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09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit16)

2009-06-12 16:34  自考365论坛 【 】【我要纠错

  Text A   Heart Disease:Treat or Prevent?

  本课主要词组

  1.western  adj. 西方的;西部的

  Westerner  n.  西方人

  1)The sun began to turn red on the western horizon.  (太阳在西方地平线上开始变成红色。)

  2)I've just had four years in Western Nigeria.(我刚在西尼日利亚呆了四年。)

  3)The impact of western technology on that country was incredible.(西方技术对那个国家的影响是难以置信的。)

  4)Many Westerners eat too much food rich in sugar and fat, they may die of heart illnesses at an early age.(许多西方人吃太多高糖、高脂的食品,他们可能在年轻时就会死于心脏疾病。)

  5)Westerners eat with forks and knives, while we Chinese eat with chopsticks.(西方人用刀叉吃饭,而我们中国人用筷子吃饭。)

  2.alarm  n. 惊恐;担心;闹铃         v.  frighten (使惊恐;向…报警)

  alarming   adj.  worrying, disquieting (使人惊恐的、令人担心的)

  1)There is no cause for alarm. (不必恐慌。)

  2)It is necessary that you install a burglar alarm.(你有必要装防盗警报器。)

  3)They were alarmed to find the old lady dead.(他们发现老太太死了,大惊失色。)

  4)The world's forests are shrinking at an alarming rate.(世界森林正以惊人的速度减少。)

  3.surgery   n. 外科,手术

  surgical   adj.   外科的;外科手术的

  surgeon  外科医生

  1)The patient had suffered a heart attack while under going surgery.(在进行外科手术时,那位病人心脏病发作。)

  2)The doctor is doing a minor surgery on Mr. Wang's mouth.(医生正在给王先生的口部施行小手术。)

  3)Some people can have their vision restored by a surgical operation.(有些人可以通过外科手术恢复视力。)

  4)He works as a brain surgeon in a hospital.(他在一家医院做脑外科医生。)

  4.technology   n.  技术,工艺

  technological   adj.   技术的,工艺的

  1)Science has contributed much to modern technology. (科学对现代技术作出了很大贡献。)

  2)The advances in science and technology are accelerating.(科学技术正在加速发展。)

  3)Our belief in the power of modern technology won't change.(我们对现代技术威力的信念不会改变)

  4)We need to acquire adequate modern scientific and technological knowledge to meet the challenge of the 21st century.(为了迎接二十一世纪的挑战,我们需要掌握足够的现代科学及技术知识。)

  5)They made another technological breakthrough in the field of petroleum recovering.(他们在石油开采方面又取得了技术突破。)

  5.advance   v.前进;取得进展           n. 前进,进展,预付

  1)We have greatly advanced in our understanding of the human brain.(在对人脑的认识方面我们已取得重大进展。)

  2)The university took every opportunity to advance its prestige.(那所大学抓住每一个机会提高自己的声誉。)

  3)The date of the meeting was advanced by two weeks.(会议的日期提前了两周。)

  4)Einstein advanced the theory of relativity.(爱因斯坦提出了相对论的理论。)

  5)As autumn advanced, the old lady became worse.(秋深了,老妇人的病情变得更加糟糕。)

  6)Their team has advanced to the semifinals.(他们队已进入半决赛。)

  7)These young workers have advanced greatly in skill.(这些青工的技术已有很大提高。)

  8)Material advance and spiritual enrichment should both be emphasized.(物质进步和精神充实都应强调。)

  9)Remarkable advances have been made recently in medicine.(近来医学方面取得了令人瞩目的进步。)

  10)He arrived half an hour in advance.(他早到了半小时。)

  6.enable   v. 使能够,使可能

  这个动词的用法是在其宾词后接不定式:enable  sb to do sth

  1)Their help enabled the children to get home safe and sound.  (他们的帮助使孩子们能安然无恙地到家。)

  2)Planes enable people to travel long distances in a short time.(飞机能使人们在短时间内做长途旅行。)

  3)His early training enabled him to face everything with confidence.(他的早期训练使他能自信地面对一切。)

  请注意区别unable和enable.unable是一个形容词,通常用be unable to do sth.意思是“不能够做某事。”

  He was unable to give us a definite answer.(他不能给我们一个明确答复。)

  7.benefit   n.  益处      v.  有益于;得益

  beneficial    adj.  useful  有益的

  1)Internet has brought innumerable benefits to people.(互联网给人们带来了无数的益处。)

