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09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit13)

2009-06-12 16:14  自考365论坛 【 】【我要纠错

  Text A  Imsurance

  本课主要单词

  1.insurance n. 保险;保险金

  fire ( car,health,casualty ) insurance 火(汽车,健康,伤亡事故)险

  sell life insurance 兜揽人寿保险生意

  insurance policy 保险契约,保险单

  insurance company 保险公司

  insurance agent 保险代理人

  1)You will have to show your driving license and car insurance certificate.(你得出示你的驾驶证和汽车保险证明。)

  2)The holiday cost 50 pounds plus insurance and airport taxes.(这次度假的代价是50英镑,另加保险费和机场税。)

  动词insure和assure都可以指“给…保险”。如:

  1)He insured his house against fire.(他给自己的房屋保了火险。)

  2)The insurance company refused to insure him again after all his car accidents.(他的汽车出了那么多事故以后,保险公司不愿再给他保险了。)

  3)He assured his life with this company. (他向这家公司保了人寿险。)

  assure还可以指“向…保证”,“使确信”。如:

  1)She assured me that she would come earlier. (她向我保证她会早点来。)

  2)I can assure you of the quality. (它的质量我可以向你保证。)

  在美国英语中,insure可以表示“保证,确保”。如:

  We must try to insure peace around the world. (我们必须确保世界和平。)

  而另一个动词ensure常在正式用法中取代insure,表示“保证,担保”,这个动词还有“保证给予”的意思。如:

  1)His diligence will ensure his success.(他的勤劳将保证他取得成功。)

  2)I'm sorry I cannot ensure you a better job. (很报歉,我不能保证给你一个更好的工作。)

  2.coverage n. 覆盖;承保范围;新闻报道范围

  在前一个单元中,我们学了动词cover,意思是“涉及”,当然,除了“涉及”以外,cover还有其他的意思,如:

  1)Dust covered the desk. (书桌上蒙上了灰尘。)

  2)The floods covered the town. (洪水淹没了城镇。)

  3)They covered 140 miles in two hours. (他们两小时行了140英里。)

  4)Some reporters have been sent to cover the conference. (已经派了几名记者去采访会议情况。)

  5)One hundred dollars hardly covers two nights at a good hotel. (100美元几乎不够付好点旅馆两夜的房钱。)

  Coverage则做名词用,如:

  1)This radio station has great coverage.(这个无线电的覆盖范围很广。)

  2)Can you recommend me an insurance policy with extensive coverage?(你能给我推荐一个承保范围广泛的保险吗?)

  3)They had an excellent coverage on African situation. (他们对非洲形势作了出色的报道。)

  3.consumer n. 消费者;顾客

  producers and consumers 生产者和消费者

  consumer rights 消费者权益

  a consumer guide 消费者指南

  1)These machines were enormous consumers of electricity. (这些机器耗电量很大。)

  2)The change in policy will affect all gas consumers. (政策的变化会影响所有的油料消费者。)

  consume作动词用,意思是“消耗,花费”。如:

  1)He consumed much of his time in watching TV.(他花许多时间看电视。)

  2)Do you know how much oil the Americans consume daily?(你知道美国人每天的耗油是多少?)

  3)He consumed all his energy.(他耗尽了所有的精力。)

  4.policy n. 方针,政策;保险单

  policies on education 教育方针

  personnel policy 人事政策

  economic and foreign policy 经济和外交政策

  policy maker 决策人

  policy holder 投保人

  1)The policy of reform and opening to the outside world has brought about great changes to China.(改革开放政策给中国带来了巨大的变化。)

  2)This service is free to policy holders. (这项服务对投保人免费。)

  5.sum n. 总数,金额   v. 共计;总结

  1)The expenses came to an enormous sum.(开支总数巨大。)

  2)He paid a large sum of money for the house.(他出了一大笔钱买这所房子。)

  3)The boys, in sum, did a good job. (总之,男孩子们干得不错。)

  4)At the and of the discussion, he summed up, and added a few points.(讨论快结束时,他作了总结并补充了几点。)

  5)I cannot sum up his opinion in one sentence. (我无法用一句话来概括他的观点。)

  6.adequate adj. 充足的,充分的;胜任的

  1)His income is adequate to support his family.(他的收入足以维持他一家的生活。)

  2)What should be done to assure adequate supplies of water? (应该怎样来保证足够的水供应?)

