子可使空气流入。)

  4)David was admitted into the school basketball team. (大卫被纳为篮球队的队员。)

  5)None of them admitted to cheating on exams.(他们都不承认考试作弊。)

  6)She admitted to having a strong like for light beer. (她承认自己很喜欢淡啤酒。)

  7)His admission that he had committed the theft proved John's innocence.(他承认偷窃,从而证明了约翰的清白。)

  8)He was refused admission into the club. (他未获准加入俱乐部。)

  9) Admission to the park is free. (公园免费进入。)

  请注意下面几组词,找出其构词的规律:

  admit/admission emit/emission

  transmit/transmission submit/submission

  6.tape n. 磁带  v. 用带子捆扎;用胶布封住;把…录于

  1)The teacher asked us to listen to English tapes when we had time. (老师让我们有空时听英语磁带。)

  2)She spent a whole morning taping the presents.(她花了一个上午的时间捆扎礼物。)

  3)As there was nobody at home, he taped a note to the door.(因为家中无人,他便用胶布把一张字条粘贴在门上。)

  4)The robber taped the watchman's mouth. (抢劫犯用胶布封住守门人的嘴。)

  5)He taped the conversation secretly. (他偷偷把谈话用磁带录了下来。)

  7.jail n. 监狱

  1)He was put into jail for armed robbery. (他因武装抢劫被送进了监狱。)

  2)The young man escaped from jail. (那个年轻人逃出了监狱。)

  3)He was sentenced to two weeks in jail. (他被判监禁两周。)

  8.fatal adj. 致命的;重大的

  fatality n. 死亡者;死亡事故

  1)He received a fatal wound in the battle. (他在战斗中受了致命伤。)

  2)The fatal eruption of the volcano caused unimaginable losses. (火山毁灭性的喷发造成了难以想像的损失。)

  3)Mutual trust is fatal to friendship. (相互信任对于友谊来说不可或缺。)

  4)The accident caused several fatalities. (事故造成数人死亡。)

  5)They are trying to reduce the fatality of heart disease. (他们正努力降低心脏病的致命性。)

  9.threaten v. 威胁

  在前一单元中,我们学习了名词threat,-en是个动词后缀,加在名词或形容词的后面可以构成动词,如:

  1)加在名词后面:heighten, lengthen, hasten

  2)加在形容词后面:shorten, brighten, quicken

  10.tolerate v. 忍受;宽恕

  tolerant adj. 容忍的

  tolerance n. 忍受;宽容;忍耐力

  1)I cannot tolerate his dishonesty. (我不能容忍他的不诚实。)

  2)We will not tolerate their distorting the fact. (我们不会容忍他们歪曲事实。)

  3)He is tolerant of different opinions. (他能容忍不同意见。)

  4)These plants are tolerant of extreme heat. (这些植物能耐酷热。)

  5)My tolerance of your impoliteness is limited. (我对你的无礼的忍耐是有限的。)

  11.limit n. 限制    v. 限制

  limited adj. 有限的

  1)She had reached the limit of her patience. (她已到了忍无可忍的地步。)

  2)He was fined for exceeding the speed limit. (他因超过车速限制而被罚款。)

  3)Try to limit your talk to 5 minutes. (请尽量把话在五分钟内说完。)

  4)He limited himself to 10 cigarettes a day. (他限定自己一天抽10支烟。)

  5)We must make good use of the limited resources. (我们必须好好利用有限的资源。)

  6)Time is limited, we have to step here today. (时间有限,我们今天只能讲到这儿。)

  off limits 禁止进入

  within limits 适度的;在一定范围内

  without limit 无限制地

  12.celebrate v. 庆祝

  celebration n. 庆祝

  1)We'll go to celebrate grandma’s 70th birthday this weekend. (这个周末我们去庆祝祖母70岁生日。)

  2)They are singing and dancing to celebrate their victory. (他们唱歌、跳舞庆祝胜利。)

