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2009/06/12  来源:自考365论坛    字体:  打印

  Text A    the language of uncertainty


  1.dominate v. rule, control (统治,支配,控制)

  domination n. 统治、支配、控制

  1)He felt ill at ease living in a white-dominated society. (他觉得生活在一个白人统治的社会里很不自在。)

  2)His opinion dominated the other members of the committee.(他的看法对委员会的其他成员起了决定性影响。)

  3)This issue dominated the discussion. (这个议题在讨论中占了首要地位。)

  4)Agriculture has lost its dominance in many countries. (农业在许多国家已失去了优势。)

  5)The domination of Europe over the rest of the world has long since declined.(欧洲对世界其他地区的支配作用早已衰弱。)

  2.judgment n. 判决;看法;判断

  judge v. 审判;判断;认为      n. 法官;裁判员

  1)He hoped the judgment would be in his favor. (他希望判决对他有利。)

  2)He sometimes couldn't live with himself if he made a mistake in judgment.(如果判断失误,他有时不能容忍自己。)

  3)In my judgment, we should do it right now. (依我看,我们应该马上做这件事。)

  4)He was brought to the judge, accused of stealing. (他被指控行窃而带到法官面前受审。)

  5)Mr. Li is going to be a judge of a beauty contest. (李先生将做选美比赛的评判员。)

  6)The young man was judged innocent. (那个年轻人被判无罪。)

  7)We cannot judge whether it is right or wrong. (我们不能判断这是对还是错。)

  8)I judge she knew what she was doing. (依我看,她当时知道她在干什么。)

  3.editorial n. 社论 adj. 编辑的

  editor n. 编辑

  edit v. 编辑;校订;修改

  1)This issue carries a weighty editorial on education. (这期登了一篇有关教育的很有分量的社论。)

  2)The editorial policies haven't changed a bit over the years. (这些年来编辑方针没有丝毫改变。)

  3)He was made assistant editor on the paper. (他被任为那报纸的助理编辑。)

  4)The chief editor was on a business trip. (主编出差了。)

  5)Scholars often edit Shakespeare's plays. (学者们常校订莎士比亚的剧本。)

  6)He is carefully editing his speed. (他正在仔细修改自己的讲稿。)

  4.wage n. 工资,报酬      v. 进行,开展


  1)They stopped working to press for better wages and working conditions.(他们停止工作,要求更高的报酬和更好的工作条件。)

  2)His wages are 200 dollars a week. (他的工资是200美元一周。)

  3)They waged a campaign against cheating on exams. (他们开展了反对考试作弊的运动。)

  4)Germany waged a war against Poland. (德国对波兰开战。)

  5.probability n. 可能性;概率

  probable adj. 可能的


  1)The probability of an earthquake disturbed everybody. (地震的可能使每一个人不安。)

  2)In all probability, they could perform many different musical instruments.(他们很可能会演奏许多种不同的乐器。)

  3)Every event has a particular probability of occurring. (每个事件都有其特定的发生率。)

  4)This is the most probable interpretation of the situation. (这是对形势的最可能的解释。)

  5)Xiao Wang is the probable winner. (小王是颇有希望得胜的人。)

  6)It is probable that he forgot. (他或许是忘记了。)

  6.verbal adj. 言辞的;口头的;动词的

  1)This job calls for excellent verbal talent. (这份工作需要极好的口才。)

  2)The difference is merely verbal. (差别仅仅在于措辞。)

  3)“en” and “-ize” are common verbal endings. (“en” 和 “-ize”是常见的动词词尾。)

  verbal instructions (文字说明)    a verbal protest (口头抗议)

  a verbal agreement (口头协议)

  7.imprecision n. 不精确,不正确    imprecise adj. 不精确的;不正确的

  im-是一个前缀,通常加在以 “m”、 “p”、或 “b”为首的形容词、副词和名词前,构成反义词。如:immature (不成熟的),immodest (不谦虚的),immoral (不道德的);impossible (不可能的), impolite (不礼貌的),impatience (不耐心);imbalance (不平衡)等等。

