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2009-06-12 16:54  自考365论坛 【 】【我要纠错

  Text A    Animals at Risk:Who Cares?


  1.Species n.(单复数同形)种,类

  1)There are more than 250 species of shark in the world.(世界上有250多种鲨鱼。)

  2)Darwin wrote “The Origin of Species.” (达尔文写了《物种起源》。)

  3)She feels a species of nervousness.(她有一种紧张的感觉。)

  2.Extinct adj. dead, wiped out, no longer existing(火熄灭了;消亡了的;灭绝了的)

  extinction n.

  1)Please make sure that the fire is extinct before you leave.(在你离开前,请确保炉火已灭。)

  2)All hope was extinct.(所有的希望都落空了。)

  3)This species will be extinct in a few decades.(几十年后这个物种将会灭绝。)

  4)Pandas are in danger of extinction.(大熊猫正面临灭绝的危险。)

  5)The sudden extinction of lights in the room frightened the children.(室内灯光突然熄灭把孩子们吓坏了。)


  The total extinction of this species is inevitable.


  3.Pace n. 步速;速度;节奏;步    v. 踱步;用步量

  1)The tree is ten paces from the house.(树与房屋相距十步。)

  2)He quickened his pace when he found he was lagging behind.(发现自己落了后他便加快了步伐。)

  3)They had to slow down the pace of new product development because of lack of fund.(由于缺少资金他们不得不放慢新产品开发的速度。)

  4)The pace he set was too fast for the others.(他定的步速对其他人来说太快了。)

  5)He is trying hard to keep pace with his classmates.(他正努力跟上他的同学。)

  6)Many people complain of the rapid pace of modern life.(许多人抱怨现代生活节奏太快。)

  7)He paced slowly around the room.(他慢悠地在房间里踱着步。)

  8)He paced out the distance between the two trees.(他用步子测出两棵树之间的距离。)

  At a snail's pace(非常缓慢地)

  At one's own pace(以轻松自在的速度)

  Set the pace(定步速,起带头作用)

  Pace car(赛车开始时在跑道上领驶一圈但本身不参赛的领驶车)


  4.Compete v. 竞争,比赛

  competition n. 竞争,比赛

  competitive adj. 竞争的

  1)He would compete with three others for a trip to Korea……(他将和另三个人竞争以得到去韩国旅游的机会。)

  2)I am going to compete in two items——100 meter dash and broad jump.(我将参加两个项目的比赛:100米短跑和跳远。)

  3)Young people should be prepared for the fierce competition in the future job market.(年轻人应为今后就业市场的激烈竞争做好准备。)

  4)There is a lot of competition for this job.(有许多人争夺这工作。)

  5)He is no competition for Mike.(他不是迈克的对手。)

  6)He doesn't like competitive sports.(他不喜欢竞技性体育项目。)

  7)How can we adapt ourselves to the highly competitive society?(我们怎样才能适应这个高度竞争的社会?)

  8)He holds that women are not as competitive as men.(他认为女性不像男性那样有竞争力。)

  5.Likelihood n. 可能性;有希望的事

  likely adj. 有可能的;可信的;恰当的

  1)Is there any likelihood of his coming?(他有可能来吗?)

  2)There is every likelihood that the performance will be a success.(演出极有可能获得成功。)

  3)In all likelihood it will be a sunny day to morrow.(十之八九,明天是个大晴天。)

  4)It is likely that they will agree with us.(他有可能会同意我们的意见。)

  5)He is not likely to be elected.(他不可能当选。)

  6)Her story doesn't sound likely.(她的说法不太可信。)

  7)They are looking out for a likely place to build the school.(他们正在找寻建这所学校的合适地点。)

  6.Clearance n. 清除,清理;余地

  clear v. 清除;越过;不触及地通过



  1)The clearance of the old furniture made the room more spacious.(清理了旧家俱,屋里更宽敞了。)

  2)He was responsible for the clearance of the theatre when the fire broke out.(着火时,由他负责出清剧院的观众。)

  3)The bridge has a clearance of three metres above water.(该桥桥下净空有3米。)

  4)Clearance sale(清仓削价销售)

  Take-off clearance(起飞许可)

  Foreign exchange clearance(国际汇兑清算)

  Clearance order(清拆命令)

  5)He is clearing the table.(他正在收拾桌子。)

  6)The athlete cleared the bar easily.(那位运动员轻松越过横杆。)

  7)The truck cleared the tunnel.(卡车通过了隧道。)

