Text A American men don't cry
1.Weakness n. 软弱，薄弱；缺点，弱点；嗜好。
1）He was too weak to walk any further.（他没有力气再往前走了。）
2）She was born with weak eyesight.（她天生视力差。）
3）He is weak in maths.（他不擅常数学。）
4）Weak leaders won't be able to cope with this situation.（软弱无力的领导人无法应付这一局面。）
5）She recovered from her weakness after two week's rest.（经过两周的休息，她虚弱的身体得到了恢复。）
6）His recovered from pressure would give his opponent some chance.（他在压力之下的软弱会给他的对手带来机会。）
7）They saw a weakness in Robert's method.（他们在罗伯特的方法中看到了弱点。）
8）He has a weakness for money.（他爱钱如命。）
2.Childishness n. 幼稚
I was annoyed at the childishness of her remark.（她孩子气的话语令我恼火。）
请注意 childish 和childlike的异同之处：
“childish” is used to describe a person who behaves in an immature way， or to describe
something that is typical of a child. （childish用来形容某个行为不成熟的人或用来形容某件事似孩子般的。）
“childlike” is used to describe a person who is like a child in appearance， character， or
1）She is a nice person but a bit too childish.（她人不错，只是太幼稚了一点。）
2）She has a childish face.（她有张孩子气的脸。）
3）The young woman has a childlike figure.（那个年轻妇人有着孩子般的体型。）
4）It is childish to go into danger for nothing.（无谓地陷入危险是幼稚的行为。）
3.dependence n. 依靠，依赖；信赖；隶属。
-ence是常用的名词后缀，如：absence，confidence，innocence 等等。如果我们把后缀-ence变换成-ent，dependent则是个形容词；如果在dependence或dependent前面加上前缀in-， 则表示相反意义，“独立”、“独立的”。
1）All living thing depend on sunlight， air and water.（一切生命依赖于阳光、空气和水。）
2）He doesn't want to live in dependence on his parents any longer.（他不想再依靠父母生活。）
3）The old man s very dependent on his son.（那位老人什么都依赖他儿子。）
4）India got its independence in 1946.（印度于1946年获得独立。）
5）He is independent of his parents.（他不依赖父母而自立。）
4.disapprove v. 不赞成。
1）He disapproved the arrangement for the wedding.（她不赞成婚事的安排。）
2）Her parents disapproved her marriage to Jimmy.（父母不同意她与吉米的婚事。）
3）The teacher disapproved of her students going camping.（老师不反对她的学生们去露营。）
4）He disapproved of my method.（他反对我的方法。）
5.discourage v. 使泄气，使沮丧；阻拦。
1）He didn't have the courage to tell her the truth. （他没有勇气对她说实话。）
2）We have to face the difficulties with courage. （我们得勇敢地面对困难。）
3）Don't be discouraged by setbacks.（别因挫折而泄气。）
4）The heavy rain discouraged us from going out.（大雨使我们无法出去。）
5）Her husband encouraged her to complete her study.（她丈夫鼓励她完成学业。）
6）They felt encouraged by their achievements.（他们因自己取得的成就而感到鼓舞。）
7）He finished encouraged by their achievements.（尽管有许多令人灰心的挫折，他仍然完成了工作。）
8）What he said just now is discouraging.（他刚才说的话令人泄气。）
9）Children need more encouragement.（孩子需要更多的鼓励。）
10） The results are encouraging.（结果令人鼓舞。）
6.permissible adj. 容许的，准许的。
1）Smoking is not obtain permitted in public places.（不允许在公共场所抽烟。）
2）Mother would not permit her to watch TV for too long.（妈妈不允许她看电视时间过长。）
3）He could not obtain permission from the authorities.（他无法获得官方的许可。）
4）You can't do it without permission.（没有得到许可，你不能做这件事。）
5）It was permissible to ask a question.（提一个问题是准许的。）
6）In many cases， it is permissible for a child to cry.（在许多情况下，孩子是准许哭的。）
7.excusable adj. 可原谅地，可辩解的。
1）You don't have to make any excuse.（你不用编任何借口。）
2）There is no excuse for not giving them a chance.（没有理由不给他们机会。）
3）Please excuse my carelessness.（请原谅我的粗心。）
4）I could never excuse him for being so rude.（我永远也不会原谅他如此无礼。）
5）She was excused from long hours' of practice.（她可以免除长时间的练习。）
