Text A How to be a successful language learner？
1.successful adj. 成功的He is a successful writer. （他是一个有成就的作家。）
He hopes he will be successful this time. （他希望他这次能够成功。）
success n. 成功Their film is a great success.（他们的影片很成功。）
We are sure of success. （我们一定能成功。）
succeed v. 成功I succeeded in getting the joB.（我成功地得到了这份工作。）
She succeeded in passing the exam. （她考试及格了。）
2.adult adj. & n. 成年的，成熟的；成年人These adult films are not suitable for children.（这些成人电影，儿童不宜观看。）
Don't worry too much about him， he is an adult now.（别为他过分担心，他是成年人了。）
3.disagree vi. 有分歧，不同意；不符，不一致agree vi. 同意I disagree with you about this.〔对于这件事，我跟你的意见不同。〕These figures disagree with last week's results.（这些数据与上周的结果不符。）
I agree with what you said.（我同意你所说的。）
She agreed to the plan.（她赞成这个计划。）
We haven't agreed on the date of the meeting.（我们还没商定会议的日期。）
agreement n. 同意；协议disagreement n. 不同意We haven't reached an agreement yet.（我们还没达成协议。）
There was no disagreement， and the proposal was accepted.（没有不同意见，这个建议被接受了。）
（请注意：前缀dis-通常可以加在动词，名词，形容词前面，构成反意词。例如：dissatisfy，disorder，disable. 后缀-ment加在动词的后面，构成名词。例如：arrangement，argument 等。）
4.statement n. 声明，陈述 （由动词state 加名词后缀-ment构成）
Very soon he made his first public statement about the affair. （他很快就此事件首次发表公开声明。）
Do you believe the witness's statement？ （你相信证人的陈述吗？）
（请注意动词与名词的搭配：issue a statement， make a statement）
5.guarantee n. & v. 保证，担保，保修He gave his guarantee that he would repay the money as soon as he could.（他保证他会尽快还钱。）
The washing machine is guaranteed for five years.（这台洗衣机保用5年。）
（请注意guarantee做动词的用法：guarantee sth.，guarantee that， guarantee against/from ）
6.intelligent adj. 聪明的，明智的He made an intelligent decision.（他做出了明智的决定。）
Human beings are much more intelligent than animals.（人类远比动物聪明。）
Intelligence n. 聪明，智力She prided herself on her intelligence.（她为自己的聪明感到自豪。）
Intelligently adv. 聪明地，明智地They dealt with the problem intelligently.（他们明智地处理了这个问题。）
7.conversely adv. 相反地Some are wealthy but unhappy；conversely，others are happy but not wealthy.
converse adj. 相反的I hold the converse opinion.（我的观点相反。）
converse v. 交谈，谈话He felt it difficult to converse with Helen in English.（他觉得跟海伦用英语交谈很困难。）
8.similar adj. 相似的，类似的The two animals are similar to each other in appearance.（这两只动物外表很相似。）
similarity n. 相似，类似Their differences are more noticeable than their similarities.（他们的不同之处比相同之处更明显。）
9.independent adj. 独立的，自主的（这个词的词根是depend，在depend的后面加上后缀 -ent可以构成形容词，加上 -ence则可以构成名词；在dependent，dependence前面加上前缀 in- 又可以构成反义词。）
depend v. 依靠，依赖dependence n. 依靠，依赖dependent adj. 依靠的，依赖的independence n. 独立，自主India won its independence in 1947.（印度于1947年赢得了独立。）
10.clue n. 线索，提示The police searched all the houses but found no clues.（警察搜索了所有的房屋，但是没有发现任何线索。）
（注意用法：find/give a clue to sth.）
11.conclusion n. 结论，推论conclude v. 断定，决定（注意用法：come to a conclusion，jump at a conclusion，draw a conclusion，reach a conclusion）
What conclusions did you come to？（你得出了什么结论？）
12.communicate v. 交流，交际，通讯communication n. 交流，通讯communicative adj. 爱说话的To communicate with him is no easy job， as he is not a communicative person.（他是一个不爱说话的人，与他交流可不容易。）
Speech and writing are man's most important methods of communication.（说和写是人类最重要的交流方式。）
13.inexact adj. 不正确的，不精确的与independent一样，该词是由形容词 exact加前缀in- 构成的。
14.incomplete adj. 不完整的complete adj.& v. 完整的；完成This is an incomplete sentence， please add the omitted part and make it complete.
〔这是一个不完整的句子，请加上省略的成分使其完整。〕I don't think I can complete the work in 2 hours. 〔我想我在两小时内干不完这活。〕
15.purpose n. 目的，意图，用途purposeful adj. 有目的的，有意图的purposefully adv. 有目的地，蓄意地The purpose of the meeting was to discuss his proposal.〔会议的目的是讨论他的建议。〕He let out the information purposefully to you.〔他有意向你透露了这个消息。〕
16.regularly adv. 经常地，定期地regular adj. 经常的，定期的irregular adj. 不规则的，无规律的If you review your lessons regularly， you will do well on tests.
17.technique n. 技术，技巧，手艺Good study techniques help him to be one of the straight A students in his class.
18.outline v.& n. 概括；大纲，提纲；轮廓He listened carefully as I outlined my reasons.〔在我简述我的原因时，他认真地听着。〕The English teacher asked us to write a brief outline of the story.
