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2009-06-12 16:41  自考365论坛 【 】【我要纠错

  Text A    Why Are Maps Drawn with North at the Top?


  1.feature n. 特征,特色;面貌,相貌  vi. 是…的特色,以…为特色    vi. 重要作用;作为主要角色

  1)The most important feature of our work is parental involvement.(我们工作的最重要特色是父母参与。)

  2)The island's chief feature is its beauty.(这个岛的主要特色是风景秀丽。)

  3)He is very familiar with the geographical features of this district. (他对这一地区的地理特征很熟悉。)

  4)The boy was slightly taller than his father, with fine features.(那个男孩比他父亲稍高,长得眉清目秀。)

  5)Round-the-clock service features this store.(日夜服务是这家商店的特色。)

  6)The new type of car features high speed, small size and low cost.(这种新型汽车以高速、小型和低费用为特色。)

  7)Sea food features largely in the diet of these people.(海产在这些人的食物中占重要地位。)

  8)He is featuring in a new movie.(他正在一部新片中担任主角。)

  2.rough adj. 粗糙的;粗暴的;大致的

  roughly adv. 粗糙地;大体上,大约

  1)They journeyed for days over rough roads. (他们在崎岖的道路上旅行了数日。)

  2)His rough manners annoyed everybody.(他粗鲁无礼的态度恼了每一个人。)

  3)They lived a rough life in the mountain village.(他们在山村里过着简陋的生活。)

  4)They had a rough crossing of the English Channel.(他们在狂风大浪中越过英吉利海峡。)

  5)We should help them out of the rough situation.(我们应该帮助他们走出困境。)

  6)The young man closed the door roughly.(那个年轻人粗暴地把门关上了。)

  7)Roughly speaking, this year's profit increased by 15 percent.(粗略地说,今年的利润增加了15%.)

  3.sketch n. 草图;梗概;素描      v. 绘(…的)略图;简述

  1)He drew a rough sketch showing the position of the entrance.(他粗略地画了张草图,说明入口处的位置。)

  2)They only gave us a sketch of the whole event.(他们只向我们简略地介绍了整个事件。)

  3)The first part is a brief sketch of the school's early history.(第一部分是该校早期历史的概述。)

  4)He sketched a boy's head on the sketchpad.(他在速写簿上画出了男孩头像素描。)

  5)Mr. Smith sketched excuses to his guest and left the room hurriedly.(史密斯先生向客人草草致歉然后匆忙离开房间。)

  4.Localize v. 使局部化;使具地方性;集中

  1)It is unlikely to localize this disease.(把这种疾病控制在局部地区是不可能的。)

  2)They failed to localize the effect of the disturbance.(他们没能使动乱的影响局部化。)

  3)Anger localized on the new policy.(民愤集中在这项新政策上。)


  5.footing n. 立足处;稳固的地位,基础

  1)It is difficult to get a footing on the steep roof.(要在那很陡的屋顶上找到立脚处很困难。)

  2)He lost his footing and fell into the ditch.(他一失足摔进了沟里。)

  3)The water was so deep that she couldn't gain her footing.(河水太深,她立不住足。)

  4)They are on a friendly footing with their neighbors.(他们同邻居们和睦相处。)

  5)In today's China, women and men are on equal footing.(在今天的中国,男女平等。)

  6.Forefront n. 最前线,最主要的位置

  1)The company was brought to the forefront of public attention.(那家公司成为公众注意的重点。)

  2)He brought the country to the forefront of world politics.(他把那个国家推向了世界政治的最前沿。)


  7.Attempt v. 企图、试图       n. 企图、试图

  1)I didn't attempt the last question in the exam.(我没有试图去做试卷的最后一题。)

  2)He attempted to keep his parents in the dark about what had happened.(他试图使父母对所发生的事一无所知。)

  3)George had succeeded on his fourth attempt.(乔治要游过湖有困难,但他在第四次尝试时终获成功。)

  4)He made no attempt to solve the problem.(他没有试图解决问题。)

  8.Flatten v. 把……弄平;变平

  1)He flattened the paper cups.(他把纸杯压平了。)