  -ion是一个名词后缀,我们已经多次碰到过,如protection (保护), extension (延伸)。

  1)The imprecision of the ordinary words led to many misunderstandings.(日常用词意义的含混引起了许多误解。)

  2)The imprecision of the ruler gave him a lot of trouble. (尺子的不精确给他带来了很多麻烦。)

  3)My ideas about it were imprecise. (我对这个问题的看法不准确。)

  4)The terms he used were imprecise. (他用的术语不确切。)

  8.denote v. indicate, show (指示;代表;是…的标记)

  1)Dark clouds denote rain. (乌云是下雨的预兆。)

  2)Red flares denote danger. (红色火焰是危险的标记。)

  3)My identity was denoted by a plastic label on my wrist. (我手腕上的塑料标签表明了我的身份。)

  9.subjective adj. 主观的

  subject n. 主观;题目;学科;臣民;主语      adj. 受支配的;易受…的

  1)It is only my subjective impression. (这仅是我的主观印象。)

  2)How can you fully believe his subjective judgement? (你怎能完全相信他的主观判断?)

  3)What's the subject for today’s debate? (今天辩论的题目是什么?)

  4)I am taking four subjects this semester. (本学期我选四门课。)

  5)He is a British subject. (他是英国臣民。)

  6)India is no longer subject to British rule. (印度不再受英国统治了。)

  7)This area is subject to seasonal winds. (这个地区常遭受季风的袭击。)

  10.potentially adv. 可能地,潜在地

  potential adj. 潜在的,可能的       n. 潜力,可能性

  1)Electricity is potentially dangerous. (电是潜力的危险。)

  2)The dispute has scared away potential investors. (这场争论吓跑了可能的投资者。)

  3)The hole in the road is a potential danger. (路上的那个坑是个潜在的危险。)

  4)The system gives everyone a chance to tap one's potential to the full.(这种体制给了每个人充分发挥潜能的机会。)

  11.prediction n. 预言;预报

  predict v. 预言,预报

  pre-是一个前缀,表示before, 如:prehistoric (史前的),preschool (学前)。

  dict是个词根,意思是to say, 如:contradict (矛盾;否定),dictator (独裁者;口授者)

  1)Have you listened to the weather prediction for the day? (你听了当天的天气预报了吗?)

  2)They made prediction about possible price increase. (他们对物价上涨的可能性进行预测。)

  3)The weather scientists predicted a light rain and temperature drop. (气象专家们预测有小雨,气温将下降。)

  4)I cannot predict what will happen. (我无法预料将会发生什么事情。)

  12.signify v. 表示…的意思;表明;意味着

  signification n. 意义;表示

  我们讲到过-fy是个动词后缀,意思是make,如identify, beautify, purify等等。

  sign是词根,意思是mark,如:signature (签字,记号),design (设计,意图)

  1)“MD” signifies “Doctor of Medicine”。 (“MD”意为“医学博士”。)

  2)He signifies consent with a smile. (他微笑表示同意。)

  3)The clouds signified the coming storm. (乌云预示着即将有暴风雨。)

  4)Signification relies largely upon words and gestures. (表示意思主要靠言词和示意动作。)

  13.secondly adv. 第二,其次

  1)He was first of all a dishonesty chap, secondly he was irresponsible. (首先他是个不诚实的家伙,其次他没有责任心。)

  2)I don't like this pair of shoes. Firstly the color is awful; secondly it is too expensive.(我不喜欢这双鞋。首先颜色很糟糕,其次价格太贵。)

  14.assign v. 分配;指派;指定;布置

  assignment n. 任务;作业;分配

  1)They assigned me a small room. (他们分给我一个小房间。)

  2)I was assigned to the mountain village. (我被派到那个山村工作。)

  3)Have you assigned a day for the meeting? (你们指定了开会日期吗?)