  3)The birthday celebration will be held at home. (生日庆典将在家举行。)

  4)The celebration of Chinese New Year used to include a display of fireworks. (过去中国新年庆典包括放焰火。)

  13.anonymous adj. 匿名的

  an是一个前缀,用在元音字母或辅音h前,表示“非”,“没有”,“缺乏”,

  如:anarchy(无政府),anonym(匿名者)。

  onym是个词根,意思是name(名字),如antonym(反义词),synonym(同义词)

  -ous是一个形容词后缀,如dangerous, famous

  1)He was greatly disturbed by the anonymous letter. (匿名信令他极度不安。)

  2)The author wishes to remain anonymous. (作者不希望披露姓名。)

  14.cheat v. 欺骗;作弊    n. 骗子

  1)The old lady told the policeman that she had been cheated of all her savings.(那位老太太告诉警察她被人骗取了她所有的积蓄。)

  2)He was cheated into believing that he was an adopted son. (他被骗得相信自己是个养子。)

  3)He said that many high school students cheated on exams. (他说许多中学生考试作弊。)

  4)The singer was said to have cheated on income taxes. (据说那位歌手在所得税上弄虚作假。)

  5)These drinks I've bought are a cheat, they taste so strange. (我买的这些饮料间冒牌货,味道很怪。)

  6)How could you be friends with these cheats? (你怎么能与骗子为友呢?)

  15.abstract a. 抽象的    n. 摘要    v. 提取;摘录…的要点

  1)He couldn't understand this abstract idea. (他不能理解这个抽象概念。)

  2)An abstract of this paper is needed. (需要有这篇论文的摘要。)

  3)He is abstracting a story for a book review. (他正在为一篇书评撰写故事梗概。)

  4)They are trying to abstract iron from ore. (他们正试图从矿石中提取铁。)

  16.rob v. 抢劫;非法剥夺

  1)He was robbed twice in the downtown area. (他在闹市区两次被抢。)

  2)A jewelry store was robbed last night. (昨晚一家珠宝店遭抢劫。)

  3)She was robbed of her purse on the bus. (在公共汽车上,她的钱包被抢。)

  4)The pain robbed him of sleep. (疼痛使他不能入睡。)

  5)The child was robbed of an opportunity to see his mother. (那孩子被剥夺了一次见母亲的机会。)

  17.fraud n. 欺骗;骗局

  1)He obtained the money by fraud. (他骗得了那笔钱。)

  2)His explanation was nothing but a fraud. (他的解释完全是骗人的鬼话。)

  3)What he did was a fraud on the customers. (他的所为是对顾客的一种欺骗行为。)

  18.swindle v. 诈骗    n. 诈骗行为

  1)He tried to swindle the insurance company. (他欺骗诈骗保险公司。)

  2)Some old people are easily swindled. (有些老人很容易受骗。)

  3)The boy swindled the old man out of his money. (那个男孩骗取了老先生的钱财。)

  4)The big bank swindle involved a lot of people. (许多人与这起诈骗银行的大案有牵连。)

  19.honesty n. 诚实;坦率

  在第十四单元中我们学过副词honestly.honest是个形容词。-y是名词后缀,加在动词或形容词后面可以构成名词。

  如:delivery, discovery, recovery, flattery, modesty, jealousy.