6）This is an excusable mistake.（这是个可原谅的错误。）
7）In women， crying is excusable， but in men， crying is a mark of weakness.（女人哭是可以原谅的，而男人哭则是软弱的标志。）
8.capacity n. 容量；能力。
1）The theatre has a seating capacity of 3000.（这个剧院能容纳3000名观众。）
2）The theatre was filled to capacity.（剧院里座无虚席。）
3）The book is beyond the capacity of young readers.（这本书超出了少年读者的理解力。）
4）The storage vessel has a capacity of 10，000 liters.（这个存储器的容积是1万升。）
5）It is necessary to develop students' capacity for reasoning. （培养学生的推理能力很有必要。）
9.incapacity n. 无能力，不能。
1）He lived from hand to mouth because of his incapacity to work.（由于无力工作，他勉强对付着过日子。）
2）Growing incapacity is coming with increasing age.（能力的丧失会随着年龄的增长而加剧。）
10.organism n. 生物体，有机体。
1）These creatures are descended from simpler organisms.（这些生物源于更低等的生物体。）
2）Factories and cities are more complex organisms self-sufficient villages.（工厂和城市是比自给自足的村庄更复杂的机体。）
11.restore v. 使恢复，使回复。
1）The old building was restored by the people of the city.（城里的老百姓修复了那座古建筑。）
2）The doctor restored him to health.（医生使他恢复了健康。）
3）The relations between the two countries were restored to normal.（两国之间的关系恢复正常了。）
4）The police restored a lost child to the parents.（警察把迷失的孩子交还其父母。）
5）He was restored to his post after he had been proved innocent.（被证明清白后，他复了职。）
12.dynamic adj. 动力的，动态的；有生气的，有力的。
1）He gradually became accustomed to living in this dynamic city.（他渐渐习惯生活在这座生气勃勃的城市里。）
2）A dynamic leadership is indispensable to the successful completion of this project.（这项工程的成功完成离不开强有力的领导。）
3）Words like “fly” and “run” are dynamic verbs.（像“飞”和“跑”这样的词是动态动词。）
13.stability n. 稳定，稳定性；坚定，恒心。
1）The new administration had to try hard to regain a stable economy and a stable currency.（新政府努力恢复经济稳定和通货稳定。）
2）The stable political environment helped to bring about the economic prosperity.（政治环境的稳定有助于经济繁荣的产生。）
3）The world needs stable peace.（世界需要持久的和平。）
4）Internal arguments had threatened the stability of the government.（内部的争执已经威胁政府的稳定。
5）The patient's condition began to stabilize.（病人的病情开始稳定。）
6）They are taking measures to stabilize prices.（他们正在采取措稳定物价。）
14.interference n. 干涉，干预；妨碍。
在第十八单元中我们已经学过了动词interfere， interference是 interfere的名词形式。
1）I couldn't hear the program because there was too much interference.（我听不清节目，因为干扰太大。）
2）He wanted to do it on his own without any outside interference.（他想自己独立做那件事，不受任何外界干扰。）
3）They didn't expect any interference from their parents.（他们没有料到会有来自父母的干预。）
4）No country has the right to interfere in another country's internal affairs.（任何国家都无权干涉别国内政。）
5）Misty weather interfered with the contact.（雾天妨碍联络。）
15.damage n. 损害，损失；赔偿金。 v. 损伤，毁坏。
1）Fortunately， the damage to the boat was not too serious.（所幸的是船的损坏不太严重。）
2）I don't want to see the rumor do any damage to your reputation.（我不想看到这个谣传有害你的名誉。）
3）He got $500 damages for the injury he suffered in the accident.（他因事故受伤而获得500美元赔偿金。）
4）The buildings were seriously damaged by the earthquake.（地震使房屋受到严重毁坏。）
5）Don't damage other people’s interests.（不要损害他人利益。）
16.maintenance n. 维持，保持；维修；维护；抚养费。
1）He spent a lot on the maintenance of his car.（他在汽车维护上花了不少钱。）
2）Maintenance of order is no easy job at this time.（这时候要维持秩序可不是件容易的事。）
3）How much maintenance does he pay his ex-wife？（他付给前妻多少抚养费？）