  4)He finished all the homework assignments in two hours. (他用两小时完成了全部的家庭作业。)

  5)My first major assignment as a reporter was to cover a large scale riot. (我做记者的首次重要任务是采访一个大规模暴动。)

  15.marked adj. 明显的;显著的

  1)The patient showed a marked improvement. (病人的病情显著好转。)

  2)A market police car sped past just now. (刚才一辆有标记的警车急驶而过。)

  3)The boy showed marked improvements in spelling and reading. (那个男孩在拼写和阅读方面有了显著提高。)

  16.widen v. 加宽,放宽扩大

  我们在前面讲到过-en可以做动词后缀,用在名词或形容词后面构成动词,如:lengthen, heighten, shorten, brighten等等。

  1)The river widens where it meets the sea. (那条河在入海口处变宽了。)

  2)The road finally widened and we didn't have to worry about traffic blocks any more.(那条路终于拓宽了,我们不用再担心交通堵塞了。)

  3)The misunderstanding widened the gulf between the two sides. (误解加深了双方的隔阂。)

  4)His arguments widened my ideas. (他的论点开阔了我的思路。)

  5)He stared at me, his eyes widening. (他逼视着我,眼睛睁得大大的。)

  17.consistent adj. 坚持的,一贯的,与…符合

  consistency n. 一致,连贯,坚持

  1)The professor had a consistent attitude towards all his students. (这位教授对他所有的学生一视同仁。)

  2)His deeds are not consistent with his words. (他们言行不一致。)

  3)The manager's statement was consistent with the fact. (经理的说法与事实相符。)

  4)There is no consistency between the movie and the book. (电影和书的情节不符。)

  5)Her rude behavior is not in consistency with her usual polite nature.(她的粗鲁行为和她平时斯文的性情不相符合。)

  18.systematically adv. 有系统地;有计划地

  systematic adj. 有系统的,有条理的

  1)They did everything systematically. (他们有条不紊地做了一切。)

  2)Do you have a systematic plan for the project? (对于这项工程你们有系统计划吗?)

  3)These skills are developed in a systematic way. (这些技能是有计划地发展的。)


  本文作者指出生活中有许多不确定的事物,这种种的不确定支配着我们的语言。我们的日常话语中很多 probably,many,soon,great,little一类的词。不确定的语言主要有三类。一是如probably,possibly, surely一类词,代表了一种主观的可能,是可定量的。二是如many,often,soon一类词,这类词虽可定量,但他们表示的是一个知之不确的数 量。三是如fat,rich,drunk一类词,这类词不可能转化为任何可接受的数目,因为不同的人赋予它们不同的价值观。



  1.Uncertainty spreads through our lives so thoroughly that it dominates our language.

  动词spread的过去式和过去分词与动词原形是一样的。本句中的spread意思是becomes known or shared by more and more people (散布),如:

  1)News of the air crash spread quickly. (飞机坠毁的消息很快传播开了。)

  2)He is making a lecture tour to spread his political influence. (他在作巡回演讲以扩大自己的政治影响。)

  3)People seem to love spreading gossip. (人们似乎爱传闲话。)


  1)A scene of property spreads out before us. (一幅欣欣向荣的景象展现在我们面前。)

  2)The spread of education benefits many girls. (教育的普及使许多女孩得益。)

  3)He was spreading peanut butter on bread. (他正往面包上涂花生酱。)

  4)Many people died as a result of the spread of fire. (火势蔓延致使多人丧生。)

  5)You many consider spreading the work load. (你可以考虑把工作分摊一下。)


  1)He nearly lost his life. (他几乎送了命。)

  2)Fourteen children lost their lives in the fire. (十四个孩子在火中丧生。)

  3)People spend their lives worrying about wealth and health. (人们一生都在为金钱和健康担忧。)

  2.Our everyday speech is made up in large part of words…

  in part意为“在某种程度上;部分地”;in large part则表示“很大部分”,如:

  1)Some forms of mental illness are caused in part by lack of communication. (有些形式的精神疾病部分是由于缺少交流引起的。)

  2)The driver should in large part be responsible for the accident. (司机应为这起事故负大部分责任。)

  Be made up of 意思是“由…组成”,如:

  1)The medical team is made up of 4 doctors and 2 nurses. (那个医疗队由4名医生和2名护士组成。)

  2)His class is made up of 50 students. (他的班级由50名学生组成。)

  3.Atomic war is likely to destroy forever the nation that wages it.

