Text A Inproving Your Memory
1.psychological adj. 心理学的
Psychological factors often play an important part in winning a competition.
Make sure all the kids are psychologically healthy.（确保孩子们心理健康。）
（the person who studies human mind－心理学家）
在希腊语中，psycho表示“灵魂”，“精神”，“心理”。在英语中，有不少词是用psycho做前 缀构成的。除了刚才提到的psychology，psychological， psychologist以外，常见的还有：psychoanalysis（精神分析）， psychotherapy（心理疗法）等。
2.focus v. （使）聚焦，（使）集中 （ focus on ） n. 焦点，中心
He is focusing his eyes on a painting on the wall.（他正注视着墙上的一幅画。）
Please focus your attention on the main problems.（请把注意力集中在主要问题上。）
This area became the focus of the world's attention again.（这一地区再次成为世界注意的中心。）
The 27th Olympic Games is now the focus of people's interest.（眼下第二十七届奥运会是人们兴趣的中心。）
3.basic adj. 基本的，基础的
They didn't make any effort to solve the basic economic problems.（他们没有做任何努力去解决基本的经济问题。）
He even didn't have a basic aim in life.（他连生活的基本目标都没有。）
There are certain factors that are basic to a good relationship between the two countries.（有些因素对两国之间的良好关系是很重要的。）
It is necessary to teach them some basic mathematical skills.（教他们一些基本的数学技能是必要的。）
4.principle n. 原理，原则；信念 principal adj. 主要的n. 校长，负责人；委托人
He won't give in as it is a matter of principle.（这是一个原则问题，他不会让步的。）
The two machines work on the same principle.（这两台机器的工作原理是一样的。）
No matter what you do， it is important that you have moral principle.（无论你做什么，道义很重要。）
Rice is the principal food for most of the Chinese people.（米饭是大多数中国人的主食。）
Go and ask all the principal persons concerned to come here.（去请所有有关的主要人员到这儿来。）
She is the principal of that school. （她是那所学校的校长。）
5.meaningfulness n. 富有意义
mean v. 表示…意思，意味着；打算
meaning n. 意思，意义
meaningful adj. 有意思的，意味深长的
meaningless adj. 没有意思的
Meaningfulness and organization are the two basic principles that help memory.（信息的意义和组织是有助于记忆的两个基本原则。）
I don't know what he meant by telling me the news.（我不知道他把这个消息告诉我是什么意思。）
Can you explain the meaning of the word to me？（你能把这个单词的意思给我解释一下吗？）
They failed to get meaningful results from the experiment.（他们在实验中没有得到任何有意义的结果。）
It is meaningless to argue any further.（再争辩下去没有任何意义。）
6.organization n. 组织；机构
organize v. 组织
China will surely become a member of the World Trade Organization （WTO）。（中国一定会成为世界贸易组织的一员。）
Everything is in a mess because there is a complete lack of organization.（由于组织工作的缺乏，一切处于混乱之中。）
He organized a strike for better working conditions.（为了争取更好的工作条件，他组织了一次罢工。）
He thought the meeting was badly organized. （他认为会议组织得很糟糕。）
7.association n. 联合，结合；交往；协会
associate v. 使联合；把…联想起来；交往 （ associate with ）
associate adj. 副的
The cultural activity was organized by the Chinese People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries.（这一文化活动是由中国人民对外友好协会组织的。）
The picture reminded me of my brief association with the old lady years ago.（这幅画使我想起了多年前我与那位老太太的短暂交往。）
Her hometown has happy associations for her.（她的家乡给了她许多美好的联想。）
It is really difficult for me to associate the two ideas. （对我来说把这两个观点联系起来很困难。）
He spent all his spare time associating with boys from the neighboring community.（他把所有的业余时间都花在与邻近社区男孩的交往上。）
People always associate the name of Abraham Lincoln with the American Civil War.（人们总是把亚伯拉罕－林肯的名字与美国内战联系在一起。）
an associate professor 副教授 an associate editor副主编