  3)I think he is adequate to the job.(我认为他胜任这工作。)

  4)He gave us an adequate description of the situation. (他对形势作了恰当的描述。)

  7.major a. 主要的     n. 专业,专业学生     v. 主修,专攻

  1)It is not a major problem.(这不是个大问题。)

  2)She had a major operation last month.(她上个月初了次大手术。)

  3)He is a physics major, but he is interested in journalism. (他是物理专业学生,但他却对新闻越兴趣。)

  4)Biology is his major.(生物是他的专业。)

  5)My brother majors in traditional Chinese medicine. (我弟弟主修中医。)

  6)She majors in early education. (她专攻早期教育。)

  与major意思相反的词是minor.如:

  1)Don't worry about it, it is only a minor problem.(别担心,这只是个小问题。)

  2)History is his major, and English is his minor.(他主修历史,副修英语。)

  major和minor的名词形式是在其后加-ity.

  8.remind v. 提醒,使想起;使发生联想

  1)Please remind me, if I forget to give you the key. (如果我忘记给你钥匙,请提醒我。)

  2)Remind him to put the book on the shelf when he is done with it. (他看完书后提醒他把书放在书架上。)

  3)We had to remind him that he had a meeting at 10:00. (我们不得不提醒他十点钟有个会。)

  4)Is it necessary to remind him about the party? (有必要提醒他不要忘记赴宴吗?)

  5)The picture reminds me of my childhood in the countryside. (这张照片使我联想起在农村度过的童年。)

  9.possibility n. 可能性;可能的事

  Possibility是possible的名词形式,英语中有不少以-ible,-able为字尾的形容词,表示“有能力”,“易做”,“适合”,“足以做…”的意思,而这些形容词的名词通常以如下形式出现:

  possible——possibility responsible——responsibility

  probable——probability available——availability

  able——abilityfeasible——feasibility

  1)We must accept the possibility that we might be wrong.(我们必须接受这种可能性,即我们也许错了。)

  2)I am not sure if we have the possibility of success.(我不能肯定我们是否有成功的可能。)

  3)It is a possibility that he will get the job. (他有可能得到那份工作。)

  10.injury n. 损害,伤害

  1)Building workers risk injury by not wearing helmets.(建筑工人不戴安全帽便有受伤的危险。)

  2)He did not suffer any injuries in the accident. (他在事故中没有任何损伤。)

  3)The man got an injury to the head in the fight.(在打斗中那个人头部受伤。)

  injure是injury的动词形式,请注意区别damage,wound,hurt和injure这几个 词。Damage指损害某物。wound指人在战斗,攻击中身体受伤,出现明显的伤口。Hurt,injure指人在平时或事故中受伤,还表示伤害感情自 尊等。hurt更表示有强烈的疼痛感。如:

  1)The boat was seriously damaged in the storm. (那条船在风暴中严重受损。)

  2)The soldier was badly wounded. (那个士兵受了重伤。)

  3)He injured his leg in an accident. (在一次事故中,他的腿受了伤。)

  4)I fell off my bicycle and hart my arm. (我从自行车上摔下来,摔伤了胳膊。)

  5)I didn't mean to hart your feelings. (我本无意伤害你的感情。)

  11.complex adj. 复杂的     n. 综合体;情绪;夸大的情绪反应

  1)What he said was too complex for me to understand. (他说的太复杂了,我不理解。)

  2)This is a complex problem. (这是个复杂的问题。)

  3)There will be an industrial complex in our province. (我们省将有一个大工业中心。)

  4)He has a complex about bugs. (他对小虫子有病态恐惧。)

  12.professional adj. 职业的,专业的       n. 自由职业者,专业人员

  1)We need to have some professional advice. (我们需要职业性的指导。)

  2)He is a professional basketball player. (他是职业篮球运动员。)

  3)The band consists of a professional and three amateurs. (这支乐队由一名职业乐师和三名业余人员组成。)

  4)He is a professional at his job. (他是一个精通本职工作的人。)

  profession 名词,意思是“职业”。如:

  1)He decided on teaching as his profession. (他决定从事教书工作。)

  2)He is a carpenter by profession. (他以木工为业。)

  What's your father’s profession? (你父亲是从事什么工作的?)

  13.ignorance n. 无知,愚昧;不知

  1)Some animals have been wiped out through ignorance. (有些动物由于人们的无知而灭绝了。)

  2)It might be better to keep her in ignorance of what has happened. (不让她知道发生了什么事也许更好。)

  ignorant是形容词,意思是“无知的,没有学识;不知道的”。如:

  1)She was ignorant about these people. (她对这些人全然不了解。)

  2)His parents were kept ignorant of the fact that he failed in the exam.(关于他考试又不及格这件事他父母还蒙在鼓里。)

  3)How can you believe such an ignorant person?(你怎能相信这样一个无知的人?)