  如果我们在honest, honesty前面加上前缀dis-则可以构成反义词。

  1)His honesty wins him a lot of friends. (他的诚实赢得了许多朋友。)

  2)In all honesty I'm at my wit’s end. (说实话,我现在是智穷计尽。)

  3)He is honest to his friends (他对朋友很真诚。)

  4)Nobody wanted to have anything to do with this dishonest chap. (谁都不想与这个不诚实的家伙打交道。)

  5)His dishonesty gave his parents a shock. (他的不诚实令他的父母大为吃惊。)

  20. probably adv. 很可能,大概,或许

  probable adj. 有可能

  probability n. 可能性

  1)He will probably refuse your help. (他很可能会拒绝你的帮助。)

  2)Their team will probably win the game. (他们队或许会赢得这场比赛。)

  3)It's probable that they will come earlier. (他们可能会早点来。)

  4)Overloading was the probable cause of the accident. (超载是事故的可能起因。)

  5)There is no probability that he will succeed. (他不可能成功。)

  6)There is every probability that she will make a fuss over the matter. (她很可能对此事大惊小怪。)

  本课简介

  在本篇课文中作者告诉我们并不只是粗野之人才犯罪,生活中看似无大碍的事情往往有违法律。现实生活是复杂的,不可能像在电影中一 样,简单地把人分为好人和坏人。如同疾病可以轻至感冒重至癌症一样,犯罪行为也是有程度的轻重的。人们会对某些违法行为持宽容态度,这也许是因为人们想借 此来为自己的某些违法行为开脱。另外,报刊、电视上的暴力使得人们对犯罪司空见惯。在许多情况下,人们不忍去伤害一个具体的人,而对某个不甚具体的群体或 个体加以伤害却并不在意。人们对于违法行为的种种错误认识必须得以纠正。严法酷刑、警方的严加防范也许都不能使人完全免于犯罪,变得诚实,每一个人都应从 自己做起,使我们的社会成为一个文明的法制社会。

  本课语言点

  1.Who do you think breaks the law in our society?

  本句中do you think是个插入语,插入语用于问句中在英语中也是十分常见的,如:

  1)What performance do you think they will put on? (你认为他们会表演什么节目?)

  2)When do you suppose they will see us? (你认为他们什么时候会见我们?)

  3)Where do you suggest we should go during the holiday? (你建议我们假期去哪儿?)

  4)How long did he say he would spend on that book? (他说他要在那本书上花多长时间?)

  5)What do you suggest he should do to make up for the loss? (为了弥补损失,你建议他该做些什么?)

  2.Has anyone you know ever driven drunk?

  本句中的drunk是个过去分词,在句子中做状语,修饰谓语动词driven,说明动作发生的情况。这类用法也十分常见,如:

  1)He turned away disappointed. (他失望地走开了。)

  2)They went home exhausted. (他们回到家里已筋疲力尽了。)

  3)We joined in the discussion unprepared. (我们毫无准备地加入了讨论。)

  Ever是个常用词,在使用该词时,常有人犯各种错误。我们来看一下ever的主要用法。

  1)表示将来或过去的任何时间。用于否定句、疑问句、条件句中:

  Have you ever been to Paris? (你去过巴黎吗?)

  Nothing ever makes him happier. (从没有什么事会使他更开心。)

  If you are ever in China, please let me know. (如果你什么时候在中国,请让我知道。)

  2)用于表示比较的从句中:

  It is raining harder than ever. (雨越下越大了。)

  This is the highest mountain I have ever climbed. (这是我所爬过的最高的山。)

  The last I ever met him was in Nanjing. (我最后一次遇见他是在南京。)

  3)用于特殊疑问句中,表示“究竟”,“到底”,“用任何方式”等:

  How can I ever thank you? (我究竟怎样才能感谢你?)

  Who ever can it be? (那究竟会是谁呢?)

  Why ever did you say so? (你究竟为什么这样说?)

  4)表示“总是”:“不断地”:“永远”:

  He is ever ready to help others. (他总是乐于帮助他人。)

  The little boy is ever making the same mistakes. (那个小男孩总是犯同样的错误。)

  Everybody was amazed at her ever youthful face. (每一个人都为她永远年轻的容貌感到惊奇。)

  3.Won't some of your frends admit that they have stolen an item from a store?