8.visualization n. 想像，设想
visualize v. 设想，想像
visual adj. 视觉的；看的见的；形象化的
Like meaningfulness and organization， visualization is also helpful to memory.（如同意义和组织，想像也有助于记忆。）
I just cannot visualize what might become of him.（我无法想像他会变成什么样。）
Even though I was not there， I can easily visualize the scene.（尽管我不在那儿，那儿的情景我不难想像。）
I cannot say for sure if it was your visual illusion.（我不能肯定这是不是你的视错觉。）
The stories he wrote are extremely visual.（他写的故事非常生动。）
9.rhyme v. 韵，押韵
rhythm n. 节奏
I cannot think of a rhyme for “seven”。 （我想不出一个跟“seven”同韵的词。）
She called him Guppy， to rhyme with puppy.（她叫他Guppy，是为了跟puppy押韵。）
The rhythm of his speech held the attention of the audience.（他讲话时语调的抑扬顿挫抓住了听众的注意力。）
Human biological rhythms are related to the natural cycle of day and night.（人的生物节奏与昼夜的自然循环有关。）
10.ability n. 能力，才能
Human beings have the ability to learn and use a language.（人类有学会和使用语言的能力。）
No matter what you do， try to do it to the best of your ability.（不管做什么，你都要尽力而为。）
His ability to master 5 foreign languages wins him the admiration of all his classmates.（他能掌握五门外语的能力赢得了所有同学的钦佩。）
He has good speaking ability， but his writing ability is poor.（他说的能力很好，但写的能力差。）
He is a man of outstanding ability.（他是一个有非凡才能的人。）
11.random adj. 胡乱的，任意的，随意的 n. 无目的或目标
The way the books were arranged seemed completely random.（图书排列的方式似乎很随意。）
This is just a random selection of all the complaints we have received about our after service.
He opened the books at random.（他胡乱地打开了书。）
When his wife was away， he piled the soiled dishes in the kitchen at random.（他妻子外出时，他把脏碟子乱七八糟地堆在厨房里。）
12.categorize v. 分类
category n. 种类；范畴；部门
If you categorize the information you need to remember， you will find it much easier.（如果你把所需记忆的信息分类，你就会觉得记忆起来要容易得多。）
They categorized 200 songs as folk songs.（他们把两百首歌归为民歌类歌曲。）
These books fall into the category of reference books.（这些书属参考书类。）
His research does not belong to the category of natural science.（他的研究不属于自然科学范畴。）
13.following adj. 接着的，下述的 prep. 在…之后
the following 如下
He promised the old man that he would come and see him again the following day.（他答应老人第二天再来看他。）
After the meeting the following teachers will stay.（会后，以下的老师请留下。）
The following examples will prove my point.（下面的例子将证实我的观点。）
Following the discussion a decision was made.（讨论之后便做出了决定。）
Following the concert he went home.（音乐会后，他就回了家。）
The following are worthy of your attention.（以下几点值得你们注意。）
The winners of the competition are the following： …（竞赛获胜者如下：…）
14.needless adj. 不需要的，不必要的
Needless to say， I don't think much of the proposal he put forward at the meeting.（不用说，我觉得他在会上提的建议不怎么样。）
You don't have to take such a needless risk.（你不用去冒这种不必要的险。）
Don't you think it is a waste of time to give him so much needless are？（你不觉得给他这么多不必要的关心是浪费时间吗？）
15.refer v. （ to ） 提到，涉及；参考，查阅；把…归到…上；使向…请教；有关联
reference n. 参考；提及；关联
The whole thing is finished now， please don't refer to it.（整个事情都结束了，不要再提了。）
He often refers to a dictionary for the spelling and meaning of a word.（他常常翻词典查阅词的拼写和意思。）
He referred to her former classmates for her character.（他向她以前的同学询问她的品行。）
He referred his defeat to poor health.（他把自己的失败归因于身体不好。）
She referred me to Prof. Wang for detailed information.（他叫我去王教授那儿询问详情。）