4）He takes regular physical exercise to maintain health.（他定期进行体育锻炼以保持健康。）
5）They have maintained correspondence for 20 years.（他们保持通信联系已有20年。）
17.animated adj. 栩栩如生的；生气勃勃的。
1）They are having an animated discussion.（他们正在进行热烈的讨论。）
2）The animated pieced of sculpture attracted a lot of people.（栩栩如生的雕塑作品吸引了许多人。）
3）He felt very excited when walking in the animated city street.（走在繁忙的闹市大街上，他感到很兴奋。）
18.shed v. 流出，发出，散发。
1）Roses shed their fragrance in the garden.（玫瑰的芳香散发在花园里。）
2）The trees have shed all their leaves in winter.（冬天，树上的叶子全掉了。）
3）She couldn't help shedding tears when she heard the story.（听了那个故事，她不禁流下了眼泪。）
19.lessen v. 减少，减轻；缩小，贬低。
我们曾讲过-en是一个常用的动词后缀，可以用在形容词或名词后面构成动词，如： shorten， broaden， brighten， worsen， lengthen， heighten等等。
1）They are doing everything possible to lessen tensions between the two nations.（他们正在尽一切可能缓和两国之间的紧张局势。）
2）I don't know what I can do to lessen his pain.（我不知道我能做什么来减轻他的痛苦。）
3）He wanted to get the upper hand by lessening the achievements of his rivals.（他想用贬低对手成就的方式来占上风。）
20. defect n. 缺点，欠缺。 vi. 逃跑，背叛。
1）She has a hearing defect.（她有听觉缺陷。）
2）He was surprised to find that the TV set has a basic defect.（他发现那台电视机有个大毛病，非常吃惊。）
3）He defected to the enemy.（他向敌方叛逃。）
21.intention n. 意图，打算。
1）He hurt his friends feelings without intention.（他无意间伤害了朋友的感情。）
2）I had made it clear that I had no intention of spending the rest of my life in such a place.（我已明确表示我无意在此度过余生。）
3）He was motivated by good intentions.（他的动机是善意的。）
4）Mr. Brown had no intention to resign.（布郎先生不打算辞职。）
哭往往被认为是软弱的表示，是女性的特征，是幼稚的行为，美国男人丝毫不愿意与这一切沾边，所以他们不哭。在人人追求快乐的国度 里，哭可太没美国味了。女人生就柔弱、依赖，她们哭很自然，而男人，千万不能哭。对于小男孩，我们让他们铭记“小男子汉是从来不哭的，只有小女孩和好哭的 孩子才哭。”
作者认为这样做不可取，因为哭是人这种生物的一种自然功能，哭能使感情失衡的人恢复到均衡状态。对均衡状态的干扰将对人体有害。在 感情失衡的情况下，哭一哭有助于保持健康。人类是自然界中唯一在哭泣时流泪的生物，把人调教得不会哭则会养活他的人性。美国父母的好意，如果造成了这种结 果岂不可悲？
1.American men don't cry because it is considered not characteristic of men to do so.
① Consider ＋宾语＋宾补
They considered the attack a mistake. （他们认为这次进攻是错误。）
② Consider ＋宾语＋动词不定式
They considered themselves to be very lucking.（他们认为自己很幸运。）
③ Consider ＋宾语＋ as
They don't consider it as important.（他们认为那个不重要。）
④ Consider ＋宾语＋形容词
They consider it wise not to criticize him.（他们认为不批评他是明智的。）
⑤ Consider ＋宾语
He had no time to consider the matter.（他没有时间考虑这个事情。）
⑥ Consider ＋V-ing
He is considering changing his job.（他在考虑换一份工作。）
“be considered not characteristic of ……，” consider 在此处的用法当归于④。be characteristic of 意思是 be typical of.如：
1）Carelessness and impatience are characteristic of him.（粗心、无耐心是他的特点。）
2）Long winter and short spring are characteristic of the climate here.（冬天漫长，春天短暂是这儿的气候特点。）
3）Crying is not the characteristic of man.（哭泣不是男子汉的特征。）
2.… no American male wants to be identified with anything in the least weak or feminine.
be identified with意思是 be closely involved or associated with.如：
1）Of the 34 candidates nearly a third were identified with big financial groups.
2）He is closely identified with the former president.（他与前总统关系密切。）
in the least 用来强调否定，意思是“丝毫，一点儿。”如：
1）I don't mind in the least.（我一点也不在意。）
2）She was not in the least Jealous.（她丝毫不嫉妒。）
3.In a land so devoted to the pursuit of happiness as ours， crying really is rather un-American.