  在前面我们已多次碰到be likely to, 我们提到过be likely的主语可以是it,也可以是其他名词,如:

  1)It is likely that he will be here in 30 minutes. (他过30分钟可能会到这儿。)

  2)The disease is likely to spread. (这种疾病可能会传播。)

  It is likely that the disease will spread.

  forever是副词,意思是for good, completely (永远地),如:

  They will vanish forever into the twilight. (他们将永远消失在黄昏里。)


  1)She is forever asking to borrow something. (她没完没了地向人借东西。)

  2)The teacher was forever spotting trivial errors in their calculations. (老师总是在他们的计算中发现错误。)

  that wages it是定语从句,修饰nation.Wage在本句中用作动词,意思是start(发起,开展),如:They waged a campaign against nuclear tests. (他们开展了反核试验运动。)

  4.Lacking any standard for estimating the probability, we are left with the judgment of the editorial writer.

  句中的lack 是一个及物动词,意思是“缺乏”,lack也可用作不及物动词和名词,请看下面的例句,注意lack的用法。

  1)He wasn't a stern man, in spite of his lack of humor. (尽管他缺少幽默感,但他不是一个苛刻的人。)

  2)Lack of funding is making our job more difficult. (资金短缺使我们的工作更加困难。)

  3)There was no lack of hands. (人手并不缺。)

  4)He is lacking in responsibility. (他不够负责。)

  5)Your statement lacks detail. (你的叙述不够详尽具体。)

  leave sth. with sb. 意思是“把…留给某人”,如:

  1)Leave your telephone number with the secretary. (把你的电话号码留给秘书。)

  2)He left his bicycle with his brother when he went on holiday. (他去度假时,把自行车放在他弟弟那儿。)

  5.Indeed, it has a value just because it allows us to express judgments when a precise quantitative statement is out of the question.

  allow sb. to do sth. 意思是“允许某人做某事”,如:

  1)They were allowed to stay there longer. (他们被允许在那儿时间呆长点。)

  2)He allowed me to take two books. (他允许我拿两本书。)

  请注意区别out of the question和out of question:

  out of the question意为“不可能的”,“办不到的”。如:

  1)I haven't finished my homework yet, going shopping now is out of the question.(我还没做完作业,现在去购物是不可能的。)

  2)Going swimming at this time of the year is out of the question. (一年中这个时候游泳是不可能的。)

  out of question意为“毫无疑问”。如:

  1)Getting some help from her is out of question. (得到她的帮助不成问题。)

  2)It is out of question to get the job. (得到那份工作没问题。)

  6.…which are also quantifiable but denote not so much a condition of certainty as a quantity imprecisely known;

  not so much…as…意思是“与其说…不如说…”。如:

  1)He is not so much a reporter as a writer. (与其说他是一个记者,还不如说他是个作家。)

  2)His achievement was made not so much because of luck as because of hard work.(他取得的成就与其说是由于运气,不如说是由于努力。)

  7.…which can not be reduced to any accepted number because they are given different values by different people.

  reduce的意思是make sth. smaller in size or amount or less in degree (减少,减轻),如:

  1)They have promised to reduce the cost. (他们已经答应降低成本。)

  2)The workforce would have to be reduced by 50%. (劳动力将减少百分之五十。)

  reduce sb. to a particular state指处于(某种状态);使艰难(处境),用被动语态时,表示“迫使”。如:

  1)He was reduced to begging in the old days. (在旧社会他被逼得讨饭。)