  2)The hurricane flattened the forest.(飓风夷平了森林。)

  3)Her questions completely flattened me.(他的问题把我完全击垮了。)

  请注意flatten是由形容词flat加动词后缀-en构成的。-en是英语中十分常用的动词后缀,可以用在形容词后面也可以用 在名词后面。如:broaden(加宽),weaken(削弱),sharpen(使锋利),frighten(使……害怕),lengthen(加 长),heighten(加高)等等。

  9.reference n. 提及;参考;证明书(或人),推荐信(或人)

  1)There is on further reference to him in her diary.(她在日记中没有进一步提到他。)

  2)Keep this dictionary on your desk for easy reference.(把这本词典放在你书桌上,以备随时查阅。)

  3)My professor gave me a good reference.(我的教授给我写了一封德才兼优的推荐信。)


  10.calculate v. 计算;估计;认为;想要

  calculation n. 计算;估计

  1)I calculated that we would arrive at 6.(我估计我们六点钟到。)

  2)The number of votes will be calculated in the late afternoon.(选票将在傍晚时计数。)

  3)You have to calculate the advantages and disadvantages before making a decision.(在作出决定前你得估量事情的利弊。)

  4)She calculates to go next month.(她想下个月去。)

  5)He made an error in his calculation.(他在计算中出了差错。)

  6)By his calculation, we will be there in an hour.(据他估计,我们一小时后到那儿。)

  11.unaware adj. 未认识到的,不知道的


  1)She seemed unaware of what was happening around her.(她似乎没有意识到周围正在发生的一切。)

  2)I was unaware that I had hurt him.(我没有意识到我伤害了他。)

  3)He was unaware of the serious consequence.(他没有认识到后果的严重性。)

  12.orientate=orient v. 使适应;给……定向

  orientation n. 定向;方位;熟悉;情况介绍

  1)You should produce things orientated to people's needs.(你应该生产适应人们需要的东西。)

  2)He oriented himself by finding a familiar landscape.(他找了一处熟悉的景色来确定自己所处的方位。)

  3)The discussion helped me orient myself to the new language.(讨论帮助我适应新的语言。)

  4)It took him a long time to orient himself.(他花了很长时间熟悉环境。)

  5)The winding trail caused them to lose their orientation.(弯弯曲曲的小径使他们迷失方向。)

  6)College freshmen receive two days of orientation.(大学新生用两天时间听取学校情况介绍。)

  oriented adj. 以……为目的的;重视……的

  export-oriented industries(外向型工业)

  an education-oriented family(一个重视教育的家庭)

  test-oriented teaching and learning(以应试为目的的教学)

  13.Immovable adj. 不可移动的;坚定不移的


  1)Father was immovable in his opinions.(父亲的意志坚定不移。)

  2)He didn't expect that he would face an immovable audience.(他没料到他将面对一群不动情的观众。)

  3)What are you going to do with this immovable pillar?(这根移动不了的柱子你打算怎么处理?)

  14.arrangement n. 安排;布置;整齐

  arrange v. 安排;布置

  1)Have you made all the arrangements for the conference?(你为会议做好所有安排了吗?)

  2)He wants to make sure that everything is in neat arrangement.(他想确保一切都整整齐齐。)

  3)She didn't want to after the arrangement of furniture in the room.(她不想改变房间里家俱的位置。)

  4)I will make arrangements for a car to meet you at the airport.(我将安排一辆汽车去机场接你。)

  5)The librarian is arranging the books on the shelf.(图书管理员正在整理架子上的图书。)

  6)Don't worry, I will arrange the dinner for you.(别急,我为你们安排晚餐。)

  7)They have arranged for us to visit the Confucius Temple tomorrow.(他们已安排我们明天游夫子庙。)

  8)I have arranged for the goods to be delivered to your door.(我已为你安排好送货上门。)

  15.Interfere v. 干涉;妨碍,干扰

  1)We have no rights to interfere in the internal affairs of other countries.(我们无权干涉他国内政。)