  请注意本句中的动词admit的用法。admit做及物动词用时,表示“承认”,“确认”,“接纳”。Admit做不及物动词用时,表示“通往”:“承认”

  1)He admitted threatening Larry. (他承认恐吓了拉里。)

  2)The young man was admitted to Harvard. (那位年轻人被哈佛录取了。)

  3)This door admits to the backyard. (这扇门通向后院。)

  4)He admitted to having broken the vase. (他承认打碎了花瓶。)

  5)The shop assistant admitted that she had taken the money. (店员承认是她拿了钱。)

  4.in case you did not know, all of these acts are against the law.本句话的意思是“如果你以前不知道,所有这些行为都是违法的。”

  in case用于引导条件状语从句和目的状语从句,在从句中,动词可以用虚拟语气,形式为should+动词原形,也可以不用虚拟语气,而用动词的一般现在时或一般过去时,如:

  1)Please remind me of it in case I (should) forget. (万一我忘了,请提醒我。)

  2)You had better leave the key at home in case I (should) think of coming back. (你最好把钥匙留在家里以免我想回来。)

  5.In the same way that diseases range from the common cold to fatal forms of cancer, crimes vary in degree.

  本句中的range from和vary在前面的课文中都已出现过,再请看几个例句。

  1)The participants range in age from 14 to 65.(参加者的年龄从14岁到65岁不等。)

  2)The flavour of food varies from place to place. (食品的风味各地都不同。)

  Crimes vary in degree in the same way that…that引导的是一个同位语从句对way作进一步的说明。in the same way意思是“以同样的方式”。

  1)We would do it in the same way that you did last time. (我们将用你上次所用的同样方法来做这件事。)

  2)The teacher talked to the boy in the same way that his teacher had talked to him years ago. (那位老师用多年前他的老师与他交谈的方式同那个男孩谈话。)

  6.In addition to breaking the law themselves, people tolerate various levels of crime.

  in addition to意思是“除…之外(还)…”, to是介词,在其后要用名词或动名词。

  1)In addition to bread, I bought you some milk. (除了面包,我还给你买了些牛奶。)

  2)In addition to holding a full-time job, he tutored some primary school children.(除了一份全日制的工作,他还辅导几个小学的孩子。)

  tolerate是个及物动词,意思是put up with (忍受、宽恕);accept (允许)

  1)They tolerate the existence of opinions contrary to their own. (他们允许相反观点的存在。)

  2)I cannot imagine how he tolerated the isolation. (我不能想象他是如何忍受这份孤独的。)

  7.We become used to seeing blood on the news on television. Become是一个连系动词,used to与连系动词或be动词连用,意思是“习惯”,used to单独用时,意思是“过去,曾经”。

  1)He is getting used to living in the south. (他正在习惯南方的生活。)

  2)I have become used to getting up early in the morning. (我已习惯早起。)

  1)He used to work for the government. (他曾为政府做事。)

  2)They used to live in the same city. (他们曾在同一座城市生活过。)

  请注意be used to中的to是个介词,后面要用名词或动名词,used to中的to是个不定式符号,后面用动词原形。

  8.When it comes to respecting the rights of a mass of anonymous individuals, we might not be so responsible.

  When it comes to相当于so far as…is concerned意思是“就…而言”,“说到…时”。To是个介词,后面用名词或动名词。

  1)He is not good at math, but when it comes to English, he is the best. (他的数学不好,要说到英语他是最好的。)

  2)When it comes to giving due respect to the old people, she feels a bit uneasy.(说到给老人应有的尊敬,她有些不自在。)

  请注意mass与mess的区别。Mass的意思是“团,块;群;大量”;mess的意思是“混乱;一团糟”。

  1)The floating masses office would prove to be a threat to the ships. (大块大块的浮冰对船只将是个威胁。)

  2)They have collected a great mass of data. (他们已收集了大量资料。)

  3)The room is a mess. (这房间又脏又乱。)

  4)They made a mess of the job. (他们把事情搞得一团糟。)

  9.While most people would not steal a wallet containing $50, they may not mind cheating on taxes, because cheating on taxes does not hurt any one person.