  7.Vegetation n.(总称)植物,植被

  vegetate. v.(植物)生长

  vegetable n. 蔬菜的;植物的

  1)He was amazed by the colorful vegetation of the tropical forest.(热带森林中奇异多彩的植物令他惊奇。)

  2)It is essential that the vegetation of this area should be preserved.(保护这一地区的植被是很必要的。)

  3)He had some green vegetables for dinner.(他晚餐吃了些蔬菜。)

  4)The vegetables in the garden vegetate vigorously.(园子里的植物在茁壮成长。)

  8.Ignore v. 不顾,不理,忽视

  ignorance n. 无知

  ignorant adj. 无知的

  1)He was fined for ignoring a red light.(他因为闯红灯而被罚款。)

  2)The teacher ignored the question raised by one of the students.(那位老师对学生提出的问题没加理会。)

  3)Some species become extinct because of people's ignorance.(有些物种由于人们的无和而灭绝。)

  4)Ignorance of this law is no excuse if you break the law.(不懂法不能作为违法的借口。)

  5)They demanded to know why they had been kept in ignorance of the truth.(他们要求知道不让他们了解除事情的真相的原因。)

  6)He was kept ignorant of the fact that his son failed the exam.(他对儿子考试不及格这件事一无所知。)

  7)I am ignorant about /of what has happened.(对所发生的事情我全然不知。)

  9.Threat n. 威胁;凶兆

  threaten v. 威胁

  1)The survival of civilization is under threat.(人类文明的生存在受到威胁。)

  2)This might be a threat to national security.(这可能对国家安全构成威胁。)

  3)The boy threatened that he would leave home if his parents beat again.(那男孩威胁说如果父母再揍他,他就离家出走。)

  4)They were threatened with starvation when flood drowned their village.(洪水淹没他们村子时他们受到了饥饿的威胁。)

  10.Ornament n. 装饰;装饰品      v. 装饰,美化

  1)They bought a lot of ornaments and hung them on the Christmas tree.(他们买了许多装饰品并把它们挂在圣诞树上。)

  2)She wouldn't buy it as it is more for ornament than for use.(她不原意买那个东西,因为它主要供装饰而不实用。)

  3)They ornament the hall with oil paintings.(他们用油画装点大厅。)

  4)They found themselves entering a manificently ornamented house.(他们发现自己进入了一座装饰华美的屋子。)

  11.Tourist n. 旅游者,观光者    adj. 游览的

  tourism n. 旅游业

  tour n. 旅行;参观

  v. 旅行;参观

  1)She showed a group of tourists round the museum.(如领着一群游客参观博物馆。)

  2)The Great wall is one of the chief tourist attractions in Beijing.(长城是北京的主要旅游点之一。)

  3)Tourism is a big industry in this country.(旅游业在这个国家是一个庞大的行业。)

  4)His dream is to make a round-the-world tour.(他的梦想是作环球旅行。)

  5)We are going to tour north-west China this summer.(今夏我们打算游历中国西北地区。)

  6)He toured music halls in Germany.(他在德国的音乐厅作巡回演出。)

  12.Variation n. 变化

  variable adj. 易变的

  vary v. 变化

  1)He always told us the same story with no variations.(他总是给我们讲那个没有任何变化的故事。)

  2)Weather conditions may cause variations in blood pressure.(天气状况可能引起血压的变化。)

  3)The variable weather gave us a lot of trouble.(多变的天气给我们带来不少麻烦。)

  4)He is hard to get along with as he has a variable temper.(他的脾气反复无常很难相处。)

  5)Opinions vary on this point.(对这一点看法各异。)

  6)He doesn't want to vary his habit.(他不想改变自己的习惯。)

  12.Trophy n. 战利品;奖品

  1)He was going to hang the horns of the antler on the wall as a trophy.(他将把鹿角挂在墙上作为纪念品。)

  2)She got a gold trophy for badminton.(她获得了羽毛球比赛的金杯。)

  13.Magnificent adj. 壮丽的,宏伟的;极美的

  1)The king lived in this magnificent palace.(国王住在这座宏伟的宫殿里。)

  2)The magnificent scenery dazzled the tourists.(壮丽的景色使游客的眼花缭乱。)

  3)Their magnificent performance gripped the audience.(他们动人的表演牢牢地抓住了观众。)

  14.Survive v. 幸存;比活得长

  survival n. 幸存

  survivor n. 幸存者

  1)Eight people survived the fire.(八人在大火中幸免于死。)

  2)The old woman survived her husband by 10 years.(那位老妇人比她丈夫多活十年。)

  3)Survival was unlikely since the river water was so deep and cold.(河水既深又冷清活无望。)

  4)He was the only survivor of the massacre.(他是大屠杀的唯一幸存者。)

  15.Seal n. 海豹;印章  v. 封口

  1)Many Canadian seals wore killed to reduce the numbers to help the species to survive.