  14.opposite adj. 对面的;相反的      n. 对立面

  1)He lives in the house opposite to ours. (他住在我们对面的那所房子里。)

  2)She burst into the room through the opposite door. (她从对面的那扇门冲进房间。)

  3)The result was opposite to what we had expected. (结果和我们所期望的相反。)

  4)You are active, she is the opposite. (你很活泼,她正相反。)

  5)Our view is the opposite of yours. (我们的意见与你们的相反。)

  6)He sat opposite to her. (他坐在她对面。)

  7)There was an explosion opposite. (对面发生了爆炸。)

  Unit13(第38讲-第40讲)

  15.effective adj. 有效果的,有成效的

  1)We have to take effective measures to control pollution. (我们得采取有效措施控制污染。)

  2)I hope the medicine can be effective. (我希望这药有效。)

  本课简介

  态度友善、衣着得体、热切助人的保险代理人的来电或造访常令美国人不安,甚至戒备,这是为什么呢?本文作者列举了美国人不愿谈论保 险的三个原因。其一是保险昂贵,各类保险成了大多数美国家庭的一大花费;其二是保险总令人想到自己生活于其中的世界充满了不安全因素。人们得面对疾病、伤 害、死亡、经济损失等种种不幸;其三是保险是一个困难而复杂的问题,能完全弄明白这个问题的人少而又少,掩饰无知的方式是避免谈论。然而,这正是由于上述 三个原因,人们有必要对保险问题多多了解,才能成为明智的消费者,才能理智地正视保险问题,才能避免成为“保险盲”。

  本课主要语言点

  1. Yet few Americans really enjoy visiting with these eager, helpful men and women.

  在前一单元中,我们已讲到过few 通常否定,意思是“很少的,几乎没有的”,本句中的few 同样表示否定意味。

  动词enjoy 的后面跟名词或者动名词,不能跟动词不定式,如:

  1)He enjoys classical music. (他喜欢古典音乐。)

  2)She enjoys going to concerts. (她喜欢赴音乐会。)

  3)Painting is something that Mary really enjoys doing. (画画是玛丽真正喜欢做的事。)

  visit with 是美国用法,意思是“访问;在…处做客、逗留”,如:

  1)She will come and visit with you for a few weeks. (她会来你这儿做客住上几个星期的。)

  2)He hasn't visited with his uncle since 1990. (他从1990年至今没有拜访过他叔叔。)

  eager 是一个形容词,通常用于词组 be eager to do sth.

  1)They are eager to get the information. (他们急切地想得到那信息。)

  2)The little boy was eager to tell his parents that he won the first prize.(那个小男孩急切地想告诉父母他得了一等奖。)

  2.We are on guard when they visit our homes.

  guard 这个词既可做名词用,也可做动词用。做名词用时,意思是“看守;守卫;警惕;”做动词用时,意思是“保卫,保护;看守。”

  1)He works as a door guard for that company. (他在那家公司做门警。)

  2)They will give him an armed guard. (他们会给他配备一队武装卫兵。)

  3)I was immediately on guard when father mentioned that incident. (父亲提起那件事,我就立刻提防起来。)

  4)Police were sent to guard his house. (警察被派去守卫他的房子。)

  5)She had been locked in her room and guarded day and night. (她被锁在房间里日夜看守着。)

  6)The old man told his son to guard against conceit. (那位老人嘱咐他的儿子谨防骄傲。)

  3.Three reasons why we are unwilling to discuss insurance can be suggested.

  本句的主要成份是:Three reasons can be suggested. Why引导的是一个定语从句,修饰reasons.如:

  1)The reason why she refused my help is unknown. (没人知道她拒绝我的帮助的原因。)

  2)The room where Mary used to live has been painted blue. (玛丽曾经住过的那个房间已被漆成了蓝色。)

  3)The day when John came was cold. (约翰来的那天很冷。)

  4. In effect, they pay as much for the insurance as they do for the car itself.

  in effect 意思是“实质上;实际上”,如:

  1)They have in effect been severely punished. (他们实际上已受到严厉惩罚。)

  2)In effect, she has no choice. (实际上她没有选择。)

  3)What in effect I'm saying is that he couldn’t keep his promise. (我实质上要说的是,他不可能信守诺言。)

  请注意pay和spend两个动词的用法:

  1)He paid 100 yuan for that used bicycle. (他出100元买那辆旧自行车。)

  2)He spent 100 yuan on that used bike.

  5. Insurance also reminds us that we live in an unsafe world.

  在词汇部分,我们已讲过remind这个词的词意及用法,再巩固一下:

  remind sb. of sth.

  1)I remind him of his promise. (我提醒他许下的诺言。)

  2)Her smile reminds me of her mother.(她的微笑使我想起了她的母亲。)

  remind sb. about sth.

  1)Don't forget to remind him about the meeting. (别忘记提醒他开会的事。)

  2)He called to remind me about the return ticket. (他打来电话提醒我回程票的事。)

  remind sb. to do sth.

