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09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit22)

2009-06-12 17:03  自考365论坛 【 】【我要纠错

  Text A    current attitudes toward physical fitness

  本课主要单词

  1.fitness n. 适当,合理;健康

  fit v. (使)适合;与…相称;合身;容纳      adj. 合适的;正当的;健康的;合格的

  1)He does morning exercises every day to improve his fitness.(他每天做早操以增加体质。)

  2)He tried every means to make me believe the fitness of his decision.(他尽一切可能使我相信他的决定的合理性。)

  3)I am going to help you choose the fridge that fits your needs.(我将帮你挑选适合你需要的冰箱。)

  4)Try on this jacket and see if it fits you.(试试这件茄克,看看是否合身。)

  5)This shelter can only fit a family of three.(这个防空洞只能容纳一家三口。)

  6)The water in this river is not fit to drink.(这条河里的水不适合饮用。)

  7)She is fit for the job.(她能胜任这项工作。)

  8)The old man looks fit.(那位老人看上去身体很好。)

  2. misuse v. (n.) 误用,滥用;虐待

  mis-是一个常用的前缀,意思是badly or wrongly. 如misunderstand(误解),misdirect(指错方向),misfortune(不幸),misspelling(拼写错误)

  1)He misused a word in his report, which caused much confusion.(他在报告里用错了一个字,引起了莫大的混乱。)

  2)He misused his servants.(他苛待仆人。)

  3)You can see for yourself how he misused his powers.(你可以亲眼去看他是如何滥用权力的。)

  3.assure v. 使确信,使放心;向…保证

  assurance n. 保证;信心

  1)He assured me that there was nothing really wrong with my car.(他向我保证我的车实际上并没有什么问题。)

  2)I can assure you of his sincerity.(他的真诚我可以向你保证。)

  3)She was assured a well-paid job after graduation.(有人保证她毕业后有一份待遇优厚的工作。)

  4)The hunter killed the snake and the child's life was assured.(猎人打死了蛇,孩子的生命保证了。)

  5)He assured his property with this company.(他向这家公司保了财产险。)

  6)Her assurance that she would help gave me encouragement.(她会帮忙的保证给了我鼓励。)

  7)He continued his experiment with assurance.(他充满信心地继续他的试验。)

  8)There is an assurance company round the corner.(不远处有一家保险公司。)

  4.career n. 生涯;职业;(事业的)成功

  1)His career as a journalist was about to begin.(他的记者生涯即将开始。)

  2)His political career ended after he left the white House.(离开白宫后,他的政治生涯就告结束了。)

  3)She decided to make teaching her career.(她决定以教书为业。)

  4)He has a career before him.(他前程远大。)

  5.priority n. 优先,重点;…优先考虑的事

  prior adj. 在先的;居先的;优先的

  1)They insist that the right to live should take priority over all other considerations.(他们坚持认为,生存权利应放在其他一切因素之上。)

  2)Security is a top priority.(安全是应予最优先考虑的事。)

  3)We should place priority on the interest of the public.(我们应优先考虑公众的利益。)

  4)She quitted her job without prior discussion with her parent.(她未经事先与父母商讨就辞了职。)

  5)A week prior to the meeting, he made a phone call to me.(在见面前的一个星期,他给我打了个电话。)

  6.pro adv. 从正面      prep. 赞成      n. 赞成的意见,赞成者

  con adv. 从反面     prep. 反对    n. 反对的意见;反对者

  1)Much has been written on the subject pro and con. (有关这个问题已有很多论著,有正面的,也有反面的。)

  2)The pros and cons of mixed schooling are now under discussion.(男女同校的利弊问题正在讨论之中。)

  3)Are you pro or con nuclear disarmament?(你是赞成还是反对核裁军?)