本句中的devoted是个形容词，to是介词，通常用be devoted to .devote用作动词，则可用devote………to
1）The students are devoted to their studies.（学生们专心学习。）
2）He is devoted to the cause of peace.（他致力于和平事业。）
3）They have devoted all their time to helping the poor.（他们把所有的时间都用在帮助穷人上。）
4）She devoted herself to her pupil.（她把全部身心倾注在学生身上。）
the pursuit of 意思是“对…追求（追捕）”。 in the pursuit of 是常用介词短语。
1）They are in pursuit of the escaped criminal.（他们在追捕逃犯。）
2）The album is produced in the pursuit of ellcellence.（这个专辑在制作过程中力求完美。）
1）He used to work in a distant land.（他曾在一个遥远的国度工作。）
2）He returned to his native land many years later.（许多年后，他回到了祖国。）
ours 在句中指our land
4.Women being the “weaker” and “dependent” sex， it is only natural that they should cry in certain emotional situations.
women being the “weaker” and “dependent” sex是名词＋V-ing的独立结构，表示原因。这句话的意思是because women are the “weaker” and “dependent” sex.
1）So many members being absent， the meeting had to be put off.（因为很多人不在场，会议只好延期。）
2）The question being so difficult， we must take time to consider it carefully.
3）The weather being terrible， they had to change their plan.（天气很糟糕，他们不得不改变计划。）
5.…crying is a mark of weakness
1）He gave her a gift as a mark of gratitude.（他送给她一份礼物以表谢意。）
2）They removed their hats as a mark of respect.（他们脱帽以表敬意。）
3）These buildings display the mark of early Greek influence.（这些建筑表现出受早期希腊影响的特征。）
1）He got 70 marks out of 100.（他得了100分中的70分。）
2）There are a lot of ink marks on the wall.（墙上有许多墨水渍。）
3）He made a few marks with his pen.（他用笔做了几个记号。）
4）Be careful not to mark the table.（小心别在桌上留下痕迹。）
5）Mark all the big cities on the map.（在地图上把所有大的城市标出来。）
6.So goes the American belief with regard to crying.
1）－He looks very hot and dry.（他看上去又热又干。）
－so would you if you had a high fever.（如果你发高烧，你也如此。）
2）His shoes are brightly polished， so is his briefcase.（他的鞋擦得很亮，他的公文包也是这样。）
with regard to也可用in regard to，意思是“regarding， be concerned with”（至于，就…而文论）。如：
This plant is not at all demanding with regard to water， soil and climate.（这种植物对水土气候一点不苛求。）
7.“A little man，” we impress on our male children， never cries动词impress用法如下：
① impress sb. with sth.（给某人留下…印象）
I hope I can impress my new boss with my diligence.（我希望我的勤勉能给新老板留下印象。）
② impress sth on sb.（给某人留下…印象；使某人理解…的重要）
She impressed on the Government the serious effect of high unemployment.（她使政府意识到高失业率的严重影响。）
课文中的这个句子的意思是we impress “A little man never cries” on the mind of our male children.（我们让男孩铭记“小男子汉决不哭泣。”）
8.And so we condition males in America not to cry whenever they feel like doing so.
1）She is the only person I know in the city，so I went to her for help（在这座城市里，她是我唯一的熟人，所以我将去求她帮忙。）
2）He speaks very little Chinese， so I talked to him in English.（他不太会讲中文，所以我用英文跟他交谈。）
1）If you say so， I'll have to believe it.（如果你这样说，我只有相信了。）
2）Is it raining？（在下雨吗？）
I'm afraid so.（恐怕是的。）
1）They conditioned her not to flare up over trifles.（他们使她养成不为小事发脾气的习惯。）
2）They are conditioning the horse for a race.（他们在训练那匹马以参加比赛。）
1）I feel like singing.（我想唱歌。）
He feels like having a talk with her.（他想与她谈一谈。）
9.It is not that American males are unable to cry because of some biological clock within them which cause them to run down in that capacity as they grow alder， but that they are trained not to cry.
