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09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit15)

2009-06-12 16:31  自考365论坛 【 】【我要纠错

  Text A  How TV Violence Affects Kids

  本课主要单词

  1.violence  n. 暴力;强烈

  violent  adj. 暴力的;强烈的

  1)Preschool children suffer most from TV violence. (学龄前儿童受暴力电视节目的危害最深。)

  2)People in that country hated the king to the marrow as he ruled the country with violence.(那个国家的人民对国王恨之入骨,因为他用暴力进行统治。)

  3)He flung open the door with violence. (他用劲地猛然把门打开。)

  4)The violent blow sent him down on his knees. (那猛烈的一击使他跪倒在地。)

  5)The doctor told him not to do any violent exercise. ( 医生嘱咐他不要进行剧烈运动。)

  2.exposure  n. 暴露;揭露;曝光

  expose   v. 暴露;使曝光;使遭受;使处于…影响之下;展出

  1)Too much exposure to sunlight will burn your skin.(过度晒太阳会晒伤皮肤。)

  2)The exposure of corruption by the media caught the attention of the public.(传媒对腐败的揭露引起了公众的注意。)

  3)She concealed the secret from her parents, fearing the exposure would stun them.(她对父母隐瞒了这个秘密,担心秘密暴露会令父母震惊。)

  4)How many exposures have you made? (你拍了几张照片?)

  5)His shirt was open, exposing the tattoo on his chest. (他的衬衣敞开了,露出了刺在胸部的文身。)

  6)His fatness exposed him to a lot of joking at the office. (他长得肥胖,因此在办公室常受取笑。)

  7)He was exposed to music when he was a child. (他自幼受音乐薰陶。)

  8)Parents should expose their children to good books. (父母应让孩子们读好书。)

  9)He is going to expose all his collections at the auction. (他打算拍卖时把收藏品全部陈列出来。)

  3.allocate  v. 分配;把…拨给;把…划归

  allocation  n. 分配;划拨的款项

  1)Some doctors and teachers will be allocated to the villagers to help the people there.(一些医生和教师将被派往那些村子帮助那儿的人们。)

  2)They were dissatisfied with the way resources were allocated.(他们对资源分配的方式不满意。)

  3)One third of the money has been allocated to the public services.(三分之一的经费已拨给了公用事业。)

  4)They said the allocation of seats was unfair.(他们说席位的分配不公平。)

  5)He has a $5000 allocation to cover the expenses.(他有一笔5000美元的拨款以应付各项支出。)

  4. significantly   adv. considerably (相当数量地);meaningfully (有意义地)

  significant    adj. important,meaningful (意义重大的)

  marked,considerable (不必忽略的;相当数量的)

  significance   n. consequence (意义;影响)    implication(含义)

  1)Their opinions don't differ significantly from each other. (他们俩的看法没有明显差别。)

  2)He said to us significantly that education of the youth would be vital to the future of a country. (他意味深长地对我们说年轻人的教育对于一个国家的未来至关重要。)

  3)July 4 is a significant date for Americans. (对美国人来说七月四日是一个意义重大的日子。)

  4)There has been a significant increase in juvenule crime in recent years.(近年来,青少年犯罪活动有了相当大的增加。)

  5)This is an event of great significance. (这是一个非常重大的事件。)

  6)It is necessary to attach great significance to environmental protection.(重视环境保护是必要的。)

  5.per   prep.  每一,每

  1)He earns $3000 per month.(他每月挣3000美元。)

  2)We drove at the speed of 70miles per hour.(我们以每小时70英里的速度行驶。)

  3)Take the medicine 3times per day.(这药每日服三次。)

  4)They spent more than 20million pounds per year.(他们每年花费两千万英镑。)

  6.given  prep. considering (考虑到)

  1)Given their inexperience, they have done a good job.(考虑到他们缺乏经验,这工作他们做得不错。)

  2)Given his age, the old man is in good condition. (考虑到老人的年龄,他的身体状况很不错了。)