The doctor referred her to a heart specialist.（医生嘱咐她转诊于一位心脏病专家。）
These answers are for reference only.（这些答案仅供参考。）
His play is full of references to the political events of those days.（他的剧本涉及当时的许多政治事件。）
16.relate v. （ to ） 有关联；叙述，讲述
related adj. 有关的，相关的
relation n. 关系，联系
He related the story vividly to the whole class.（他向全班同学生动地讲述了那个故事。）
I don't understand how the result related to/with the cause.（我不理解结果和原因如何关联。）
If you want me to do this， you have to give me all the related material.（如果你想让我做这件事，你得把所有相关的材料给我。）
Don't worry too much about them， they have very good relations.（别太为他们担心，他们的关系很好。）
The two countries have established trade relations.（两国建立了贸易关系。）
17.accurately adv. 准确地，精确地
accurate adj. 准确的，精确的
accuracy n. 准确，精确
Remember that you have to do this work carefully and accurately.（记住，这项工作得做得细心而准确。）
Right now I cannot give you a very accurate estimate.（现在我不能给你一个非常准确的估计。）
He required that the typing should be done with great accuracy.（他要求打字必须十分准确。）
18.memorize v. 熟记，记住
Our English teacher asked us to memorize the words we learned today.（我们英语老师要求我们熟记今天所学的英语单词。）
It is no easy thing for me to memorize all these telephone numbers.（熟记这些电话号码对我来说真不是一件容易的事情。）
19.repeat v. 重复 repetition n. 重复
I didn't quite catch what you said just now. Will you please repeat it？（我没有听清你刚才说的话，请你重复一遍，好吗？）
We cannot repeat our mistakes.（我们不能重复自己的错误。）
Repetition is necessary in language teaching and learning.（重复在语言教学中是必要的。）
He memorized his lines after many repetitions.（经过多次重复他终于熟记了台词。）
20. preserve v. 保护，维持；保存
You will soon be near-sighted if you don't preserve your eyesight from now.（如果你不从现在起保护视力，你很快会近视的。）
What do you think the United Nations can do in preserving world peace？（你觉得联合国能为维护世界和平做些什么？）
Deep freezing is the simplest way of preserving food.（深冻是保藏食品最简便的方法。）
1.名词后缀 -ation； tion； sion
1.Psychological research has focused on a number of basic principles that helps memory.
1）An excellent piece of research won him the international prize.（一项出色的研究使他获得了国际大奖。）
2）Research shows that the potential of man's brain is limitless.（研究表明人脑的潜力是无限的。）
3）Much research has been done on/into diseases of blood.（在血液病方面人们做了很多的研究。）
4）Scientists have been researching on/into the causes of brain damage.（科学家们一直对脑损伤的起因进行研究。）
5）They felt very much disappointed as they had been researching for three years but with no result.（做了三年的研究而没有任何结果，他们感到很失望。）
focus on 是一个常用词组，意思是“集中”，在生词部分已作了较为详细的讲解，在此，请翻译几个句子：
1）他今天准是累了，他无法把注意力集中在工作上。（He must be very tired today， he just couldn't focus his attention to his work.）
2）她觉得很不自在，因为所有的目光都注视着她。（She felt very uneasy as all eyes were focused on her.）
3）这本书着重谈了中东的形势。（This book focuses on the situation in the Middle East.）
a number of 的意思是“许多”。请看下面的例句，注意a number of 和the number of 的区别：
1）A number of factories have been shut down because of pollution problems.（由于污染问题许多工厂被关闭了。）
2）A number of students have handed in their application forms.（许多学生都递交了申请表。）
3）The number of students in our school increases every year.（我们学校的学生人数每年都在增加。）
4）The number of passengers who were injured in the accident is still unknown.（在事故中受伤的乘客人数还不知道。）
2.It is useful to know how these principles work.
