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  Text A  scientific attitudes


  1.attitude  n. 姿势,姿态;态度,看法

  1)The plane was in a nose-down attitude. (飞机处于俯冲姿态。)

  2)They decided to take an attitude of wait and see to/toward the new policy. (他们决定对新政策采取观望态度。)

  3)We should adopt a correct attitude about tests. (对考试我们应抱正确的态度。)

  2.environment  n. 环境,周围状况,自然环境

  1)A child can easily adjust to changes in the environment. (孩子很容易适应环境的变化。)

  2)They promised to provide us a good environment for work and rest.(他们许诺为我们提供良好的工作或休息环境。)

  3)Science offers us total mastery over environment and over our destiny. (科学赋予我们控制环境掌握命运的能力。)

  4)He grew up in an environment of poverty. (他在贫穷的环境中长大。)

  environmental  adj. 环境的

  environmental protection  环境保护

  environmental pollution  环境污染

  environmental biology  环境生物学,生态学

  environmental engineer  环境工程师

  3.curiosity  n. 好奇(心)      curious adj. 好奇的;离奇古怪的

  1)He walked to the silent old man out of curiosity. (出于好奇,他向那位沉默寡言的老人走去。)

  2)She showed great curiosity about my past. (她对我的过去显示出莫大的好奇。)

  3)Children are curious about everything. (儿童对什么都感到好奇。)

  4)Not long after they left, a curious thing happened. (他们走后不久,一件古怪的事情发生了。)

  4.imagination  n. 想像,想像力;幻觉;应变能力

  imagine v. 想像;料想

  1)He is a writer of rich imagination. (他是一个富有想像力的作家。)

  2)No one moved in the bushes, it was only your imagination. (没人在树丛里走动,只是你的幻觉而已。)

  3)Due to his lack of imagination, he just didn't know what to do next.(由于缺少应变能力,他不知道下一步该怎么办。)

  4)It is hard to imagine life with electricity. (很难想像没有电,生活会是怎样。)

  5)I imagine he will come tomorrow. (我料想他明天会来。)


  1)It is an imaginative tale. (这是个虚构的故事。)

  2)The teacher is waiting for imaginative answer. (老师正等待着具有丰富想像力的回答。)

  3)The equator is an imaginary circle around the earth. (赤道即假想的环绕地球的大圆。)

  4)an imaginary enemy (假想敌)

  5)They said they would save the patient by every means imaginable.(他们说他们会用尽一切想得出的方法抢救病人。)

  (imaginable 常与最高级形容词或all,every,only等连用,放在被修饰的名词的后面。)

  5.apart  adv. 分离,分开

  1)The two schools are 20 miles apart. (两校相距20英里。)

  2)I cannot tell these two things apart. (我无从区分这两件东西。)

  3)Apart from what he mentioned just now, there are some other causes for the failure.(除了他刚才提到的,还有一些其他的失败原因。)

  4)He took the machine apart to see what was wrong. (他把机器拆开,看看出了什么毛病。)

  6.stimulate  v. 刺激,激励

  stimulation  n. 刺激,激励

  1)Praise stimulated the students to make greater efforts. (表扬激励学生作更大的努力。)

  2)Exercise stimulates the flow of blood. (锻练促进血液循环。)

  3)TV, if properly used, can stimulate a child's imagination. (电视如果使用适当能激发孩子的想像力。)

  4)The intention of lowering interest rates is to stimulate the economy and develop industries.(降低利率的打算是为了刺激经济,发展工业。)

  5)Young children needs stimulation. (年幼的孩子需要激励。)

  7.regardless  adj. 不留心的,不注意的  adv. 不顾,不惜

  1)He crushed the bloom with regardless tread. (他毫不在意一脚践踏了鲜花。)

  2)There may be difficulties but I shall carry on regardless.(可能会遇到种种困难,但不管怎样,我将继续干下去。)

  3)I'm buying the book, regardless of the cost. (不管价钱如何,我都打算买下那本书。)

  请注意区别regardless of 和in spite of

  1)The plane will take off, regardless of the weather. (不管天气好坏,飞机都将起飞。)

  2)The plane took off in spite of the bad weather. (尽管天气不好,飞机还是起飞了。)

  8.disagreeable  adj. 让人不愉快的,不合心意的;难相处的

  disagree  v. 不同意;不符;不适宜

  1)She is disagreeable towards me. (她对我不友好。)

  2)This medicine has a very disagreeable smell. (这药有一股很难闻的气味。)

  3)I disagree with you on that point. (在那一点上我跟你意见不同。)

  4)The damp weather disagrees with me. (潮湿的天气使我不舒服。)

  9.failure  n. 失败;变弱

  fail  v. 失败;变弱;使失望

  1)His plans ended in failure. (他的计划以失败告终。)