  3)Given my interest in oil painting, this is the best place to study.(考虑到我对油画的兴趣,这是学习的最好地方。)

  4)It seems unreasonable to send him away, given that he is doing quite well.(考虑到他的工作干得很不错,把他解雇是不合理的。)

  7.adopt   v. take up (采取); accept (收养); officially pass (正式通过)

  1)I don't know if I should adopt a positive attitude towards the whole happening.(我不知道我是否应该对整个事件采取积极态度。)

  2)Their country adopted press censorship. (他们国家采取了新闻检查制度。)

  3)They adopted an orphan as they had no child of their own.(他们自己没孩子,所以收养了一个孤儿。)

  4)The boy was happy as anything when his parents decided to adopt a puppy.(当爸爸妈妈决定收养一条小狗时,那个男孩高兴极了。)

  5)Congress adopted the new measures. (国会通过了新措施。)

  6)The National Congress adopted the government report.(全国人大通过了政府工作报告。)

  请注意区别adopt和adapt

  adapt  vi. adjust (调节;改变…以适应)

  vt. revise(校准;调整;改编)

  1)He had to adapt himself to the new condition.(他不得不使自己适应新的情况。)

  2)Mr. Wang could not adapt himself to the new climate. (王先生不能适应新的气候。)

  3)He is adapting the novel for television.(他正把那部小说改编为电视剧。)

  8.distinguish   v. separate (区别,辨别);  identify (认出)

  1)You have to distinguish facts from rumours if you want to form a correct opinion.(如果想有一个正确的观点,你得分辨事实和传闻。)

  2)He was distinguished from other boys by his height.(他的身高显出他与其它男孩的不同。)

  3)Some children were unable to distinguish between the letters b and  p. (有些孩子不能分辨字母b和p.)

  9.fantasy   n. 想像;幻想

  1)He is always having fantasies about becoming rich.(他总是抱着发财的幻想。)

  2)To a small child, fantasy and reality are very close to each other .(对幼儿来说,幻想和现实靠得很近。)

  请注意区别fancy,fantasy,imagination

  fancy和fantasy多指无事实依据的凭空想像。Fancy的内容多是虚构的,幻想的;fantasy的内容更是荒诞古怪的。

  Imagination的想像多依据所见所闻或现实内容一般是合理的。

  1)She went wherever the fancy took her. (她随兴致所至想去哪里就去哪里。)

  2)These fantasies are sometimes very dangerous to school children. (对学龄儿童来说这些古怪念头是很危险的。)

  3)Poets, artists and inventors need imagination. (诗人,艺术家和发明家都需要想像力。)

  10.underlying   adj. 在下面的;根本的;潜在的

  1)There are underlying similarities between all human beings. (人与人之间有着潜在的相似之处。)

  2)The underlying theme of the novel is very serious. (这本小说的潜在主题是极其严肃的。)

  3)Can you understand the underlying meaning of what he said? (你能理解他所说的话的含义吗?)

  4)The underlying structure of this building is no doubt very firm. (这座楼的底层结构无疑是牢固的。)

  11.motive n. reason, purpose (动机,目的)

  1)Greed was his only motive for receiving bribery. (贪婪是他受贿的唯一原因。)

  2)His motive in coming was a wish to achieve mutual understanding. (他来的动机是想达成相互理解。)

  3)The little boy opened his sister's mail through motives of curiosity. (那个小男孩出于好奇打开了姐姐的邮件。)

  4)You should question his motive before you approve his conduct. (在你赞同他的所作所为之前应该先质询他的动机。)

  12.subtlety n. delicacy;sensitivity 微妙之处,细微之处;敏锐

  subtle adj. 隐约的;微妙的

  1)Nobody noticed the subtlety of his remarks. (没有人听出他话中的微妙含义。)

  2)They can sense each other's intentions with great subtlety. (他们能敏锐地感觉到彼此的意图。)

  3)It is difficult for people from other cultures to master the subtleties of the American joke. (对于来自其他文化的人来说掌握美国笑话的微妙之处是困难的。)