it 在句中做形式主语，真正的主语to know how these principles work，此类结构我们在第一和第二单元已有了解。请看下面的句子：
1）It is necessary to learn how to use the computer.（学会如何使用计算机很有必要。）
2）It is important to find out why the forest fire broke out.（找出森林大火的原因很重要。）
3）It is difficult to know what he is thinking about.（要想知道他在想什么很困难。）
1）The doctor said that the medicine would work.（医生说药会起作用的。）
2）They didn't think his plan would work.（他们认为他的计划行不通。）
3）They didn't expect that the teacher’s encouragement would work such a change in him.（他们没有料到老师的鼓励会使他产生如此变化。）
3.Meaningfulness affects memory at all levels.
1）The drought would surely affect the harvest.（这场干旱肯定会影响到收成。）
2）Excessive smoking affected his health， bad coughs often made it difficult to breathe.（过度吸烟影响了他的健康，严重的咳嗽使他难以呼吸。）
3）Psychologists believe that colors have a definite effect on people.（心理学家认为颜色对人肯定有影响。）
4）We could all see the effects of the illness on him.（我们都能看出那场病在的身上的影响。）
5）职务的变化使他的收入大受影响。（The change in position greatly affected his income.）
6） 他的话对听众没有任何影响作用。（What he said had little effect on the audience.）
4.Information that doesn't make any sense to you is difficult to remember.
that引导的定语从句修饰information； 主句是Information is difficult to remember.
不定式to remember 用在做表语用的形容词后面作状语。请看下面的句子：
1）Einstein was easy to get along with.（爱因斯坦很容易相处。）
2）To many foreigners， Chinese is hard to learn.（对许多外国人来说汉语很难学。）
3）The water in this river is not fit to drink.（这条河里的水不适合饮用。）
4）This question is very difficult to answer.（这个问题很难回答。）
make sense 的意思是“有意义；可理解”。请看下面的句子：
1）No matter how you read it， this sentence doesn't make any sense to me.（无论你怎么读，我都不理解这个句子。）
2）What the writer wanted to express in his book doesn't make any sense to the readers.（读者们无法理解作者在书中所要表达的意思。）
3）His explanation makes no sense to his students.（学生们不理解他的解释。）
5.Organization also makes a difference in our ability to remember.
1）You should have confidence in your ability to fulfill the task.（你们应对自己完成认务的能力有信心。）
2）He has kept the promise to come early in the morning.（他遵守了一大早来的诺言。）
3）They have the determination to overcome all the difficulties.（他们有克服所有困难的决心。）
4）We could see her anxiety to solve the problem.（我们能看出她急于解决这个问题。）
make a difference 的意思是“有关系；有影响；起作用”。请看下面的句子：
1）What he said would not make any difference in my decision-making.（他说的话不会对我做决定产生任何影响。）
2）Your participation in the work will make a great difference.（你参与我们的工作，情况就不一样了。）
3）Money won't make much difference to him.（钱对他起不了多大作用。）
4）I didn't like the appearance of the house， but the location and price made all the difference.（我不喜欢那房子的外观，但它的位置和价格起了重要作用。）
6.Material that is organized is better remembered than jumbled information.
1）This story is better written than that one.（这个故事写得比那个好。）
2）This room is better furnished than that one.（这间屋子装饰得比那间好。）
3）This team is better trained than that one.（这个队训练得比那个队好。）
4）This job is better paid than that one.（这份工作的报酬比那份高。）
1）There are many ways of obtaining information.（获得信息的途径很多。）
2）So far I haven't got any information about the game.（我至今还没有得到有关比赛的任何消息。）
3）I am sure this piece of information will be of great value to them.（我肯定这一消息对他们会很有价值。）
7.Chunking consists of grouping separate bits of information.