  2)Don't interfere in other people’s business.(不要干预他人的事情。)

  3)Misty weather interfered with the contact.(雾天妨碍了联络。)

  4)He has done nothing that directly interfered with the actions of the others.(他没做任何直接妨碍他人行动的事。)

  16.accordance n. 一致;符合

  1)Education is carried out in accordance with the government's policy.(教育在依据政府的政策实施。)

  2)In accordance with your request I am sending her the letter express.(根据你的要求,我准备给她发特快信。)

  3)I am in accordance with him in this matter.(在这件事上,我同他是一致的。)

  17.reliance n. 信赖;依靠

  rely v. 依赖;相信

  1)She placed complete reliance on her husband's judgment.(她完全相信她丈夫的判断。)

  2)Self-reliance is necessary if you want to achieve anything.(如果你想有所成就,自力更生是很必要的。)

  3)He is a man to be relied on.(他是一个可以信赖的人。)

  4)You can always rely on him, he won't fail you.(你可以永远信任他,他不会让你失望的。)

  5)We can rely on our children to do such work.(这样的工作我们可以放心地让孩子们去做。)

  18.rightful adj. 合法的;正义的;正当的


  1)He regained his rightful place on the English throne.(他恢复了应属于他的英国王位。)

  2)The rightful heir should obtain his rightful inheritance.(合法的继承人应获得其合法的继承权。)

  3)It is the right approach to the command of grammar.(这是掌握语法的正确途径。)

  4)I believe what he said is right.(我相信他说的是对的。)



  世界上古老的地图绘于公元前3800年。几个世纪以后,是古希腊人开始用相对科学的方式来绘制地图,其最杰出的先驱是托勒密。古巴 比伦人以扁平的圆盘状来展现地球,而托勒密则以球状来展现地球。鉴于当时人们的知识的状态,托勒密在绘制地图时也出了种种差错,但是他是标示地图的上方为 北方的第一人。



  1.Now it is hard to visualize a map that does not feature north at the top, but this was not always so.

  本句中it做形式主语(formal subject),to visualize a map……。是真正的主语(real subject)。用it 做形式主语, 主要是因为主语较长,谓语较短,于是不定式常放在谓语的后面。例如:

  1)It is necessary to tell him the news as soon as possible.(尽快把这消息告诉他是很必要的。)

  2)It took us 30 minutes to get there by bus.(坐公共汽车到那儿花了我们30分钟时间。)

  3)It made us very angry to see him talk to the old man in such an impolite manner.(看到他以如此不礼貌的方式与那位老人谈话,我们非常气愤。)

  4)How much did it cost you to send the parcel express?(速递这个包裹花了你多少钱?)







  1) It is not easy to master a foreign language.

  2) It is our honor to be present at this dinner party.

  3)It was a mistake for us not to help them.

  4)It is unwise of them to turn sown the suggestion.

  Visualize是一个动词,意思是 imagine (想像)。在词汇部分我们讲到过-ize是动词后缀。常用在形容词后面构成动词,如:localize(局部化,地方化), urbanize (城市化),nationalize (使国有化), finalize(最后定下来)visualize 这个动词,我们在第四单元中已经学过,请把下面两个句子译成英语,注意使用 visualize:




  1) I cannot visualize what is waiting for me.

  2) He has been visualizing the wedding ceremony to be held at the church for the whole day.

  ……this was not always so中的 so 是个代词,意思是“如此,这样”,如:

  1)——I think you made the wrong decision.

  ——Is that so? (是这样吗?)

  2)It is not necessary to find out why it is so.(去了解为什么如此是没有必要的。)

  3)I believe so.(我相信是这样。)

  2.The oldest known map in the accepted sense of the word was drawn about 3,800BC, and represents the river Euphrates flowing through northern Mesopotamia, Irag.