  7.Involvement n. 卷入,牵连;复杂情况

  involve v. 使卷入,牵涉;包含

  1)He didn't have any direct involvement in this affair. (他未直接卷入这个事件中。)

  2)His parents warned him to avoid involvement with the street-loafers.(他父母告诫他不要与街头的游手好闲者牵连在一起。)

  3)My personal involvement with him and his family is deep.(我个人和他以及他的家庭瓜葛很深。)

  4)He was involved in stealing.(他卷进了偷盗事件中。)

  5)The investigation involves a lot innocent people.(这次调查牵扯到许多无辜者。)

  6)Swimming involves long hours of training.(游泳必须进行数小时的训练。)

  8.pursuit n. 追踪,追求,乐趣

  1)I don't know what they are in pursuit of. (我不知道他们在追求什么)

  2)In the pursuit of their goal, they got a lot of help from friends.(他追求目标的过程中,他们得到了朋友的大力帮助。)

  3)They are now engaged in scientific pursuit.(他们在从事科学研究。)

  4)Stamp-collecting is one of his favorite pursuits.(他的爱好之一是集邮。)

  9.limitation n. 限制,局限,缺陷

  1)All railways have weight and height limitations, because of tunnels, bridges and so on.(由于隧道、桥梁等原因,所有铁道皆有载重及车厢高度限制。)

  2)As the old saying goes, a wise man knows his own limitations.(正如古谚语所说,明智的人有自知之明。)

  3)With all its advantages, the computer is by no means without its limitations.(尽管计算机有许多优点,但绝非没有局限性。)

  10.time-consuming adj. 耗费时间的

  n+v-ing 构成的复合形容词十分常见。如labor-saving (省力的),energy-consuming (耗费能源的)

  1)Doing housework and taking care of little children can be very time-consuming.(料照家务照看孩子非常耗费时间。)

  2)Before you take up this project, you must be fully aware that it is really time-consuming.(在你着手这个项目前,你必须充分意识到这的确很浪费时间。)

  11. recreation n. 娱乐活动,消遣

  1)His only recreations are playing chess and working in the garden. (他唯一的消遣活动是下棋和养花种草。)

  2)He always told us that he was too busy for recreation.(他总是对我们说他太忙,没空消遣。)

  12. schedule n. 日程表       v. 安排,排定

  1)He looked at the schedule of postal charges trying to find out how much he would have to pay.(他看着邮费价目表,想弄清楚得付多少钱。)

  2)They wanted to plan a tight schedule of travel.(他们想安排一个紧凑的旅行日程。)

  3)The organizer of the conference came to tell them the schedule for the following days.(会议组织者来告诉他们随后几天的日程安排。)

  4)The train arrived two behind schedule.(火车误点两小时。)

  5)They finished their work ahead of schedule.(他们提前完成了任务。)

  6)The Wilson's are scheduling a visit to China.(威尔逊一家正在安排来中国游览。)

  7)He is scheduled to arrived tomorrow.(他定于明天到达。)

  13.facility n. 设备,设施;便利,容易;技巧

  1)They decided to spend more on educational facilities. (他们决定加大在教育设备上的投入。)

  2)The kitchen is equipped with all the necessary modern facilities.(厨房里装有所有必备的现代化设备。)

  3)The experts are satisfied with the airport facilities.(专家们对机场设施很满意。)

  4)This tool can be used with greater facility than that one.(这个工具使用起来比那个工具方便。)

  5)He has great facility in learning languages.(他很有学习语言的技能。)

  14.commitment n. 承担的责任或义务,承诺,信奉

  1)He seemed to lack the commitment to pursue a difficult task the very end.(他似乎缺少一种将困难工作做到最后的献身精神。)

  2)I cannot give you any commitment for more leave and better pay.(我不能允诺你更多休假、更高报酬。)

  3)We cannot expect him to carry out his campaign commitments.(我们不能指望他履行竞选诺言。)

  4)The No.1 domestic commitment of the next Administration is to control inflation.(下届政府对国内承担的首要义务是控制通货膨胀。)

  15.scope n. (活动,影响能力的)范围

  1)He is looking for a job that will give him greater scope for initiative.(他在寻找一个能使他充分发挥积极性的工作。)

  2)Such subjects are not within the scope of my mind.(这些问题不在本书论及的范围之内。)

  3)What you talked about was beyond the scope of my mind.(你所谈的超出了我的理解范围。)

  4)I'd like to have more scope for putting my ideas into practice.(我希望能有更多的机会实施我的新主意。)

  16.comment n.评论,评注       v. 评论

  1)He refused to make any comment on the rumor that he had bribed the officials.(他拒绝对他贿赂官员的传言发表任何评论。)

  2)Do you have any comment on this article?(你对这篇文章有什么意见?)