在第一单元的Text B中我们已经对consist of有所了解。这一词组的意思是“由…组成”，它与be made up of；be composed of 的意思相近，但consist of 不用被动语态。请看例句：
1）The United States consists of 50 states.（美国由50个州组成。）
2）The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.（英国由大不立颠和北爱尔兰组成。）
3）Their team is made up of 6 team members.（他们队由6名队员组成。）
4）Our class is made up of 45 students.（我们班由45名同学组成。）
a bit在句中的意思是“一点，一些”，它可以用在形容词的前面， 但是不能用在名词的前面。在名词前面必须用a bit of.请看下面的例句：
1）I am a bit tired today.（我今天有点累。）
2）He said he was bit hungry.（他说他有点饿。）
3）Your article is a bit long for our paper. （你的文章对我们的报纸来说有点长了。）
4）He gave the bird a bit of water. （他给了鸟儿一点水。）
5）I would appreciate it if you could give me a bit of good advice.（如果你能给我一点宝贵建议我会很感激的。）
6） I only know a bit of Spanish. （我只懂一点点西班牙语。）
8.Categorizing is another means of organization.
1）The quickest means of travel is by plane. （最快的旅行方式是乘飞机。）
2）Bicycle is the most convenient means of transport. （自行车是最方便的交通工具。）
3）Email is a modern means of communication. （电子邮件是一种现代通讯方式。）
4）He means what he says. （他说话算数。）
5）Forgetting the past means betrayal. （忘记过去就意味着背叛。）
9.Many people will group them into similar categories and remember them as follows：
1）We can group the animals into several types. （我们可以把这些动物归成几类。）
2）Group the words into similar categories and they will be more easily to remember.（把类型相似的单词归类，记起来就更容易了。）
as follows 的意思是“如下”，请看例句：
1）The full text reads as follows： （全文如下：）
2）The results are as follows： （结果如下：）
10.Association refers to taking the material we want to remember and relating it tosomething we remember accurately.
1）In the second chapter I will refer to this point again.（在第二章中，我还会提到这一点的。）
2）The numbers in my article refer to the footnotes.（我文章中的数目字指的是注脚。）
3）The author referred to his grandfather several times in his story.（作者在他的故事中几次提到他的祖父。）
we want to remember 和we remember accurately都是省略了that的定语从句，前者修饰material，后者修饰something.请看例句：
1）The book you gave me is very interesting.（你给我的那本书很有趣。）
2）The news he told me disturbed all of us greatly.（他告诉我的那个消息使我们大家深感不安。）
3）The information you gathered is of great help to me.（你收集的那些信息对我很有帮助。）
句子中的it指的是the material.relate…to 在句子中的意思是“与…有关系”，请看例句：
1）His talk mainly related to environmental protection.（他的讲话主要是关于环境保护的。）
2）This regulation relates only to children under 12.（这一规则仅适用于12岁以下儿童。）
11.Research has shown striking improvements in many types of memory tasks when people are asked to visualize the items to be remembered.
1）They made a striking commercial success within 5 years.（在5年的时间里，他们在商业上取得了惊人的成功。）
2）Helen's facial features bore a striking resemblance to her mother’s.（海伦的面部特征与她的母亲十分相像。）
3）I am not sure whether he can make it this time. I just feel he has a striking lack of confidence.（我不能确定他这次能否成功，其只是觉得他明显信心不足。）
to be remembered不定式的被动形式做定语，修饰the items.请看例句：
1）There are a lot of things to be done.（有很多事要做。）
2）Are you going to the press conference to be held this weekend？（你准备参加本周末举行的记者招待会吗？）
3）This was the first project to be designed John's brother. （这是约翰的哥哥设计的第一个工程。）
12.In one study， subjects in one group were asked to learn some words using imagery， while the second group used repetition to learn the words.