  2)The old lady was reduced to despair. (老太太陷入了绝望。)

  在课文中的这个句子里,be reduced to意思是“使化为,使变为”,如:

  1)This kind of analysis reduce the problem to its simplest form. (这种分析方法使问题变得最为简单。)

  2)He had always wanted to reduce his thoughts to writing. (他一直想把自己的思想变成文字。)

  8.We have been trying to pin down by experiments what people mean by these expressions in specific contexts,…

  pin作名词用时指“别针,大头针”,如a safety pin (安全别针);作动词用时指“别住”:“使不能行动”,pin down的意思是“准确说明”,“牵制”。如:

  1)He pinned a badge on his jacket. (他在外套上别了一枚徽章。)

  2)She pinned the papers together before giving them to the manager. (把文件给经理前,她用针把它们别好。)

  3)They pinned him down to a promise. (他们迫使他履行诺言。)

  4)We are trying to pin down his speech. (我们正努力准确说明他的讲话。)


  1)What do you mean by that? (你这样讲是什么意思?)

  2)He put the young man in an awkward situation by asking him some personal questions.(他通过问一些私人性问题使那个年轻人陷入尴尬。)

  9.…we find that the number depends of course on the items involved.

  …the size of the population of items influences the value assigned to an expression.

  上面两句中的过去分词involved和assigned其前都省去了that (which) are (is),做定语修饰items和value.


  1.be made up of

  2.in part

  3.be likely to

  4.be left with

  5.allow sb. to do sth.

  6.out of the question

  7.not so much…as…

  8.be reduced to

  9.pin down

  10.compare with

  11.be certain to

  12.in place of

  Text B    it never rains but it pours!


  1.There is no smoke without fire.

  2.Don't wash your dirty linen in the public.

  3.It's no use crying over spilt milk.

  4.Make the best out of a bad job.

  5.It never rains but it pours.

  6.Every dog is allowed one bite.

  7.One man's meat is another man’s poison.

  8.Let sleeping dogs lie.

  9.He who rides a tiger is afraid to dismount.

  10.A friend in need is a friend indeed.

  11.There is no such thing as a free lunch.


  1.relevance to / be relevant to

  What he said had no relevance to the present question.

  They could not forward any relevant proof.

  2.believe in

  I believe him but I don't believe in him.

  He believes in Christianity.

  3.pass on to

  Would you please pass this message on to Xiao Li?

  Thank you for passing the news on to me.

  4.in the form of

  He showed his appreciation to her in the form of a letter of hanks.

  They gave the children a lot of help in the form of books.

  5.a reminder of

  This proverb can be used as a reminder of the correct way to behave.

  This picture is a reminder of my past.

  6.in times of

  They are said to be more intelligent in times of difficulties.

  This could be a comfort in times of trouble.

  7.be native to

  Rice is believed to be native to China.

  This saying is native to the American Indians.

  8.go wrong

  When anything goes wrong with his car he will hasten to his auto repairman.

  I don't know what has gone wrong with my computer.

  9.be based on

  His comments are based on facts.

  This film is based on the life story of a general.

  10.date back to

  This invention can be dated back to the Han Dynasty.

  This old law dated back to the 17th century.

  11.pay compensation to

  The insurance company would pay compensation to the victims.

  The supermarket refused to pay any compensation to the customer.

  12.be harmful to

  Excessive smoking is harmful to your health.

  TV violence is harmful to children.

  13.come into contact with

  China came into more contact with the outside world in the late 1980s.

  We learned more as we came into contact with them.

  14.borrow from

  He borrowed a lot of money from his friends.

  Some of the English words are borrowed from other languages.

  15.start on

  He started on his journey last week.

  You have to get well prepared if you want to start on a dangerous enterprise.

  16.in return

  They gave you so much help, what are you going to do in return?

  I didn't expect any favor from you in return.

  17.be reluctant to

  He is reluctant to make any comment on this issue.

  The boy was reluctant to tell his father the truth.

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