本句中的（It is ）not that…but that…。 是英语中的常用结构，意思是“不是因为…而是因为…”。如：
1）It is not that I am not interested in it， but that I am fully occupied.（不是因为我对这个没兴趣，而是因为我太忙了。）
2）It is not that I have no trust in him， but that I have to keep the promise of secrecy.（不是因为我不信任他，而是因为我得信守保密的诺言。）
cause sb. to do sth.意思是“使某人做某事”。如：
1）Careless caused him to fail the exam. （粗心致使他考试不及格。）
2）What caused him to change his mind？ （是什么使他改变主意？）
run down 意思是“reduce；exhaust” （降低；耗尽）。如：
1）The battery is run down. （电池的电用完了。）
2）The factory is running down its production. （工厂在紧缩生产。）
10.Thus do we produce a trained incapacity in the American male to cry.
Therefore， we make the American males have a trained ability not to cry.（于是我们使得美国男人具有了不会哭的能力。）
11.… to restore the emotionally disequilibrated person to a state of equilibrium.
restore sb. to a state of …（使某人恢复…状态），如：
1）The doctor restored the old man to a state of health. （医生使那位老人恢复了健康。）
2）It is difficult to restore the country to a state of stability. （ 要使那个国家恢复稳定是件困难的事。）
12.Crying serves a homeostatic function for the organism as a whole.
1）He served as an adviser to the company. （ 他任公司顾问。）
2）This sofa serves as a bed. （这张沙发当床用。）
serve the function也是“起…作用”的意思。
as a whole 意思是“作为一个整体，总的来说”。如：
The temperature for that country as a whole is high. （这个国家的气温总的来说是高的。）
13.The human species is the only one in the whole of animated nature that shed tears.
that shed tears 是定语从句，修饰one .当先行词的前面有only时，定语从句不可以用which引导，而必须用that引导。如：
1）He is the only person that I trust. （他是我唯一信任的人。）
2）This is the only game that I enjoy. （这是我唯一喜欢的比赛。
shed tears 意思是“流泪”，如：
1）The story made me shed tears. （那个故事使我流了泪。）
2）When a crocodile sheds tears， it doesn't mean it is sad. （ 鳄鱼流泪并不意味它伤心。）
14.And this， among other things， is what American parents -with the best intention in the world-have achieved for the American male.
with the best intention 意思是“有着最美好的意愿”。
achieve sth. 意思是“取得成就”。如：
1）I achieved nothing. （我一无所成。）
2）He achieved his goal after many hardships. （ 经过很多艰难困苦后他实现了自己的目标。）
15.…and clear our minds of those cobwebs of confusion which have for so long prevented us from understanding the natural necessity of crying.
Let me clear the furnace of ash. （让我把炉子里的灰清掉。）
prevent sb. from doing sth.意思是“妨碍（阻止）某人做某事”。如：
1）The traffic jam prevented me from getting home earlier. （交通阻塞使我无法早点到家。）
The heavy fog prevented the train from arriving on schedule. （大雪使火车无法准点到达。）
1.be characteristic of
3.in the least
6.（in） the pursuit of
7.a mark of
8.with regard to
9.impress sth. on sb
10.feel like doing sth.
12.go on doing sth.
13.restore …to …
14.a state of
15.be known as
16.as a whole
18.with the best intention
19.clear sth. of
20. prevent from
Text B stop worrying now！
He is really hard to deal with.
You may have to have extensive experiences to deal with issues like this.
After graduation from college， he chooses to take a poorly paid job instead.
If you choose to stay， I'm afraid you will also have to finish that writing first.
3.in the first place
You shouldn't take him on that trip in the first place.
There was this hidden error in the first place. How could you put all the blame on me？
I can hardly believe that you could label it as toys.
His pitiful copy of my writing was labeled as the most creative in his class. What a joke！
5.can't help doing something
Despite repeated advice by my doctor， I simply can't help eating this fatty meat whenever there is a chance.
The boy could not help crying when he lost sight of his loving father.
6.hang on to sth
He hung on to his toy gun.
The little girl hung on to her mother's hand when they crossed the street.
7.risk doing sth
You will risk losing your job if you go on like this.
He risked being criticized when he was late for the meeting.
The safety measures will result in the reduction of work accidents.
The game resulted in a tie.
Since the energy on the earth can be used up one day， we will have to look for new energy sources right now.
Can you fetch me some paper？ I've used up all of them.
I backed down carefully when I spotted a cobra on the island.
If they are not going to back down， we may have to find another way of compromise.