  2)The power failure caused heavy losses. (供电中断造成严重的损失。)

  3)His carelessness resulted in his failure of the exam. (他的粗心致使他考试不及格。)

  4)I failed in persuading him. (我没能说服他。)

  5)His eyesight is failing. (他的视力在衰退。)

  6)His courage failed him. (他失去了勇气。)

  10.solution  n. 解决办法

  solve  v. 解决

  1)The loan was only a temporary solution to the country's financial difficulties.(借贷只能暂时解决这个国家的经济困难。)

  2)After a day's careful thought, he came up with a good solution. (经过一天的仔细考虑,他才想出一个好办法。)

  3)We should work together on the solution of our national problems. (我们应该一起解决我们国家的问题。)

  4)I really don't know how to solve the problem. (我真不知道如何解决这个问题。)

  5)They found a new way of solving the problem. (他们找到了解决这个问题的新办法。)

  (请注意用solution这个名词时,通常用a solution to a problem表示“问题的解决办法。”。)

  11.adapt  v. 使适应,使适合;改写

  1)We should adapt our thinking to the new conditions. (我们应该使自己的思想适应新的情况。)

  2)Some animals will modify their behavior to adapt to their environment.(一些动物改变它们的习性以适应环境。)

  3)Can you adapt your way of thinking to the new life-style? (你能使你的思想适应新的生活方式吗?)

  4)They adapt a novel for the screen. (他们把小说改编为电影。)

  请注意adapt 和adopt的区别,adopt意为“采用;收养”。

  1)They are going to adopt new techniques in raising silkworms. (他们准备采用新的养蚕技术。)

  2)A little girl was adopted into the family. (一个小女孩被收养为家庭一员。)

  12.perfect  adj. 完美的;完全的      v. 使完美,改善

  1)He speaks perfect English. (他说一口地道的英语。)

  2)The actor is perfect for the part. (由这位演员担任这一角色再理想不过了。)

  3)He is in perfect health. (他身体十分健康。)

  4)He is a perfect stranger. (他是个完全陌生的人。)

  5)They decided to send their son to England to perfect his English. (他们决定把儿子送到英国去提高他的英语水平。)

  13.acceptable  adj. 可以接受的

  accept  v. 接受

  1)This proposal is acceptable to all. (这个建议大家都能接受。)

  2)Tom received an acceptable marks on the test. (汤姆在测验中的分数尚可。)

  3)Don't accept everything you see on TV as true. (别以为在电视上看到的一切都是真实的。)

  4)I didn't expect him to accept my suggestion. (我没指望他接受我的建议。)

  5)The plan has won wide acceptance among the people. (这个计划受到了人们的普通欢迎。)

  6)He nodded in delighted acceptance. (他愉快地点头表示赞同。)

  14.evidence  n. 发现;(调查或研究)结果;根据

  evident  adj. 明显的

  1)Do you have any evidence for this statement? (你这样说有任何根据吗?)

  2)There are evidences that somebody has been living here. (迹象表明有人一直住在这儿。)

  3)It is evident that we do not understand each other. (显然,我们彼此不了解。)

  4)He spoke with evident disappointment. (他带着明显的失望说话。)

  5)We can say with good evidence that their work is one of the best.(我们有充分的证据说明他们的工作是最好的。)

  15.determine  v. 决定;确定

  determined  adj. 下决心的

  determination  n. 决心;结论

  1)He has determined on a course of action. (他已决定了行动计划。)

  2)The police wanted to determine all the facts. (警察想查明全部事实。)

  3)His father is determined to quit smoking. (他父亲决心戒烟。)

  4)He made his determination after he read the test report. (他在看了化验报告后下了结论。)

  5)Mr. Smith is a man of determination. (史密斯先生是个有决断力的人。)

  16.growth  n. 生长

  grow  v. 生长

  1)The growth in tourism is really astonishing. (旅游业的发展实在令人惊异。)

  2)The rapid growth of world population is creating more and more problems.(世界人口的迅速发展带来了越来越多的问题。)

  3)His hair has grown too long. (他的头发长得太长了。)

  4)Friendship grew between them. (他们之间产生了友情。)

  5)You will grow used to it. (你会渐渐对此习惯的。)


  Affixation 词缀法

  1.形容词后缀 -able

  disagreeable acceptable

  2.副词后缀 -ly

  scientifically previously entirely frequently

  3.名词后缀 -ion

  imagination solution

  4.反义词前缀 un-

  unknown unpleasant


  在“Scientific Attitudes”这篇课文中,作者指出科学始于人类对周围环境的疑问。当人类具有去伪存真的能力时,科学也开始迅猛发展。好奇和想像是有助于推动科学 发现和发展重要素质。作者还认为具有科学头脑的人相信“因果”关系。任何现象的存在必有原因,只是有些尚未被发现。思想开放、无偏见;尊重别人的观点;凡 事以事实为依据都是科学的态度。