  2)The changes are to our benefit. (这些改变对我们有利。)

  3)For the benefit of those who were not here last time, I'll go over what I said first.(为了那些上次没来的人,我将先重复我说过的话。)

  4)This policy will benefit working families.(这一政策将使职工家庭得到好处。)

  5)Neither of them will benefit from the insurance company.(他们俩谁也不会从保险公司得到好处。)

  6)Sunshine and rain are beneficial to the growth of the plants.(阳光和雨水有益于这些植物的生长。)

  7)Fresh air is beneficial to your health.(新鲜空气有益你的健康。)

  8.disadvantage     n. 不利地位,不利条件;缺点

  disadvantaged    处于不利地位的; 贫困的

  advantage    有利条件;优点,好处

  1)It put us under a serious disadvantage. (这使我们处于极为不利的地位。)

  2)The disadvantage of this plan was that it needed more fund.(这个计划的缺点是它需要更多的资金。)

  3)Those pupils who were inattentive in class would be at a disadvantage.(那些上课不专心的小学生将会处于不利地位。)

  4)It was to our disadvantage to refuse this proposal.(拒绝这个建议对我们不利。)

  5)These disadvantaged families need immediate help.(这些贫困家庭急需帮助。)

  6)The new system has a lot of advantages over the old one. (新系统与旧系统相比有许多优点。)

  7)It might be to your advantage to quit this job. (辞掉这份工作也许对你有利。)

  8)His experience gives him the advantage over us.(他的经验使他比我们更有优势。)

  9)They took advantage of her lack of business sense to cheat her. (他们利用她缺少商业意识来欺骗她。)

  10)We must take advantage of this opportunity to practise our oral English.(我们必须利用这个良机练一练英语口语。)

  9.resource n. 常用复数 资源,财力;应付的办法

  1)The North-eastern area of China is rich in timber resources. (中国的东北地区木材资源丰富。)

  2)Oil is kuwait's most important resource. (石油是科威特最重要的资源。)

  3)We don't have adequate human resources for this project. (我们没有足够的人力资源来完成这个项目。)

  4)He spent all his resources on educating his only son. (他把所有的财力都花在了独生子的教育上了。)

  5)He is a man of great resource. (他是个足智多谋的人。)

  6)We are now at the end of our resources.(我们现在正是智穷才尽。)

  10. prevent    v. 阻止,妨碍,预防

  prevention    n. 预防,妨碍

  1)Nothing would prevent us from going to help them.(什么也阻止不了我们去帮助他们。)

  2)The rain prevented its from having the match.(那场雨使我们不能举行比赛。)

  3)This medicine will prevent you from catching cold. (这种药可以使你预防感冒。)

  4)Keeping dry is a prevention against cold. (保持干燥可以预防感冒。)

  5)Prevention is better than cure. (防病胜过医病。)

  11.equip   v. 配备,装备,赋予

  equipment   n. 装备,设备

  1)They are going to build a park equipped with a playground, ball fields and a museum.

  (他们准备建造一个设有游戏场,球场和博物馆的公园。)

  2)Not all microscopes are equipped to do this. (不是所有的显微镜都能做这件事。)

  3)He is equipped with a deep sense of justice. (他具有深切的正义感。)

  4)This is an important piece of equipment. (这是一件重要设备。)

  5)They exported a million dollars worth of electrical equipment. (他们出口了价值一百万美元的电气设备。)

  12.emphasis  n. 强调;重点

  emphasize  v. 强调,着重

  1)The report placed particular emphasis on the need to improve agriculture.(报告特别强调必须改进农业生产。)

  2)Much emphasis is being placed on learning those basic skills. (对基本技能的学习正在得以强调。)

  3)He emphasized the importance of being honest. (他强调诚实的重要性。)

  4)John emphasized a point I had made previously.(约翰强调了我此前提出的一个观点。)

  13.stress  n. 压力;重音;强调          v. 强调;着重

  1)Not all of us can cope with the stresses of modern life. (并非我们每一个人都能应付现代生活的紧张。)

  2)Continued stress may result in mental illnesses. (持续的紧张可能导致精神疾病。)

  3)My parents put great stress on good manners. (我父母很强调要有好的行为举止。)

  4)The teacher said the stress should be on the second syllable. (老师说重音在第二个音节上。)

  5)He stressed the need for better education. (他强调需要更好的教育。)

  6)I ought to stress that this was only a trial balloon. (我应该强调这只是个试飞方案。)