  1)Remind me to turn off the computer. (提醒我关电脑。)

  2)Mother reminded him to air the quilt when it is fine. (母亲提醒他天气好时晒晒被子。)

  remind + 从句

  1)I was reminded how his attitude had changed. (我注意到他的态度改变了。)

  2)Remind his that he has to go to the parents' meeting. (提醒他去参加家长会。)

  6.…in our hearts we hope that we might be spared.

  spare做形容词用时,意思是“多余的;空闲的;俭朴的”。如:

  1)In his spare time he wrote some short stories. (他用余暇写了一些短篇故事。)

  2)Sorry, I don't have any spare cash. Can I write a check? (对不起,我没有多余的现钱,我可以开支票吗?)

  3)He is keen on this spare lifestyle. (他喜欢这种俭朴的生活。)

  在本句中,spare用作动词,意思是“饶恕;使免遭”。如:

  1)He begged them to spare his life. (他求他们饶他一命。)

  2)You may spare yourself the trouble. (你不必找此麻烦。)

  3)Call him and spare yourself a visit. (给他打个电话,省得你自己跑一趟。)

  spare 也可以表示“抽出时间;出让”。如:

  1)Can you spare me 5 minutes? (你能抽出5分钟时间给我吗?)

  Spare me 50 yuan and I will return the money on payday. (借给我50元钱,发工资那天我就还你。)

  7. …We would rather talk about football or the weather or what we had for lunch.

  在world rather 后面应用动词的原形形式。如:

  1)I would rather stay at home. (我宁愿呆在家里。)

  2)He would rather go and play football than go to the cinema. (他宁愿去踢足球,而不愿去看电影。)

  3)I would rather you didn't tell me the truth. (我宁愿你没告诉我真话。)

  在第三句中,would rather 后面跟的是从句,从句中的动词用虚拟语气形式。

  what we had for lunch意思是“午饭吃了什么”。如:

  1)What did you have for breakfast? (你早饭吃了什么?)

  2)I had nothing but a cup of coffee for breakfast. (早饭我只喝了一杯咖啡。)

  8.Neither should we depend entirely on the agent when we buy insurance.

  当否定词放在句首时,句子通常用倒装。如:

  1)Never in my life have I seen such a beautiful place. (我一生中从没见过这么美丽的地方。)

  2)Tom doesn't like pop music. Neither does his wife. (汤姆不喜欢流行音乐,他妻子也不喜欢。)

  3)In no case will he give up the experiment. (无论如何他都不会放弃那个试验。)

  4)Not only was he a teacher, but also a poet. (他不仅是一位教师,还是一位诗人。)

  9.It is better that we plan for these situations by finding means to deal with them than to just hope that they will somehow go away.

  plan 一般可用作及物动词,而本句中的动词plan 作不及物动词用。

  1)We will plan our weekend at noon. (中午时我们将安排周末的活动。)

  2)I planned to go and meet him at the station. (我打算去车站接他。)

  3)We should plan for our future. (我们应该筹划未来。)

  deal with意思是“处理,对付;论述”

  1)This is a book dealing with the skills of reading, writing and speaking. (这是一本论述读、写、说技能的书。)

  2)The man is difficult to deal with. (那人很难打交道。)

  3)There will be a lot of difficulties to be dealt with when you start your own business.(你开始自己做生意时会有许多困难要克服。)

  10.Quite the opposite

  本句的意思是“恰巧相反”,有时我们也可以用just the opposite.如:

  They are very excited. I am quite the opposite. (他们很兴奋,我则恰好相反。)

  本课主要词组

  1. be interested in    2. be eager to

  3. be of help       4. visit with

  5. be on guard       6. at best

  7. be unwilling to     8. first of all

  9. a sum of        10. pay for

  11. in effect       12. remind…of

  13. would rather      14. depend on

  15. look…in the face    16. plan for

  17. deal with       18. go away

  19. neither…nor

  Text B  What is money and what are its functions?

  短语表达

  1. be familiar with

  I am not familiar with the book he mentioned in his lecture.

  2. throughout

  He never stopped learning throughout his life.

  We want to make this place known throughout the world.

  3. a number of

  A number of ways have been suggested to control air pollution.

  A number of students have applied for this part-time job.

  4. rule out

  The regulations rule out anyone under the age of 16.

  The possibility of suicide has been ruled out.

  Heavy rain ruled the match out for that day.

  5. search for

  The police are still searching for survivors of the plane crash.

  They are searching the wood for the lost child.

  6. worth

  This bike is worth 250 yuan.

  I don't think a two-day vacation is worth much.

  7. respond to

  How did he respond to what you said?

  8. rather than

  He is a writer rather than a teacher.

  Rather than cause trouble, he left.

  9. in terms of

  She was asked to express her idea in terms of science.

  We usually measure the value of material goods in terms of money.

  10. be conscious of

  I was not conscious of what was happening.

  He was not conscious of his mistake.

  11. convert to

  Water can be converted to electricity.

  He wanted to convert the US dollars to RMB.

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本文转载链接:09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit13)

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