  4)His whole attitude has undergone a subtle change. (他的整个态度已经有了微妙的变化。)

  5)He dwelt on the subtle distinction between the two words.(他详述两个词词义的细微差别。)

  13.moral adj. 有道德的      n. 道德;寓意

  1)He complained that he had witnessed a fall in moral standards.(他抱怨说他目睹了道德标准的衰落。)

  2)Parents are responsible for the children's moral welfare.(父母应对孩子道德上的健康成长负责。)

  3)The moral of the story was “A friend in need is a friend indeed ”。(这个故事的教益是“患难之交见真情。”)

  4)I don't know what moral to draw from all this. (我不知道从所有这一切中应得出何种教训。)

  5)He has no morals and will do anything for money. (他毫无道德,为了钱什么都干得出来。)

  14.recovery n. 康复;收回

  recover v. 恢复;收复;挽回

  1)He is recovered from his illness. (他已恢复了健康。)

  2)She recovered her strength after two days'rest. (经过两天的休息,她恢复了力气。)

  3)The police recovered the stolen watch. (警察追回了失窃的手表。)

  4)He said he had to work hard to recover the lost time. (他说他得努力工作,把失去的时间补回来。)

  5)Mr. Wang insisted that the economic recovery was still slow. (王先生坚持认为经济复苏还太缓慢。)

  6)She made a remarkable recovery from the illness. (她令人惊异地从那场疾病中康复了。)

  7)The recovery of the lost wallet thrilled the whole family. (失落钱包的复得使全家人兴奋不已。)

  15.unrealistic adj. impractical (不切实际的)

  1)It is unrealistic to expect better conditions in the near future.(在不远的将来指望有更好的形势是不现实的。)

  2)This demand proved unrealistic and unworkable. (这个要求证明是不切实际且不可行的。)

  3)You have unrealistic expectations. (你的期望不切实际。)

  16.imitate v. 模仿

  imitation n. 模仿

  imitative adj. 模仿的;仿制的

  1)Many writers imitate the language of Shakespeare. (许多作家模仿莎士比亚的语言。)

  2)His handwriting is difficult to imitate. (他的笔迹很难模仿。)

  3)Children learn many things by imitation. (儿童通过模仿学会许多东西。)

  4)Acting is an imitative art. (表演是一种模仿性艺术。)

  5)Monkeys are imitative (猴儿爱模仿。)

  17.undermine vt. weaken (侵蚀…基础;暗中破坏;逐渐损害)

  1)Many severe colds undermined the old man's health.(多次严重的感冒损害了老人的健康。)

  2)Failures undermined her confidence. (一再的失败使她渐渐丧失了信心。)

  3)The foundations of the house have been undermined by groundwater.(地下水侵蚀了这座房屋的地基。)

  18.jeopardize vt. threaten endanger (使处于危险境地;危及,损害)

  1)He jeopardized his life to save the drowning child. (他冒着生命危害救护那个溺水儿童。)

  2)He jeopardized his fortune by making bad investments.(他由于投资不当而危及自己的财产。)

  3)I didn't want to jeopardize my relationship with my new friend. (我不想损害我和新朋友的关系。)

  19.interpret vt. 解释;口译

  interpretation n. 解释;口译

  interpreter n. 口译者

  1)Literature helps to interpret life. (文学有助于阐明人生的意义。)

  2)His silence was interpreted as consent. (他的沉默被认为是同意。)

  3)People often give different interpretations of the past. (人们往往对过去作出不同的解释。)

  4)He is talking to the foreign guest through an interpreter. (他正通过译员与外国客人交谈。)

  20.monitor n. 监视器;监控器;监听员;班长       v. 监听;监视;监控

  1)The patient was connected to the monitor. (一台监控器连接到病人身上。)

  2)He is the monitor of our class. (他是我们班班长。)

  3)The police monitored all the phone calls of the suspect. (警察监听了疑犯的所有电话通话。)