1）The subject of today's discussion is “Population and Education”。（今天讨论的题目是“人口与教育”。）
2）The teacher explained in details the subject of the story to the whole class.（老师把故事的主题详细讲给全班同学听。）
3）How many subjects are you taking this semester？（这学期你选几门课？）
4）He became the subject for ridicule.（他成了人们取笑的对象。）
5）Rabbits and mice are often subjects for medical experiments.（兔和鼠常被用作医学实验的对象。）
6） He is a Chinese subject.（他是中国国民。）
7） This sentence doesn't have a subject.（这个句子没有主语。）
1）The country was once subjected to foreign rule.（这个国家曾一度受外国统治。）
2）Taipei was subjected to serious earthquakes last year.（台北去年遭受了严重的地震灾害。）
3）We are all subject to the laws of nature.（我们都要受自然规律的支配。）
4）The child is very subject to coughs.（这孩子动不动就咳嗽。）
5）All men are subject to death.（人总有一死。）
while 在句子中做连词用，意思是“而，然而”。while也是一个多义词，请注意下面例句中while 的意思：
1）Strike while the iron is hot.（趁热打铁。）
2）He listened to the radio while he was doing his homework.（他一边听收音机，一边做作业。）
3）He is talkative while his twin brother is of few words.（他很健谈，而他的孪生兄弟则少言寡语。）
4）While the old man is respected， he is not well liked.（这个老人很受尊敬，但不太受喜欢。）
5）You will succeed sooner or later while you don't lose heart.（只要你不失去信心，你迟早会成功。）
1）They stood there waiting for the bus.
2）She had to work standing up.
13.Thus forming an integrated image with all the information placed in a single mental picture can help us to preserve a memory.
划线部分是该句的主要成分，forming an integrated image动名词短语做主语，can help做谓语，us to preserve a memory做复合宾语。
斜体部分是一个“with + 名词 + 过去分词”的独立结构，做方式状语，修饰动名词短语forming an integrated image.
1）Would you like Tom to go with you？（你愿意汤姆和你一起去吗？）
2）He wants you to see him in the afternoon.（他想让你下午去见他。）
3）Father encouraged him to study harder.（父亲鼓励他更加努力学习。）
4）I will get someone to help you.（我去找个人来帮你。）
“with + 名词 + 过去分词”的独立结构在英语中也很常见，请看例句：
1）With the problem solved， the plan is going on smoothly.（随着这个问题的解决，计划正顺利进行。）
2）Standing there is a torture to her， with so many eyes fixed on her.（这么多人注视着她，于她而言，站在那儿是一种折磨。）
1.focus on 2.a number of
3.at all levels 4.make sense
5.make a difference 6.in random order
7.consist of 8.group into
9.as follows 10.needless to say
11.refer to 12.relate…to
13.associate with 14.compare with
1）Psychological research has focused on a number of basic principles that helps memory.
2）Information that does not make any sense to you is difficult to remember
3）There are several ways in which we can make material more meaningful.
4）Material that is organized is better remembered than jumbled information.
5）Association refers to taking the material we want to remember and relating it to something we remember accurately.
1）Chunking consists of grouping separate bits of information.
2）Categorizing is another means of organization.
3）Forming an integrated image with all the information placed in a single mental picture can help us to preserve a memory.
Text B Short-term Memory
1.at a later time
Go ahead with your work， I will give you a call at a later time.
I am not sure if I can remember all this at a later time.
2.in contrast （with/to）
Helen is very talkative. In contrast， her elder sister is silent.
His rudeness was in striking contrast with Jack's thoughtfulness.
I don't remember Tom’s telephone number， will you please look it up in the telephone book for me？
Look up the dictionary for the meaning of this new word.
4.be unable to
I am really sorry that I was unable to give you a call beforehand.
He was unable to provide us with more information.
5.be released from
He was released from prison after he had been kept there for 5 years.
He was released from a hospital last week after treatment for a disease.
6.be rewarded with
The winner was rewarded with gift of fruit and flowers.
If the rat could find the right door，it would be rewarded with food.