  14.lack   n./ v. 缺乏,不足,没有

  lacking  adj. 缺少的

  1)He abandoned his research work for lack of fund. (由于缺乏资金,他放弃了他的研究工作。)

  2)There is a lock of protein in his diet.(他的饮食中蛋白质不足。)

  3)If you lack anything, please let me know.(如果你缺少什么东西,请告诉我。)

  4)In any case, he doesn't lack for money.(总之,他并不缺钱。)

  5)Money was lacking for the plan.(此项计划缺钱。)

  6)He is lacking in courage.(他勇气不足。)

  请注意区别short  of 和lack of.short 是形容词,而lack 是名词。

  1)We are short of hands.(我们缺少人手。)

  We lack nothing but encouragement.(我们只缺少鼓励。)

  15.connect    v.   连接

  connection  n. 连接,关系

  1)the bridge connects the island with / to the mainland.(这座桥接连着这个岛屿与大陆。)

  2)Please connect me with Shanghai.(请给我接通上海。)

  3)He doesn't know anything about the connection between the moon and the tides.(他对月球与潮汐的关系一无所知。)

  4)He has no connection with the criminal case.(他与那件刑事案件无关。)

  16.sufficient  adj 足够的,充分的

  1)The food is sufficient to feed 10 people.(这些食物足够十个人吃。)

  2)Japan has a sufficient reserve of oil.(日本有充足的石油储备。)

  请注意区别adequate,enough和sufficient.三个词都有“足够的”意思。 enough为一般用语,有时可与adequate互换。enough常用来表示数量或程度,不宜用于表示性质、质量;而adequate 既可用于描述数量或程度,也可用于描述性质、质量。sufficient与enough同义,前者多用于书面语。

  1)Do you have enough time?

  2)His income is not adequate to his needs.

  We haven't sufficient time to do the work.

  Unit16(第47讲-第49讲)

  本课简介

  心脏病在西方国家已成了健康的头号杀手,仅在英国,每天就有约400人死于心脏病。于是人们投入大量的人力、物力施行心脏手术。心 脏手术无疑使无数患者受益,但是过分强调对心脏病进行手术治疗则带来了三个弊端。其一是对心脏病的预防不加重视;其二是医疗费用攀升;其三是由于有现成的 设备和技术,医生们往往会给不需要动手术的病人做手术。近期的医学研究强调,人们必须对引发心脏病的因素,如压力、抽烟、缺少体育运动等加以重视。生活方 式与心脏病之间是有联系的,因此,人们意识到自己必须为自身的健康负责,改变饮食习惯,减轻生活压力,减少抽烟,多多运动都是预防心脏病的有效方式。预防 心脏病比治疗心脏病更重要。

  本课语言点

  1.One of the greatest killers in the Western World is heart disease.

  请注意主谓一致的问题

  A: one of +复数名词做主语时,后面的谓语用单数形式:

  1)One of the longest rivers in the world is in China. (世界上最长的河流之一在中国。)

  2)One of the most famous circuses in East Europe is coming to China. (东欧最有名的马戏团之一将来中国。)

  3)One of the most expensive cars in the parking lot belongs to Mr. Watson.(停车场里最昂贵的汽车之一是华生先生的。)

  B:one of +复数名词+定语从句时,定语从句一般被看作修饰复数名词,因此从句中的谓语要用复数形式。例如:

  1)This is one of  the best films that have released this year. (这是今年发行的最佳影片之一。)

  2)Mr. Wang is one of those people who are hard to deal with. (王先生属于那种很难打交道的人。)

  3)He is one of those persons who always think they are right. (他属于那些总认为自己正确的人。)

  2.The death rate from the disease has been increasing at an alarming speed for the past thirty years.

  本句中的时态是现在完成进行时,由has (have) been加现在分词构成,主要表现以前这一段时间里一直在进行的一个动作,这个动作也可能仍然在进行,如:

  1)What book have you been reading recently? (你最近在看什么书?)

  2)How have you been getting on with your work? (工作进行得怎么样?)

  3)All these years they have been contributing articles to our newspaper. (这些年来他们一直为我们报纸写稿。)

  at an alarming speed的意思是“以惊人的速度”

  1)We are driving at the speed of 60 miles an hour. (我们正以每小时60英里的速度行驶。)

  2)He is running at top speed. (他正以最快速度奔跑。)

  3)Tom is working at it at full speed. (汤姆正在拼命地干。)

  4)He found the small town changing at an astonishing speed. (他发现那个小城正以惊人的速度变化着。)

  3.Today in Britain, for example, about four hundred people a day die of heart disease.