  1)This is the most dangerous substance known to man.(这是人类已知的最危险的物质。)

  2)It has become a well known holiday resort.(这儿已成为著名的度假胜地。)

  in the…sense of the word 意思是“就这个词的…意义上而言”,如:

  1)It is a miracle in the true sense of the word.(这是真正的奇迹。)

  2)That is an adventure in every sense of the word.(那才叫冒险。)


  1) He has a great sense of humor.(他很有幽默感。)

  2) There is some common sense in what he says.(他所说的话有些道理。)

  3)What's the sense of doing that since it is already late?(既然已经晚了,做那件事还有什么意义呢?)

  4)She came to her senses after a blood transfusion. (输血之后,他苏醒过来。)

  5)In a sense what he said is true.(在某种意义上说,他说的话是正确的。)

  6)Her explanation doesn't make any sense.(她的解释讲不通。)

  7)I cannot make sense of what has written.(她写的东西我弄不懂。)

  3.This and others that followed it, were little more than rough sketches of localized features; it was not until many centuries later that the ancient Greeks placed the science of map-making on a sound-footing.

  本句中的前一个it是代指上句中的the oldest known map. Little more than 的意思是 almost no more than(只不过是)。请注意下列句子中的little的意思:

  1) He is little better than a bookworm. (他简直跟书呆子差不多。)

  2) That is little short of open scorn.(那简直就是公然藐视。)

  It was not until…that…。是一个常见的强调句型,意思是“直到…才”。如:

  1) It was not until the cat emerged from behind the bushes that I noticed it.(直到猫从灌木后面出来,我才注意到它。)

  2) It was not until he called me that I realized there was a meeting in the afternoon.(直到他给我打电话我才想起下午有个会。)

  3)It was not until several weeks later that the stolen car was found.(几个星期以后那辆失窃的汽车才被找到。)






  1) It was not until the 1960S that man realized the dream of landing on the moon.

  2) It was not until yesterday that he was told the truth.

  3)It was not until mother came to the kinder-garter to collect him that the boy stopped crying.

  place sth. on a sound footing 意思是“把…置于坚实的基础上”。

  4.The last great scientist of the classical period, he was the first to draw a map that was based on all available knowledge, rather than guess or imagination.

  The last great scientist of the classical period, 在本句中做同位语,对主语he作进一步的补充说明。

  Be based on 意思是“以……为基础”。


  Rather than在本句中的意思相当于instead of “而不是”。

  1)I have used some simple words rather than the difficult ones.(我用了一些简单词汇而不是难词。)

  2)He bought two books rather than one.(他买了两本书而不是一本。)

  3)Rather than go back on his word, he kept his promise.(他没有食言,而是言而有信。)

  5.Given the state of knowledge of those times, he got things wrong, ……


  1)Given the poor working condition, you cannot expect the workers to be very efficient.(考虑到工作条件差,你不能指望工人们的效率很高。

  2)Given the bad weather, we have to change our plan.(基于天气不好,我们得改变计划。)


  1)The times are different, women are now equal to man.(时代不同了,现在男女平等了。)

  2)In modern times, the development of science and technology is accelerating.(近代科学技术在加速发展。)

  3)In the difficult times, many people died of hunger.(在那限难时世,许多人因饥饿而死。)

  6.…since Ptolemy had calculated wrongly the size of the Atlantic and was unaware that the pacific ocean existed.


  1)Since so many people are absent, we'd better put off the meeting.(既然如此多的人缺席,我们最好将此会延期。)

  2)I won't blame you since you know nothing about it.(既然你对此一无所知,我就不会怪你。)

  Unaware与aware一样是形容词,其用法也与aware相同,be unaware of…, be unaware that…。

  1)I was unaware of his presence.(我没注意到他在场。)

  2)He was unaware that he had been followed.(他不知道他被跟踪了。)

  7.The reason for this was that he decided to orientate the map in the direction of the pole star since Polaris was the immovable guiding light in which the voyagers of the era placed their trust.