  本句中的while意思是although(虽然,尽管),如:

  1)While he is respected, he is not well-liked. (尽管他受人尊敬,但并不被人喜欢。)

  2)While I admit his good points, I can see his shortcomings. (尽管我承认他的优点我还是看到他的缺点的。)

  在动词mind的后面要用动名词、名词短语或从句:

  1)Mind the wet paint! (当心,油漆未干。)

  2)Mind your own business! (别管闲事!)

  3)Would you mind my smoking? (我抽烟你介意吗?)

  4)I don't mind tell him all I know. (我不介意把我所知道的都告诉他。)

  5)Mind that you don't forget the meeting. (注意别忘了开会。)

  10.Perhaps this is why someone who robs a few dollars by force from a corner store will often end up with a longer jail term than a fraud artist who swindles thousands of dollars…

  by force意思是“凭借暴力,强迫地”,如:

  1)Several youngsters robbed the bank by force. (几个年轻人以暴力抢劫银行。)

  2)The boy was robbed of his money by force. (那个男孩的钱被强抢了。)

  end up的意思是“结束,告终”,如:

  1)You will end up in prison if you go on stealing. (如果你继续偷下去,你最终会进监狱的。)

  2)Wasteful people usually end up in debt. (挥霍浪费者最后往往负债。)

  3)We ended up taking a taxi there. (我们最终乘出租车去了那儿。)

  4)The party ended up with a chorus. (晚会最后以合唱结束。)

  5)If we go on in this way, we shall end up with millions and millions of unemployed.(如果我们继续这样下去,结果会有数百万人失业。)

  term在本句中的意思是“期限”,如:

  serve one's term of service (服规定年限的兵役)

  get a term of ten years in prison (被判十年徒刑)

  during one's term of office (任职期间)

  11.The police would never be able to keep an eye on everyone, and people would still find ways to bend new laws.

  keep an eye on意思是“照看;密切注意”,如:

  1)Can you keep an eye on the baby while I go shopping? (我去购物时你能帮我照看一下孩子吗?)

  2)Parents won't be able to keep an eye on the children all the time. (父母不可能时时注意孩子们。)

  bend在本句中的意思是“任意歪曲,篡改”,如:

  1)They tried in vain to bend the rules of the game. (他们篡改比赛规则的企图没有成功。)

  2)He took advantage of his power to bend the law to suit his own purposes. (他利用权力篡改法律以适合自己的目的。)

  本课主要词组

  1.think of           2.be aware

  3.go through         4.in case

  5.divide into         6.in the same way

  7.range from         8.in addition to

  9.be tolerant of        10.become used to

  11.care about         12.prevent from

  13.when it comes to      14.by force

  15.end up          16.keep an eye on

  Text B   Marriage in iran and America:a study in contrasts

  短语表达

  I. Phrases and expressions

  1.compare with

  Compared with the products of their factory, ours are superior in quality.

  Compared with many other women in her days, she was really lucky.

  2.for the purpose of

  He cheated on the exam for the purpose of getting a high score.

  He told a lie for the purpose of avoiding a possible punishment.

  3.a number of

  A number of local residents have moved to a new residential area.

  A number of miners who had been trapped were saved.

  4.be willing to

  He was willing to lend us a helping hand when we were in need.

  The man was not willing to admit that he was wrong.

  5.be married to

  She was married to a handsome young man from Germany.

  The girl stood up and said she was willing to be married to the poor artist.

  6.be involved in

  No one wanted to be involved in this matter.

  Mr. Li didn't expect that his son could be involved in this robbery.

  7.respond to

  How did the audience respond to your speech?

  He responded to his wife's complaints by turning a deaf ear to her.

  8.be allowed to

  He is allowed to read in prison.

  The boy is not allowed to play video games.

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本文转载链接:09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit20)

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