  1.Benjamin Franklin:富兰克林(1706-1790年),美国政治家及科学家。美国18世纪名列华盛顿后的最著名的人物,参加起草独立宣言。在科学方面进行 过有名的电实验,并对电做了理论说明。只受过极短的正规教育,全靠勤奋自学成才。法国经济学家杜尔哥颂扬他“从天空抓到雷电,从专制统治者手中夺回权 力”。

  2.Thomas Edison:爱迪生(1847-1931年),美国发明家。技术历史中显著的天才之一,拥有白炽灯、留声机、电影放映机等1093种发明专利,还创办了世界上第一个工业研究实验室。


  4.Louis Pasteur:巴斯德(1822-1895年)法国化学家及微生物学家。证明发酵及传染病是微生物引起的,创始并首先应用疫苗接种以预防狂犬病、鸡霍乱等,挽救了法、英等国的养蚕业和啤酒业。

  5.Edward Jenner:金纳(1749-1823年),英国医生,牛痘接种法创始人。历经周折使牛痘接种法得以公认,并传播到欧美大陆及全世界,使天花的病死率大为下降。


  1.Science had its beginning when man started asking questions about his environment.

  句中的beginning是一个名词,意思是“开始、开端、” 例如:

  1)We had too much rain at the beginning of the month. (月初雨水过多。)

  2)He has made a good beginning in the field of publishing. (他在出版领域做出了良好的开端。)


  1)We started working on it in 1999.(我们是1999年开始这项工作的。)

  2)Suddenly it started to rain.(突然下起雨来。)

  2.He sought answers to these and other questions.

  本句中的sought是动词seek的过去分词。seek answers to…“寻找…答案”,to是介词,常与answer这类名词连用。例如:

  1)The answer to your question is very simple. (你的问题答案很简单)

  2)I haven't found the solution to the problem yet. (我还没找到解决这个问题的办法)

  3)He couldn't find the key to the door. (他找不到开这个门的钥匙)

  3.Not all his answer were correct, but at least he did want to know.

  Not all his answer were correct 这是一个部分否定的句子。部分否定一般用下列三种形式表达;

  A.主语中有all/both/every/each, etc+否定谓语

  B.主语中有not + all /both/every/each, etc+肯定谓语

  C.否定谓语+ all /both/every/each, etc

  1)All the students are not in the classroom.(学生们并不都在教室里。)

  这句话相当于:Not all the students are in the classroom.

  2)Every computer is not of high quality. (并非每一台计算机都是高质量的。)

  这句话相当于:Not every computer is of high quality.

  3)I didn't see both of them. (我只见到了他们两个中的一个。)

  这句话相当于:I only saw one of the two men

  … but at least he did want to know. 句子中的did是助动词,随人称和时态的变化而变化,用于强调,如

  1)He does know the way to the library. (他的确知道去图书馆的路)

  2)I do enjoy pop music. (我的确喜欢流行音乐)

  3)They did give us a lot of help. (他们的确帮了我们不少忙)

  4.The child wants to take apart a watch to see what makes it work.

  句子中“to take apart a watch”是不定式做宾语,后面的“to see what makes it work”则是不定式做目的状语。请看下面的例句:

  1)He offered to help me. (他提出要帮助我。)

  2)I didn't expect to find you here.(没想到在这儿碰到你。)

  3)We all want to learn more knowledge. (我们都想学更多的知识。)

  4)To do it well, you have to make more efforts. (你得更努力,才能做好。)

  5)To protect the child, he laid down his life. (为了保护那个孩子,他献出了自己的生命。)

  6)They ran over to welcome the hero. (他们跑过去欢迎那位英雄。)


  take apart 的意思是“拆开”,如:

  1)He took the toy apart but found nothing unusual.(他把玩具拆开但没发现任何异常。)

  2)I'll have to take the bike apart to see what is wrong.(我得把自行车拆开看有什么毛病。)

  5.He combined his curiosity with imagination and carried out his well-known experiment to show that lightening and electric spark are the same thing.

  combine with 是一个常用词组,意思为“使结合;使联合”:例如:

  1)Experience is fine when it is combined with the right personality.   (经验与健全的人格相结合是很好的。)


  A well-known film critic (有名的影评家),a well-known voice (熟悉的声音)。除了做定语用以外,well-known(或写成well known)也可以做表语,如:

  1)It is well known that excessive drinking and smoking can be harmful to one's health.(众所周知抽烟喝酒过多有害健康。)

  2)It is well known that education of young people is vital to the future of a country.(众所周知年轻人的教育对一个国家的未来至关重要。)