  主语+连系动词+表语从句。表语从句也可用where, why, how引导。如:

  1) The reason for his absence was that he was ill.(他缺席的原因是他病了。)

  2) That was why I hated it.(这就是我不喜欢这个的原因。)

  3)That is how he cheated people.(他就是用这种方式骗人的。)

  Which所引导的是一个定语从句修饰guiding light限定性定语从句如果修饰“物”,关系代词that和which都可用,但在介词的后面只能用which,在口语中一般把介词放到从句后部去,这时则可以用that.如:

  1) This is the question about which we had a discussion last night.(这就是我们昨晚讨论的问题。)

  This is the question that we. Had a discussion about last night.

  2) This is the fact on which we base our opinion.(我们的观点就是建立在这个事实之上的。)

  This is the fact that we base our opinion on.

  Trust在句中做名词用,place (put) trust in sb/sth 信任某人(某事)。

  1)I don't have any trust in him.(我对他一点也不信任。)

  2)Have some trust in the future everything will be OK.(对未来有点信心吧,一切都会好起来。)

  3)The old lady placed great trust in her grandson.(那位老太太对她孙子非常信任。)

  8.North at the top remained the accepted arrangement until the early Middle Ages, when the church began to interfere seriously with the advance of science.

  本句中when引导一个由逗号把前面句子隔开的句子,其意思相当于at the time.如:

  1) The party has been put off until next week, when we can get better prepared.(晚会被推迟到下周,那时我们能准备得更好些。)

  2) We will wait have until 6, when the manager can spare us a few minutes.(我们在这儿等到6点,那时经理就能给我们几分钟了。)

  Interfere with意思是“妨碍”,如:

  1) Bad dietary habits often interfere with health.(不良的饮食习惯常常妨碍健康。)

  2) The interests of the two countries do not interfere with each other.(这两国相互间没有利害冲突。)

  9.Once again, north assumed its rightful place at the top of maps.

  在第十五单元的Text B中,我们已经学过assume这个词

  It has long been assumed that aggression is caused by male hormones.(长期以来,人们认定好斗是由男性荷尔蒙引起的。)



  1)I assume the misunderstanding will be cleared up.(我认定这误会会消除。)

  2)He assumed the report to be unreliable.(他猜那报告不可靠。)

  3)Farmers will have a good harvest , assuming that the weather is favorable.(假如风调雨顺,农民将会有好收成。)

  4)Who will assume the costs of running a school? (谁来负担开设一所学校的费用?)

  5)He assumed a leading position last May.(去年五月,他担任领导职务。)

  6)Hitler assumed power in 1933.(希特勒于1933年夺得政权。)

  7)He assumed full control of the company.(他完全控制了这家公司。)


  1.in the sense of        2.more than

  3.be based on          4.rather than

  5.attempt to do sth       6.in the form of

  7.in search of          8.at the top

  9.in the direction of      10.place trust in

  11.interfere with        12.in accordance with

  13.from…point of view      14.reliance on

  Text B    You Have a Choice


  1.side by side

  They are sitting side by side.

  We walked side by side along the river.

  2.be seated

  Please be seated, I will fix you a cup of coffee.

  The hostess was seated with the guests when I hurried in.

  3.ahead of

  The boy is running ahead of his classmates.

  I believe we can finish the work ahead of time.

  4.be certain of

  I cannot be certain of the time of their arrival.

  Can you be certain of the truth of his utterance?

  5.bring about

  The new policy is sure to bring about a lot of changes.

  What Father said has brought about a profound change in his personality.

  6.account for

  This excuse cannot account for your absence.

  Her explanation doesn't account for the failure.

  7.regardless of

  All of you will be given a chance regardless of your age and sex.

  Regardless of which method you choose, the result will be the same.

  8.make a difference

  Whether he comes or not will not make any difference.

  I hope my participation will make a difference.

  9.lead to

  Excessive smoking may lead to lung cancer.

  The misunderstanding led to a bad quarrel.

  10.pull out of

  The train pulled out of the station at 10:00.

  When do you think the car will pull out of the garage?

  11.for sure

  I don't know for sure who will be in charge of this department.

  He couldn't tell for sure what was in the distance.

  12.apply to

  It is hard to apply the rule to real work.

  It is necessary that the theory be applied to practice.

  13.deal with

  He is hard to deal with.

  I have no idea how to deal with this situation.



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