  4)Water flow will be monitored by computer. (水流将由计算机来监测。)

  21.initiate vt. 开始;发起,倡议;接纳新成员

  1)We should initiate direct talks with the trade unions.(我们应该与贸易联合会开始直接对话。)

  2)They initiated a new program of reform. (他们开始实施一项新的改革方案。)

  3)The club will initiate new members next week. (俱乐部将在下周接纳新成员。)

  22.restrict vt. 限制;约束

  restricted adj. 受限制的;有限的

  restriction n. 限制,约束

  1)Women in China are no longer restricted to domestic labor now.(现在,中国妇女不再被束缚于家务劳动了。)

  2)He was restricted in his movements. (他的行动受约束。)

  3)This rule has a very restricted application (这条规则的适用范围极为有限。)

  4)The government placed restrictions on sales of weapons. (政府对武器销售实行限制。)

  23.depict vt. portray (描画,描述)

  1)The painter tried to depict the splendour of the sunset. (画家试图描绘出日落的壮丽景象。)

  2)She went on to depict the confusion of departure (她继续描述离开时的混乱情景。)

  24.imply v. 暗示,含有的意思

  implied adj. 含蓄的

  implication n. 含义

  1)I don't imply that you are wrong. (我的意思不是说你错了。)

  2)His silence implied consent. (他的缄默表示同意。)

  3)I don't understand the implied meaning of this sentence. (我不理解这句话的含义。)

  4)The implication of his statement is that I was wrong. (他这话的含义是我错了。)

  25.alternative n. 供选择的东西       adj. 两者择一的;供选择的

  1)He was given the alternative of going on to college or starting to work.(他得在上大学继续求学和开始工作之间作出选择。)

  2)Is there any alternative to undergoing a surgical operation? (除外科手术外还有其它办法吗?)

  3)You have no alternative but to stay here overnight. (你只好留宿一夜,别无他法。)

  4)We should explore alternative possibilities in solving the problem.(我们应该探求各种供选择的可能性来解决这个问题。)

  5)The alternative plans of having a picnic on taking a boat trip put them in a dilemma.(去野餐或者去乘船旅游二者只能择一的计划使他们左右为难。)

  本课简介

  越来越多的事实证明,暴力电视节目对儿童的成长有不良影响,学龄前儿童受暴力电视节目的危害尤深,因为他们尚不完全具备辩别事实与 幻想的能力,对人类行为、道德冲突的内在动机也不理解。儿童常常把从电视中看到的行为用于现实生活之中。父母还应帮助儿童理解他们所看的电视节目,父母也 要了解幼儿的老师对与战争和暴力相关连的电视节目及儿童玩具的态度,并与那些有共识的其他儿童的父母一同努力,寻求各种方法取代观看暴力电视节目。

  本课语言点

  1. For more than a quarter of a century, evidence has been increasing that children's exposure to violence on television has long-lasting effects on their behavior.

  a quarter (of)“四分之一”,如:a quarter of a pound(四分之一磅);a quarter of a century(四分之一世纪);a quarter of a mile(四分之一英里);a quarter (of a dollar) (25美分);a quarter of a million(25万);a quarter (of an hour)(15分钟)。

  …that children's exposure to violence on television…

  that 引导的是一个同位语从句,这个同位语从句没有直接跟在名词evidence的后面,而是被has been increasing隔开了。同位语的作用是对它所说明的名词作进一步解释,说明这个名词指的是谁或什么。如:

  1)I had no idea that he told us a lie. (我不知道他对我们说了谎话。)

  2)You have to produce enough evidence that he is guilty.(你得拿出足够的证据说明他有罪。)

  3)There was little possibility that they would succeed. (他们成功的可能性极小。)

  4)There can be no doubt that TV violence affects children. (毫无疑问,暴力电视节目对儿童有不良影响。)

  exposure to “暴露于…”,如:

  1)The best part of the job was her constant exposure to books.(她这个工作的最大优点是能经常接触书籍。)

  have an effect on “对…有作用(影响)”,如:

  1)Constant rain had much effect on the harvest. (持续的降雨对收成有很大的影响。)

  2)The cement factory has much effect on the environment.(水泥厂对环境的影响很大。)

  3)His persuasion had little effect on her.(他的劝说对她没什么作用。)

  2.…the amount of television time allocated each week to violent programs increased significantly.