  2)The document bore an official seal.(这件上盖有官方大印。)

  3)She sealed the envelope and put it in the postbox.(她封上信封后把信放入邮筒。)

  16.By-product n. 副产品


  17.Conservation n. 保存;保护

  conserve v. save, preserve(保存,保护)

  1)People are paying more and more attention to the conservation of wildlife.(人们越来越重视野生动物的保护。)

  2)Conservation of water is of great importance.(节约用水非常重要。)

  3)He leaned against the tree quietly to conserve strength.(他静静地靠在树上以节省体力。)

  4) It is known to all that we should conserve natural resources.(众所周知,我们应该保护自然资源。)

  18.Reserve v. 保留;预计  n. 保留;储备物

  1)These seats are reserved for special quests.(这些座位是保留给特别的客人的。)

  2)We will reserve the plane ticket for you until tomorrow afternoon.(机票给你保留到明天下午。)

  3)I reserve the right to respond later.(我保留稍后作出回应的权利。)

  4)He reserved two tickets for tomorrows show.(他定了两张明天的演出票。)

  5)A bright future is reserved for you.(光明的前程正等待着你。)

  6)During the war, she always kept a reserve of tinned food in the house.(战争期间,她总是在家里储备听装食品。)

  7)Many animals use their fat reserves in their body to pull through the winter.(许多动物用体内储备的指肪熬过冬天。)

  8)The bank's cash reserves couldn’t meet the demand.(这家银行的现金储备满足不了需要。)

  19.Breed v. 繁殖;饲养;养育  n. 品种,种类

  1)Some animals will not breed when caged.(有些动物关在笼内就不产仔。)

  2)He was bred to be a gentleman.(他被作为绅士养育成人。)

  3)They are of the same breed.(他们是同一类人。)

  4)They raise many breeds of dog.(他们养着许多不同种的狗。)

  20.Provided conj. if (假如,若是)

  1)We will be there before 10, provided we don't waste time.(如果我们不浪费时间,我们就能在10点之前到那儿。)

  2)We will go provided that the weather is fine.(假如天晴,我们就去。)

  3)Provided that no objection is raised, we will set back the program.(如果没人反对,我们就把这个项目推迟。)

  请注意:provided不是过去分词,而是连词,作“假如,只要”解,在口语中常用providing. Provided that与if的不同在于:provided that所表示的“如果”,含有希望该条件实现的含义。

  21.Determination n. 决心,决定;结论

  determine v. 决定,决定

  1)He is a man of determination.(他是一个有决断力的人。)

  2)This strengthened his determination not to give in.(这更坚定了他不屈服的决心。)

  3)The doctor's determination was made after the blood test.(医生的结论是在验血之后作出的。)

  4)We haven't determined a date for the meeting.(我们还没有确定会议的日期。)

  5)He determined to study harder.(他决心更努力地学习。)

  6)They are determined to carry out the plan.(他们决心实施这一计划。)

  22.Clash n. 冲突    v. 发生冲突

  1)Thousands of demonstrators clashed with the police.(数千名示威者与警察发生了冲突。)

  2)They wanted to visit both places, but the dates clashed.(他们两个地方都想去,但日程有冲突。)

  3)They got into a verbal clash because of a misunderstanding.(由于误解他们产生了口角。)

  4)An armed clash is unavoidable.(武装冲突不可避免。)


  Crash指因坠下或猛冲而砰地碰撞,如plane crash(坠机);crush指压碎,压坏,如crush a plot(粉碎阴谋);crush grapes(榨葡萄)


  当一个物种的死亡率高于出生率时,久而久之这个物种就会灭绝。自生命产生起的数百万年间,已有多个物种 灭绝。无法适应环境变化的生物,难以与适应性更好、更强壮的生物相抗衡的生物,其最后的命运都将是消亡。在过去的几十年中,人为地猎杀动物或是改变其生息 的自然环境已使得其些物种灭绝。如此事便不胜枚举。亚马逊地区自然环境的改变、植被的毁坏将使多个物种灭绝。盲目无度地猎杀动物使得北美的水牛几近灭绝。



  1.An animal species becomes extinct when it fails to produce enough young in each generation to keep pace with the death——rate.