  6.Scientifically minded people believe in a “cause-and effect”relationship

  句子中的minded是一个形容词,在minded前面常用形容词或副词,组成一个复合形容词,如:a narrow-minded person(一个心胸狭窄的人),the absent-minded young man(心不在焉的年轻人),open-minded people(思想开放的人们),liberally-minded parents(思想开明的父母), a politically-minded old man(有政治头脑的老人)


  1)a never-to-be-forgotten moment (永远难忘的时刻)

  2)an epoch-making event(划时代的大事)

  3)a seven-year-old boy(一个七岁男孩)

  4)a wait-and-see attitude(等着瞧的态度)

  7.…there is a good reason why some leaves turn red and others yellow in the fall


  1)He didn't give the reason why was absent yesterday (他没有提到昨天缺席的理由)

  2)The reason why he missed the train was that he got up late (他没赶上火车的原因是他起床晚了)

  3)This is the reason why he did it(这就是他做那件事的原因)


  1)I don't know the reason for his absence.(我不知道他缺席的理由)

  2)One of the reasons for coming to England was to make money.(到英国来的原因之一是挣钱)

  3)There is no reason for his poor work.(他的工作干不好是没有理由的)


  1)I met her again in the fall semester .(我在秋学期又见到了她)

  2)They moved to Washington in the fall of  1998.(一九九八年秋天他们搬到了华盛顿)

  8.In cases where the explanation is unknown the scientific point of view is that there is a reason if it can only be discovered

  句子中的where 是关系副词,引导定语从句,修饰名词cases,因此,in cases where the explanation is unknown可以译为“在对一些的解释还不为人们所知的情况下。”用关系副词 where引导定语从句也是很常见的,如:

  1)Let's think of a situation where this idiom can be used (我们来想一个可以使用这个习语的场合)

  2)Is there a library around where we can borrow books?(附近有什么图书馆可以借书吗?)


  1)My idea is that we should do it as soon as possible(我的建议是我们应该尽早做这件事)

  2)It looks that it is going to rain(看起来天要下雨)

  句子中的if…。only 在此表示尚欠缺的唯一条件,if it can only be discovered 可以译为“ 只是尚未被发现罢了”。

  9.This means the ability to face the facts as they are regardless of what one has previously thought.句子中的as是一个连词,表示方式,意思是“按照;如同;例如”

  1)We must state the facts as they are.(我们必须如实地陈述事实)

  2)Give me the bike as it is, I'll get it repaired (把自行车照实给我,我去修理)

  Regardless of是一个常用词组,意思是“不顾”,例如:

  1)Our manager often acts regardless of consequences (我们经理做事常常不顾后果)

  2)He set out regardless of the heavy snow(他不顾天降大雪出发了)

  10.The worker in science must face facts whether they are pleasant or unpleasant.


  1)Whether you believe it or not it's truth (无论你信不信,那总是事实)

  2)He will be here on time whether he drives or takes the train(不管他开汽车来还是乘火车来,他总会准时到达)

  11.Scientists must be able to change their thinking and to adapt their theories to new facts as they are discovered.

  adapt 意为“使适应,使配合”,常指改变以适应新的情况,后面常接介词to, 例如:

  1)Some animals will modify their behavior to adapt to their environment(有些动物会改变习性来适应环境)

  2)We have to adapt our thinking to the new conditions (我们得使自己的思想适应新的情况)


  12.A scientific truth offers an explanation that is acceptable only in the light of what is known at a particular time

  in the light of 是一个常用词组,意思是“根据,按照;考虑到”,例如:

  1)To find truth in the light of science is the only correct way(凭借科学探求真理是唯一正确的方法)

  2)We must apply Marxism in the light of China's specific conditions(我们必须按照中国的具体情况应用马克思主义)

  This should be discussed more fully in the light of the developments in the University(考虑到学校的发展,这个问题应该讨论得更充分一些。)


  1.seek answers t

  2.lay aside

  3.be curious about

  4.take apart

  5.combine with

  6.carry out

  7.believe in

  8.ergardless of


  10.be willing to

  11.succeed in

  12.in advance

  13.adapt to

  14.make up one's mind

  15.once and for all

  16.in the light of

  17.respect for

  18.come up

  19.laugh at

  20.change one's mind

  21.experiment on

  Text B   solving problems scientifically

  有用的词和词组   Useful words and expressions:

  1.arouse one's curiosity

  Once his curiosity is aroused, he will try every means to make everything clear.

  2.first of all

  First of all I want to thank you with all my sincerity.


  New problems will arise when old ones are solved.

  4.result from

  His failure resulted from his lack of experience.

  5.bring about

  The new policy has brought about a lot of changes in the rural areas.

  6.in need of

  I think we will be in need of your help soon.

  7.build up

  How can I build up my confidence when I meet failures time and again?


  Some animals will modify their behavior to adapt to new environment.

  9.check with

  I am not sure if these answers check with the key in the teacher's book.

  10.turn out to be

  His experiment turned out to be a great success.



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