  …the number of violent acts on television…has increased…。

  上面两个句子中分别用了amount和number两个词。amount用来修饰从体积,重量,金额等方面着眼的东西,一般在of 后接用不可数名词;而number则用以修饰可数的人或物。在第一个句子中,amount of后面用的是不可数名词time,第二个句子中number of后面用的是可数名词acts.再请看例句:

  1)A large amount of money has been spent on this project.(一大笔钱已经花在了这个工程上。)

  2)The amount of work assigned to him was formidable.(分配给他做的工作量极大。)

  3)The number of students of the university has been increasing. (这所大学的学生人数在增加。)

  4)The number of tourists to that place is limited.(去那个地方旅游的人数有限。)

  请注意区别act和action这两个名词。①这两个名词都表示“行为”,“行动”的意思,常可互换使用。act强调行为的结果, 而不涉及行为的动机与性质,常是即兴,瞬间的举动;action偏重于动作的方式和过程。②act行为的发出者可以是人也可以是物;action只是物。 ③在须用不可数名词表示总的概念时,多用action,而一般不用act.如:

  1)The time has come for action/act.(采取行动的时间了。)

  2)The thoughtless young man did another foolish act.(那个鲁莽的年轻人又做了件傻事。)

  3)Every sudden emotion quickens the action of the heart.(每件突如其来的令人激动的事情都能加快心跳。)

  4)Actions speak louder than words.(事实胜于雄辩。)

  3.Given the amount of time that children watch television, it has become one of the most powerful models they want to follow.

  given在本句中用作介词,意思是considering, taking into account(考虑到),在词汇部分我们已作了比较详细的讲解,再请看两个例句:

  1)Given they are fresh from university, they've done a great job.(考虑到他们刚走出大学校园,他们干得不错。)

  2)Given that he has always been dreaming of visiting the great wall, it seems cruel not to take him to Beijing.(他一直梦想游长城,不带他去北京似乎太残酷了。)

  除了作“考虑到”解释外,given还有如下意思:

  1)规定的,特点的(形容词)

  The work must be done within the given time. (工作必须在规定时间内完成。)

  2)假设的;作为前提的(形容词)

  Given the chance, she could have done as well as you have.(如果给他这个机会,她会干得跟你一样好。)

  4.Children naturally often want the toys shown on and advertised during these programs.

  Shown on and advertised during these programs 在本句中的作用是分词短语作定语,相当于被动语态的定语从句,修饰toys.

  1)Last night, we saw a documentary dubbed in English.(昨晚,我们看了一部用英文译制的记录片。)

  2)The play put on by the first-year students was very good.(一年级学生演出的剧目很好。)

  3)The letters written in pencil are from my brother.(那些用铅笔写的信是我弟弟带来的。)

  These programs 是 shown on 和advertised during 这两个词组中的介词的共用宾语。如:

  He doesn't care about and has no interest in other people’s opinion.(对别人的观点他不在乎也没兴趣。)

  5.With these toys, their play tends to be more imitative than imaginative.

  With 在本句中表示原因,意思是“由于,因”,如:

  1)He is in bed with flu.(他因患流感卧病在床。)

  2)Her eyes were dim with tears.(她的双眼因泪水而模糊。)

  3)The boy's face was white with nervousness.(那个男孩的脸因紧张而发白。)

  tend 的后面接不定式,意思是“易于,往往会”,如:

  1)Plants tend to die in hot weather if you don't water them.(植物在炎热天气如不浇水容易枯死。)

  2)He tends to get impatient if you ask him more than two questions.(如果你问他两个以上的问题,他往往会不耐烦。)

  6.The narrow range of most violence-related toys advertised on television jeopardizes the role of play in helping children make better sense of their own feelings and interpret their world.