  本句中become是连系动物, extinct是形容词,extinct 通常指动、植物的种灭绝,不再存在。句子中的it代指 (the) animal species.

  fail to do sth. 意思是“没能做到…”如:

  1) He failed to realize his dream of flying round the world.(他没能实现飞行世界的梦想。)

  2) I failed to persuade him to give up smoking.(我没能劝说他把烟戒掉。)

  3) Don't fail to live up to what your parents expect of you.(别辜负父母对你的期望。)

  4) Don't fail to wake me up.(不要忘记叫醒我。)

  Keep pace with 是一个常用词组,意思是“跟上”,如:

  1)He was too old to keep pace with the modern ideas of life.(他年纪大了,跟不上现代生活观念。)

  2)Earnings have not kept pace with inflation.(收入还没有与通货膨胀的速度保持同步。)

  2.We can tell from fossil evidence in rocks that many living species become extinct over the million of years since life began.


  1)Can you tell her from her twin sister?(你能分得出她和她的孪生姐妹吗?)

  2)Can you tell which is right?(你能断定哪一人是对的吗?)


  1)He had had a bad cold over Christmas.(他在圣诞节期间得了重伤风。)

  2)They read a lot of books over the vacation.(假期里他们看了不少书。)

  3.…… extinction is the fate of any animal that has specialized too far to change when its environment changes, or has to compete with a better-adapted and more powerful animal.


  specialize 通常指“专门研究,专门从事”,如:

  1) He specializes in medicine. (他专攻医科。)

  2) This shop specializes in cooking utensils.(这家商店专门经销饮具。)


  Animals and plants are specialized to fit their surroundings. (动植物是按照特殊方式演化以适应各自的环境的。)


  1) I was too disappointed to try again.(我太失望,不想再尝试。)

  2) He is too young to take care of himself.(他太年幼,照顾不了自己。)

  compete with 意思是“与…竞争”,也可用compete against.

  1)He didn't want to compete with others for this position.(他不想与别人竞争这个职位。)

  2)Sometimes animals have to compete against each other for the chance to survive.(有时,动物为了生存不能相互竞争。)

  better adapted意思是“适应得更好的”。better是副词well 的比较级形式,adapted 是过去分词做形容词用。这类表达形式在英语中十分常见,如:well-known,poorly-dressed,better-prepared等等。

  4.A number of examples can be given of the way in which natural environment are being rapidly changed……

  a number of 意思是“许多”,如:

  1)A number of proposals had been put forward at the meeting. (会上提出了许多建议。)

  2)A number of students have passed the exam.(已有许多学生通过了考试。)


  1) They were not told of this new policy. (关于此项政策,他们没有被告知。)

  2) They wanted to know every detail of what had happened.(对于已发生的事,他们想知道每一个细节。)

  5.There is every likelihood that many species of animals will be made extinct because of these and similar clearances of natural vegetation.

  Likelihood是一个名词,意思是“可能”,相当于 possibility,that在本句中引导同位语从句,对 likelihood作进一步的补充说明。如:There is no doubt that he is a reliable person.(毫无疑问,他是一个可信赖的人。)

  Clearance 在本句中的意思是“(植被)砍伐殆尽;清除。”

  Clearances of vegetation will lead to the loss of water and soil.(砍伐植被会引起水土流失。)

  6.The North American buffalo is a case of the near-extinction of a species through hunting.

  a case of 在本句中的意思是“一个例子,”相当于“an example of ” 如:

  1) This is a case of students cheating on exams. (这就是学生作弊的一个例子。)

  2) It is a typical case of misunderstanding.(这就是误解的典解例子。)

  在第九单元中我们已经学过case这个词,请注意掌握与case 有关的几个短语:

  in any case (无论如何,总之)

  in case (假如;以免)

  in the case of (就…来说,至于…)

  in this case (既然是这样)

  through在句中的意思是“由于,因为”, 相当于because.