  3)The spokesman commented on the recent development of national economy.(发言人对近来国有经济的形势发表了意见。)

  4)If you comment on his work favorably, he will be very happy.(如果你对他的工作予以好评,他会非常高兴。)

  17.maintain v. 维持,保持;维修,保养,扶养;断言

  1)Maintaining law and order is of top priority.(维持法律和秩序是头等大事。)

  2)Everyone should contribute to maintaining world peace.(每一个人都应为维护世界和平作出贡献。)

  3)To get there before dark, you have to maintain a high speed of 80 miles an hour.(你得保持每小时80英里的高速才能在天黑之前到那儿。)

  4)Their work is to maintain railway lines.(他们的工作是养护铁路。)

  5)He found it so hard to maintain a family of five.(他感到要负担一个五口之家很困难。)

  6)He maintained that such things should never be done again.(他强调这种事情不应再发生了。)

  18.approach v. 靠近;处理(问题)      n. 方法;接近

  1)The train is approaching the station.(火车在向车站靠近。)

  2)His work is approaching perfection.(他的工作渐臻完美。)

  3)He approached the problem with calm and caution.(他沉着而审慎地对持那个问题。)

  4)Go home quickly, a storm is approaching.(快点回家,暴风雨即将来临。)

  5)Our approach drove away the wild animals.(我们一靠近就把野兽赶跑了。)

  6)The best approach to this problem is to cut down cost and increase efficiency.(解决这个问题的最好方法是降低成本,提高效率。)

  19.positive adj. 确定的;积极地,肯定地

  positively adv. 确定地,明确地;积极地,肯定地

  1)He was frightened by the results of his blood test, for all tested items show positive reactions.(验血结果把他吓坏了,每一个项目都显示阳性反应。)

  2)I'm positive about it.(对这点我有绝对把握。)

  3)They longed for a positive answer.(他们渴望得到肯定的答复。)

  4)You should adopt a more positive attitude toward life.(对生活你应该采取更积极的态度。)

  5)He never answered my questions positively.(他从不肯定地回答我的问题。)

  20.aspect n. 方向;外表

  1)They considered the plan in all its aspects.(他们全面地考虑了这一计划。)

  2)His face had a frightening aspect.(他的脸色很吓人。)

  21. emerge v. 出现

  1)The sun emerged from behind a cloud.(太阳从云朵后面出来了。)

  2)Different ideas have emerged.(不同意见出现了。)

  3)A modern industrial city is now emerging.(一个现代化的工业城市正在兴起。)

  本课简介

  人人都知道健康的重要,但人们对于参加健身活动的态度如何呢?本文作者通过许多具体的事例告诉我们,人们对于参加健身活动有许多认识上的误区,因而有必要重新审视自己在这一问题上的态度和做法。

  人们对于健康活动有哪些看法呢?一些学生认为,留出时间来健身是浪费时间,健身活动并不比学打桥牌对他更有用,学业和前程才是最重 要的。还有人认为健身固然重要,但实在没有时间健身。也有人说自己已经够健康了,保持现状应该没有问题。另外有些人则抱怨没有运动设施,也无法从他人那儿 得到什么帮助,或者觉得运动后的浑身汗味令他们不舒服。

  以上种种皆是不愿意进行健身活动的人们的看法,那么对于那些原意进行健身活动的人们来说,他们的认识和做法也并非没有问题。有人 说,我跑步是因为宿舍里的每一个人都在晚上跑步。也有人说,我运动时每消耗3500卡热量就能减掉一磅体重,圣诞节前我只有十磅要减了。还有人说,这个周 末天气凉爽,星期六看来是个好日子。另外,健身只是为了长寿也是常见的看法。

  你的认识是否类似于上述某种观点?请记住健康虽不一定保证长寿,但能有助于你快乐地生活每一天。

  本课主要语言点

  1. Recently we were told by a student that setting aside time for improving his physical fitness would be a total misuse of his working hours.

  that引导的是一个宾语从句,在这个从句中,动名词短语setting aside time…做主语,此类结构在英语中很常见。如:

  1)He told me that getting up early in the morning was hard for him.(他告诉我早起对他来说很困难。)

  2)The teacher said that cheating on exams was on the increase in many schools.(那位老师说在许多学校考试作弊现象在增长。)

  3)My brother told me that setting up his own company would not be totally impossible.(我兄弟对我说建立他自己的公司并不是一件完全不可能的事。)

  set aside 意思是to reserve or keep sth. for a special use or purpose (留出、拨出);set aside也可表示overturn(驳回、取消),disregard(不顾)。如:

  1)He decided to set aside 50 yuan every month so that he could buy a used bike.(他打算每个月留出50块钱以便能买辆二手自行车。)

  2)His parents asked him to set aside 30 minutes every morning reading English.(他父母要求他每天早晨留出30分钟读英语。)

  3)The government set aside thirteen per cent of the money for health and education.(政府拨出这笔钱地百分之十三用于健康和教育。)

  4)The original verdict was eventually set aside by the Supreme Court.(原先地裁决最终被最高法庭驳回。)

  5)We must set aside all formality and another try.(我们必须不拘形式再试一次。)

  a / the misuse of sth.意思是 use sth. in an incorrect or improper manner(误用、滥用)。如:

  The misuse of company assets brought about heavy losses.(滥用公司财产造成了严重损失。)

  在词汇部分我们讲到mis-是一个前缀,常指things being done badly or wrongly. 如:understand-misunderstand , print-misprint等等。

  2. He assured us that he would be no better served by a fitness program than by learning to play bridge.

  本句中地no是一个副词,用在副词比较级地前面,表示“并不、毫不”。no也可以在形容词比较级地前面。如:no more than, no less than, no longer than,no farther than 等等。

  1)I could no more play piano than you.(我和你一样不会弹钢琴。)

  2)This place is no better than slum.(这地方与贫民窟差不多。)

  better是副词well的比较级形式,served是个过去分词,可用作形容词,如: better organized, better prepared, better managed等等。

  assure是个及物动词,意思是“使确信、使放心”,主要用法是:

  1)assure sb. of sth.

  He assured me of the feasibility of the plan.(他使我确信这个计划是可行的。)

  2)assure sb. that……

  I assured my mother that I would handle the problem.(我向母亲保证我能处理这个问题。)

  请注意区别assure,ensure,insure和secure这四个动词。

  assure指以十分肯定的语气向别人保证某事一定发生,多用assure sb. of / that在结构中;ensure意为确保某种行动或动因的结果一定会发生,后面可以跟sth.或that从句,但不能带双宾语;insure意思是“给… 保险”;secure的意思是make safe(使安全)。

  1)He assured me that Dr. Baker would come.(他向我保证贝克博士会来。)

  2)To ensure the child's quick recovery, the doctor gave him three different medicines.(为了保证孩子尽快康复,医生给了他三种不同的药物。)

  3)The house is insured against fire.(这房子保了火灾险。)

  4)They tried their best to secure the bridge from further attack.(他们尽力保护桥梁免受进一步的攻击。)

  3.College and his preparation for a career were his only priorities.请注意区prepare 和prepare for的区别。

  prepare sb. or sth. 指make them ready for an event or action that will happen in the future,如:

  We have to prepare our lessons carefully.(我们得仔细备课。)

  prepare for an event or action指get oneself ready for it; make plans for it so that it and prepared when it happens, 如:

  The children washed out hands and prepared for the meal.(孩子们洗好手准备吃饭。)

  名词preparation通常用在短语make preparations for和in preparation for当中,如:

  1)They were making preparations for the old man's funeral.(他们在为老人的葬礼做准备。)

  2)We will have to collect new material in preparation for the experiment.(我们得收集新资料为实验作准备。)

  priority指 give priority to和 take / has priority当中。如:

  1)This project has priority over all others.(这个项目比所有其他项目都更受重视。)

  2)Education is given first priority in their family.(教育在他们家是予以最优先考虑的问题。)

  4.This student has seen being physically fit as an end rather than the means we know it to be.

  see sth. as意思是“把…看作为”,我们以前学过不少类似的短语,如:regard…as,look upon…as,think of…as,view…as等等。

  being physically fit意思是“身体健康”。

  an end rather than the means意思是“是一种目的而不是达到目的的方法”。 rather  than意思是“而不是”。

  1)He was seen as the most capable person in the company.(人们认为他是公司最能干的人。)

  2)We saw her silence as consent.(我们把她的沉默看作为同意。)

  3)To be physically fit is our greatest wish for grandfather.(身体健康是我们对爷爷的最大希望。)

  4)You need to do more exercise if you want to be physically fit.(如果你想身体健康,就需要进行更多的锻炼。)

  5)He came all the way to China for promoting friendship rather than for making money.(他千里迢迢来到中国不是为了赚钱,而是为了增进友谊。)