  在第三单元中,我们已经学过range这个词,意思是“山脉”,“(在某范围内)变动,变化”。而在本句中,range的意思是“范围”,如:

  1)His reading is of very wide range.(他的阅读面很广。)

  2)Over the long range, the most important step will be a general tax reform.(从长远看,最重要的步骤是全面实行税制改革。)

  Make sense of 意思是“了解;弄明白”。如:

  1)I can not make any sense of what he says.(他的话我弄不懂。)

  2)His lecture helped me make better sense of the poem.(他的讲解帮助我更好地理解这首诗。)

  3)I could make no sense of his carelessly written letter.(我看不懂他马马虎虎写的那封信。)

  7.Many preschool teachers do not like to have commercially made toy weapons brought into the classroom and welcome hearing your concerns about this matter.

  have…toy weapons brought into the classroom(把玩具武器带进教室。)have sth. done 是极为常见的用法,如:

  1)I need to have my bike repaired.(我需要把自行车修一下。)

  2)He had his files destroyed before he left.(在离开前,他把文件都毁了。)

  3)She wanted to have the rooms repainted before moving in.(她想在搬入前把房间重新粉刷一遍。)

  welcome 在本举句中作动词用,这个词也可以作名词和形容词用。请看下面的例句,注意welcome在各例句中的词类。

  1)He ran to the door to welcome his friends. (他向门口跑去,欢迎他的朋友。)

  2)Welcome to Beijing.(欢迎到北京来。)

  3)Her marriage was not welcomed by the family.(她的婚姻不被家人接受。)

  4)They gave her a warm welcome.(他们给她以热烈欢迎。)

  5)He received a hero's welcome at the airport.(他在机场受到英雄般的欢迎。)

  6)You are welcome to use my bike.(我的自行车你尽管用。)

  7)He is a welcome guest.(他是个受欢迎的客人。)

  concern about sth. 意思是“对…的关心”,在第九单元中,我们学过be concerned about. 如:

  1)We are all concerned about his education.(我们都关心他的教育。)

  2)His parents are very much concerned about his health.(他的父母非常关心他的健康。)

  3)My concern about the matter is known to all.(人人知道我对这件事的关心。)

  本课主要词组

  1. a quarter of        2. expose to

  3. have an effect on     4. allocate…to

  5. point out         6. distinguish from

  7. tend to          8. make sense of

  9. apply…to         10. be crazy about

  11. put together       12. ask sb. about sth.

  13. have sth. done      14. concern about

  15. an alternative to sth.  16. look for

  Text B   Why don't girls think like boys?

  短语表达

  1. do well

  Many people believe that boys do well in science.

  Mr. Smith didn't expect that he could do so well in industrial engineering.

  2. in one's opinion

  In my opinion, what he said could be true.

  Parents should be friendly with their children in his opinion.

  3. be good at

  He is good at English, but he is better at computer.

  She is good at imitating other people's way of talking.

  4. according to

  According to some doctors, only 1 out of 20 patients who had lung cancer could survive.

  According to the text, aggression in boys is caused by mothers.

  5. on the average

  On the average, girls score higher on tests that measure vocabulary, spelling, and memory.

  We made 65 miles an hour on the average.

  6. be determined by

  People's abilities are not determined by sex.

  The rise and fall of the prices is determined by supply and demand.

  7. be headed by

  One of the scientific research teams was headed by Mr. Watson.

  This company is headed by John's twin brother.

  8. be ready to

  He is always ready to help people in need.

  She is not ready to take on that kind of responsibility.

  9. take notes

  He is amazed to see that students take notes on what he says in class.

  He decided to take notes of the development of the political events.

  10. lean against/on

  She felt weak, so leaned against the wall.

  He leaned the bike against a tree.

  11. insist upon/on

  He insisted on paying the meal.

  Most companies insist upon having an interview before they accept an employee.

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本文转载链接:09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit15)

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