  1) The mistakes were made through carelessness.(这些错误是由于粗心大意造成的。)

  2) Many people are hard of hearing through old age.(许多人因年老而听觉不灵。)

  7.But even when the danger is widely publicized, the financial rewards for the hunters may be so great that they choose to ignore the threat to the species.


  financial rewards 意思是“赏金”。reward 在本句中作名词,有时也可作动词用,如:

  1) He offered a reward of 1000 yuan for the finder of his pet dog.(他给拾得他的宠物狗的人酬谢1000元。)

  2) His efforts were rewarded by success.(他的努力获得了成功。)


  1)He chose to stay there for another week. (他决意在那儿再住一周。)

  2)I chose to say nothing about it.(我决意对那件事闭口不谈。)


  The clearance of vegetation will be a great threat to the wildlife.(把植被砍伐殆尽对野生动物将是极大的威胁。)

  8.And animals are sometimes killed out of a wish to reduce numbers to help the species to survive.

  out of 在本句中以及前一个几句子中的意思是“出于”,如:

  1)He was silent out of embarrassment.(他由于窘迫而沉默。)

  2)She opened the mail out of curiosity. (她出于好奇打开了邮件。)

  句子中前一个动词不定式to reduce number…在句子中作定语,修饰名词wish.如:

  1) They failed in their attempt to land on the island.(他们在岛上登陆的企图失败了。)

  2) I have no confidence in my ability to fulfil the task.(我对自己完成这项任务的能力没有信心。)

  句子中的第二个动词不定式to help the species to survive做目的状语,相当于so as to或in order to help the species…。如:

  1)He worked harder (so as) to catch up with the others.(他更努力地学习以赶上别人。)

  2)To achieve the aim, we must learn from others. (为了实现这个目标,我们必须向他人学习。)

  9.The killing of the Canadian seals is claimed to be for this purpose, and the use of their skins for furs is only a by-product.

  be claimed to 在本句中的意思是“据说”。如:

  He is claimed to have inherited a lot of money.(据说他继承了一大笔钱。)

  for this purpose 意思是“为这个目的”。如:

  1)They decided to have a talk for military purpose. (为了军事目的,他们决定进行一次会谈。)

  2)For this purpose, I gave him all the necessary materials. (为了这个目的,我把所需的材料都给了他。)

  请注意掌握与 purpose有关的一些短语:

  on purpose (为了;故意地)

  to the purpose (中肯的;合适的)

  10.There is always the chance that enough off-spring will be born to return them one day to their natural environment-provided it still exists, and that hunters don't kill them again!



  1)I will give you the money provided you tell me the truth. (如果你说实话,我会给你钱。)

  2)He will come to the party provided he has time.(如果有时间他会来参加聚会。)


  11.But the parks are large, the wardens few and the determination of hunters very great.

  本句中,形容词few和great的前面省去了be 动词(few 前省去了are ,great 前省去了is),作者是要告诉读者,公园太大,管理人太少,猎人们的决心太过坚定,因而野生动物的保护问题仍然难得解决。

  12.The hunters were armed with modern weapons and several people were killed.

  arm在本句中用作动词,意思是“武装,装备”,be armed with意思是“以…装备起来的”。

  1) They believed they would win as they were armed with modern weapons.(他们坚信自己会赢,因为他们有现代化的武器装备。)

  2) Armed with secretarial skills she will find a job easily.(具备了秘书的技能,她会很容易地找到一份工作。)

  13.… and tourism can add to the income of countries.

  add to的意思是“增加”,如:

  1)The newly built squares add to the beauty of this city.(新建的广场增加了这座城市的美观。)

  2)Your company adds to the enjoyment of our visit.(有你的陪同,我们这次访问更加愉快了。)

  3)I hope my arrival would not add to your difficulties. (希望我的到来不能增添你们的困难。)


  1.keep pace with

  2.compete with

  3.because of

  4.at such a rate

  5.at surprising speed

  6.a case of

  7.choose to

  8.lead to

  9.such as

  10.out of existence

  11.out of fear

  12.be claimed to

  13.for this purpose

  14.be concerned about

  15.under threat of

  16.be armed with

  17.add to

  18.look after

  19.in a different form

  Text B    The Killer Smogs


  1.be filled with

  Her eyes were filled with tears when she told us the story.

  The room is filled with boxes of all sizes.

  2.wash away

  The rich soil was washed away as there were no trees and grass to hold it.

  It took her quite a while to wash away the stains on her coat.

  3.be caused by

  Lung cancer might be caused by excessive smoking.

  The accident was caused by the driver's carelessness.

  4.be known for

  He is known for his wide scope of knowledge.

  Scotland is known for its beautiful countryside.

  5.combine with

  It is necessary to combine theory with practice.

  See what will happen if you combine hydrogen with oxygen.

  6.prevent from

  Bad weather prevented them from going camping.

  The terrible noise prevented me from getting a good sleep.

  7.pile up

  Pile up the books on the table, please.

  Don't wait until problems pile up.

  8.due to

  The train was late due to heavy fog.

  Our achievements are due to their help.

  9.add to

  His explanation added to her annoyance.

  More happiness will be added to people's life if you are generous enough to give praise.



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