  在英语中die of和die from都表示“死于”,这两者之间的区别在于:

  die of 通常指因疾病、情感而死。如:

  1)The lady died of grief after the death of her husband. (丈夫去世后,这位女士也因哀伤而死。)

  2)In that country many children died of malnutrition. (在那个国家,许多孩子死于营养不良。)

  3)I'm dying of boredom. (我烦死了。)

  4)Many sheep died of starvation in the thick snow.(许多绵羊在厚厚的积雪中饿死。)

  die from 通常指死于意外的原因及不正常的原因。如:

  1)My grandfather died from a heart attack.(我爷爷死于心脏病。)

  2)She died from a traffic accident.(她死于一场交通事故。)

  3)He is said to have died from working too hard till late every night.(据说他因每晚熬夜而劳累致死。)

  4)The workman died from the explosion.(那位工人因发生爆炸而死。)

  4.Western health-care systems are spending huge sums of money on the surgical treatment of the disease.

  首先我们看一下,spend…on 和spend … in 的区别。它们共同的意思是“把…发费在…上”。

  当spend 的宾语是金钱时,spend on 后面接名词,spend in 后面接动名词,in 有时可省略。

  当spend 的宾语是时间时, spend on 和 spend in 后都可接名词或动名词,接名词时意思相同;接动名词时 spend on 的含意是“把时间花在…上”, spend in 的含意是“在…上花了时间”。如:

  1)He spends nearly one third of his monthly income (in) buying books.(他把每月收入的三分之一用来买书。)

  2)She spent a great deal of money on the new car.(她花了许多钱买这辆新车。)

  3)He doesn't spend much time on his homework.(他花在做作业上的时间不多。)

  4)She spent three hours (in )watching TV.(她看电视耗掉了三个小时。)

  我们再来看一下cost,spend,pay,take的区别。

  spend和pay的主语只能是人;cost的主语是物。take在接时间主语也可以是人。take和cost还可以用动词不定式或动词不定式短语作真实主语,而it作形式主语。

  pay的搭配范围较窄,多接金钱;cost的搭配范围很宽,除了金钱和时间外还可以接劳力、精力、财富、健康甚至生命等。

  spend 可接动名词,而cost,pay,take只接动词不定式。

  spend,take,pay可用于被动结构;而cost不能用于被动结构。

  1)That bike cost me 350 yuan. (那辆自行车花了我350元。)

  2)The work cost me a lot of time and effort.(这项工作花了我大量的时间和精力。)

  3)Careless driving cost him his life.(粗心驾车使他丧了命。)

  4)I paid him 200yuan for this painting.(我付他200元买了这幅画。)

  5)They refused to pay us the money.(他们拒绝给我们付钱。)

  6)They spend all his earrings. (他挣多少花多少。)

  7)They spend a lot of money on advertising.(他们花大笔的钱做广告。)

  8)Two hours a day were spent in practising.(每天花两个小时进行训练。)

  9)The work took us a week to finish.(我们花了一星期的时间完成这项工作。)

  10)It takes him an hour to finish his homework every day.(他每天要用一小时完成作业。)

  5.This emphasis on treatment is clearly associated with the technological advances that have taken place in the past 10 to 15 years.

  在emphasis的后面通常接介词on,常用于搭配使用的动词有place,put,lay等 ,如:

  He places (puts,lays) great emphasis on education.  他特别强调教育的重要。)

  associate with 意思是“使…联系在一起”,“交往”。

  1)We naturally associate the name of Darwin with the doctrine of evolution.(我们很自然地把达尔文的名字和进化论联系在一起。)

  2)They were closely associated with each other during the war.(战争期间,他们之间关系密切。)

  3)Rain fall is associated with humidity.(下雨与湿度有关。)

  4)They prefer to associate with young people.(他们更喜欢与年轻人交往。)

  6.…modern technology has enabled doctors to develop new surgical techniques and procedures.

  请注意本句中的enable 是动词,其用法是 enable sb. to do sth. 在词汇部分我们已有详细讲解,再请看两个例句:

  1)His patience enabled him to make the child tell him the truth. (他的耐心使他能让那孩子对他说实话。)

  2)His efficiency enabled him to finish the work a head of schedule. (他的高效率使他能提前完成这项工作。)

  7.…it causes the costs of general hospital care to rise.