  5.His opinion is one of the many feelings, pro or con, that people hold about their personal involvement in a physical fitness program.

  pro和con在本句中作形容词用,pro的意思是for(赞成),con的意思是against(反对)。pro or con在句子中作后置定语,修饰名词feeling.后置定语在英语中也很常见。如:

  1)Countries, big or small, should be equal.(国家无论大小都是平等的。)

  2)He studied in a room, clean and tidy.(他在干净整齐的房间里学习。)

  (在上述例句中,两个成对的或反对的形容词,用and或or连接,共同修饰一个名词。这是形容词作后置定语的一种用法。)

  1)The active involvement of thousands of people in the election campaign surprised him.(成千上万的人积极参与竞选活动令他惊奇。)

  2)He avoids involvement in politics.(他避免卷入政治。)

  6.Certainly some of there individuals may have physical limitations that make activity extremely difficult, and others are engaged in time-consuming activities that until finished do not permit opportunities for recreation.

  that make activity extremely difficult是一个定语从句,修饰physical limitations.

  Be engaged in sth. 意思是be involved in sth.(使从事,使忙于),如:

  1)They were engaged in the study of soil conservation.(他们在从事土壤保持的研究。)

  2)It is inappropriate for him to engage in this activity.(他从事这一活动是不合适的。)

  7.…I'll have no difficulty staying that way.

  have (no) difficulty doing sth.(做某事有/无困难),也可以用have (no) trouble doing sth.。如:

  1)He has no difficulty understanding the Chinese film.(看懂那部中国电影他没有困难。)

  2)I had a lot of trouble getting back to sleep after I answered the phone call.(接过电话后,我无法再入睡。)

  8.…you may have made a commitment to a physical fitness program that might be rather narrow in scope.

  make (a) commitment to 意思是make a firm promise(作出承诺),或者involvement(投入)。

  Narrow in scope意思是范围很窄,很狭隘。我们接触过在形容词后面加介词in再加名词的机构,如similar in appearance(外表相像)。

  9.What could I achieve if I were really in top physical condition?

  本句中用了虚拟语气,从句中用过去时(be动词用were),主句中用could或should / would / might加动词原形,表示的是与现在事实相反的假设,如:

  1)If he were on time, we wouldn't have to wait for him.(如果他能准时,我们就不用等他了。)

  2)If they had time now, they would come to see us.(如果他们现在有时间,他们就来看我们了。)

  in top physical condition 意思是“身体很健康”。如:

  The old man is in top (very good, excellent…) physical condition though he is already 76.(老人虽已七十六岁,但身体非常健康。)

  10.In the final analysis, we think that although fitness will not guarantee that you will live longer, it can help you enjoy the years you do live.

  in the final analysis意思是ultimately(归根结底),如:

  They realized in the final / last analysis that their job was to tell public the facts.(他们认识到他们的工作归根结底是把事实公诸于众。)

  guarantee的意思是保证,担保,后面可跟名词;to do或that从句。如:

  1)Wealth doesn't guarantee happiness.(财富不能保证快乐。)

  2)They guaranteed to finish the work in two hours.(他们保证在两个小时内完成这项工作。)

  3)I guarantee that they will win the game.(我保证他们会赢这场比赛)。

  do在句中起强调作用。

  本课主要短语(phrases and expressions)

  1.set aside

  2.a misuse of

  3.no better than

  4.prepare for / make preparations for

  5.be physically fit

  6.be seen as

  7.rather than

  8.pro or con

  9.involvement in / be/become/get involved in

  10.in pursuit of

  11. be engaged in

  12. have (no)difficulty doing sth.

  13.get support from

  14.make commitment to

  15.narrow in scope

  16.approach to

  17.in top physical condition

  18.be capable of

  19.keep in mind

  20.in the final analysis

  Text B    people and colors

  短语表达

  1. in general

  In general, girls do better on test about vocabulary than boys.

  In general, there are two different ideas about where to go.

  2. remind sb. of sth.

  The way he walks reminds me of his father.

  The picture reminds me of the days I spent in the countryside.

  3.associate with

  People usually associate the underground with something evil.

  They like to associate with people from all walks of life.

  4.react to

  I cannot imagine how the audience will react to his speech.

  Young children react to the color of an object before they react to its shape.

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本文转载链接:09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit22)

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