  本句中cause用作动词,cause sb. to do sth. (使某人做某事),cause sth. to happen (使某事发生),如:

  1)What caused you to change your mind?(什么使你改变了主意?)

  2)What caused the boat of turn over? (是什么致使翻船?)

  1)His laziness caused him to fall behind others.(他的懒惰使他落在了别人后面。)

  句中的cost 不是动词,而是个名词,意思是“费用、开销”。

  1)The price is high because production costs are very great. (价格昂贵,因为生产成本极大。)

  2)There is no way to reduce the living cost.(没有办法降低生活费用。)

  8.After hospitals buy the expensive equipment that is necessary for modern heart surgery, they must try to recover the money they have spent.

  本句中的equipment 是不可数名词,不能在后面加s.equipment后面的谓语动词也用单数形式。

  1)The modern equipment enables them to double their production.(现代化的设备使他们能把产量翻倍。)

  2)They decided to buy some new equipment.(他们决定购买新设备。)

  3)Advanced equipment is necessary for this work.(干这个活需要先进的设备。)

  还请注意,recover 在本句中的意思是get back(回收)。

  1)We must try to recover lost time.(我们必须设法弥补失去的时间。)

  2)They recovered increased costs through higher prices.(他们通过提高价格来补偿上涨的成本。)

  9.In the past, people tended to think that it was sufficient for good health to have a good doctor who could be relied on to know exactly what to do when they became ill.

  That引导的是一个宾语从句。在这个宾语从句中,it 做形式主语,真正的主语是to have a good doctor.  Who引导的是一个定语从句,修饰doctor.what to do 做know的宾语。这句话的意思是,“过去,人们往往认为有个可以信赖的好医生就足以使他们有好身体,因为这个医生知道在他们生病时究竟该做什么。”

  本课主要词组

  1.at an alarming speed

  2.die of

  3.spend money on

  4.emphasis on

  5.associate with

  6.take place

  7.enable sb. to do sth.

  8.increase in

  9.benefit from

  10. point out

  11.cause…to…

  12.be encouraged to do sth.

  13.not at all

  14.pay attention to

  15.as a result

  16.rely on

  17.take responsibility for

  18.succeed in

  19.take up

  20. be aware of

  21.instead of

  22.decrease in

  Text B   Dieting Your Way to Health

  短语表达

  1.consider doing sth.

  He is considering changing his present job.

  Have you ever considered moving to the suburb?

  2.go on a diet

  She decided to go on a diet to keep her weight down.

  The doctor suggested that he should go on a diet to lose some weight.

  3.sometime

  I remember meeting him sometime two years ago.

  I believe we will meet again sometime in the future.

  4.regardless of

  He went to see the old lady every week regardless of wind or rain.

  These pineapples are sold for the same price regardless of their size.

  5.have…in common

  The twin brothers had no interests in common.

  6.do harm to

  Excessive drinking and smoking will do harm to your health.

  His lies will surely do harm to his integrity.

  7.slow down

  It is dangerous for you to drive so fast. Please slow down.

  I have to persuade my father to slow down a bit. He has been too busy recently.

  8.convert to

  The food we eat is converted into energy.

  After Einstein finished using the tube of shaving cream, he reverted to using plain water.

  9.lose interest in

  If you don't encourage him he will soon lose interest in this project.

  He said he had long lost interest in playing video games.

  10. go on

  He was not aware of what was going on around him.

  It is so noisy outside. What is going on?

  11.resistance to

  The doctor did not expect he would have resistance to this antibiotic.

  This child's resistance to illness is too low.

  12.be essential

  English is essential for his diplomatic work.

  Regular exercise is essential for his recovery.

  13.have difficulty doing sth.

  He had difficulty making himself understood.

  The young man had difficulty in reading these technical drawings.

  14.suffer from

  Some people suffer from heart illness at an early age.

  He is suffering from breath difficulty.

  15.take the place of

  Who is going to take the place of Miss Li when she is away?

  Artificial sweeteners are recommended to take the place of sugar and other natural sweeteners.

  16.lead to

  His explanation led to great confusion.

  17.result in

  The workers' strike resulted in the management yielding to their demand.

  His lack of business sense resulted in his bankruptcy.

  18.provide sb. with sth.

  They will be provided with all the daily necessities.

  Nature provides the wild animals with the necessary safeguards.

  19.substitute for

  There is no substitute for good food and exercise.

  He substituted for the worker who was ill.

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本文转载链接:09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit16)

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