〔英语老师让我们写这篇故事的概要。〕He saw the outline of the house in the moonlight.（在月光下，他看到了那座屋子的轮廓。）
1.名词后缀 -ment agreement， statement 2.名词后缀 -ation， -ion， -sion communication， completion， conclusion 3.名词后缀 -ity similarity， regularity 4.名词后缀 -ence intelligence， independence 5.形容词后缀 -ful successful， purposeful 6.副词后缀 -ly conversely， regularly， purposefully 7.反义词前缀 in inexact， incomplete， independent 8.反义词前缀 dis disagree， discover本课简介How to Be a Successful Language Learner 是一篇典型的说明文。此类文章通常以逻辑顺序安排材料，作者要回答HOW或WHY方面的问题。在说明文的阅读与写作中，要注意抓主题句以及使文章内容启承转合的常用词句。
1.Learning a language is easy.
这是一个 主语＋动词＋表语 （SVP）句型。句中learning a language为动名词短语，在句子中做主语。再如：
Forgetting the past means betrayal.（忘记过去就意味着背叛。）
1）阅读英语比讲英语容易。（Reading English is easier than speaking it.）
2）集邮是我弟弟的爱好。（Collecting stamps is my little brother's hobby.）
2.Even a child can do it.
even在句中作副词用，加强语气，表示“甚至（…也），连（…都）”。如：He even didn't trust his best friend.（他甚至不信任他最好的朋友。）
请注意even与 even if/though的区别并翻译下面的句子：
1）这个我连听都没听过。（I haven't even heard of it.）
2）即使花了数天时间复习，他也没能考好。（He didn't do well in the exam even though he spent days reviewing.）
3.Most adults who are learning a second language would disagree with this statement.
句中who are learning a second language为定语从句，修饰先行词most adults，再如：
The man who wrote this book is a teacher.（写这本书的人是一位教师。）
（The boy who is in a blue jacket is our monitor.）
（The book that you lent me yesterday is very interesting.）
A picnic without you wouldn't be fun.（野餐没你参加会很没意思。）
1）表示过去将来时：I felt confident that everything would be all right.
2）表示意愿：I asked him not to do it，but he wouldn't listen to me.
3）表示习惯性：Every evening， we would go for a walk along the river.
4）表示虚拟，假设，条件：If you had come earlier，you would have seen him.
5）表示婉转地请求或建议：Would you look after my cat while I am away？
Unit14.They need hundreds of hours of study and practice，and even this will not guarantee success for every adult language learner.
注意句中hundreds of hours的用法，阅读课本第六页注解2.
1）十个学生 ten students数十个学生 tens of students 2）五百年 five hundred years数百年 hundreds of years 3）两千年 two thousand years数千年 thousands of years 4）三百万美元 three million dollars数百万美元 millions of dollars 5.Language learning is different from other kinds of learning.
句中be different from 意为“与…不同”，如：My opinion is different from yours.（我的观点与你的观点不同。）
Man is different from all the other animals in his ability to learn and use a language.
Man differs from all the other animals in his ability to learn and use a language.
The greatest difference between man and all the other animals is his ability to learn and use a language.
6.… find it difficult to succeed in language learning.
… find it difficult to succeed in other fields.
句中的it是形式宾语（formal object），真正的宾语（real object）是不定式to succeed in language learning，此类用法在英语中很常见，请注意掌握。如：At first I found it difficult to remember all these new words.（开始我感到记住这些单词很难。）
（The noise outside made it difficult for me to go on with my work.）
（They consider it a waste of time to argue any further.）
（She thought it right to tell Xiao Wang the truth.）
7.Language teachers often offer advice to language learners.
1）He offered me a cup of tea after I sat down.（我坐下后他给我端来一杯茶。）
2）What suggestions would you like to offer to those young teachers？（对这些新教师你有什么建议要提吗？）
3）This shop offers all kinds of stationery.（这家商店供应各种文具。）
4）The old man offered me 100 yuan for the used bike.
5）She offered to help me with my English.（她表示愿意帮我学英语。）
句中的advice为不可数名词，其后不加s，正如课本第六页注解3所说，有许多东西在汉语中是可数的，在英语中却是不可数的。如news，information，paper 等，若要表示“一个”这类概念，就必须加a piece of这类定语，例如：
a piece of news a piece of advice a sum of money a piece of bread
8.Read as much as you can.
句中的much 是副词，用副词作同等比较时，可以用as … as和so … as 这种结构，如：
1）Read as much as you can and your vocabulary will be enlarged.（尽量多阅读，你的词汇量就会扩大。）
2）We must arrange everything as well as we can.（我们要把一切尽可能地安排好。）
3）Please give me a call as soon as possible.（请尽早给我打电话。）
4）I don't speak English so well as you.（我英语讲得没你好。）
9.Practice speaking the language every day.
作动词用时，其后只能跟动名词，不能跟不定式。如：It is really no fun to practice running in such hot weather.（在这样炎热的天气里练跑步可真不是好玩的。）
10.Language learning research shows that successful language learners are similar in many ways.
that successful language learners are similar in many ways 是宾语从句。在非正式场合下that引导宾语从句时可省略。如：I think （that） you are right.
（The little boy admitted that he broke the window.）
2）大量证据表明他是有罪的。（Plenty of evidence shows that he is guilty.）
3）我保证将会给他更多的帮助。（I promised that I would give him more help.）
11.… they discover their own way to learn the language. to learn the language不定式做定语，例如：Is it the best way to solve the problem？（这是解决问题的最好方法吗？）
1）他没有勇气承认自己是无知的。（He has no courage to say that he is ignorant.）
2）这将是一个交流思想的好机会。（This will be a good opportunity to exchange ideas.）
3）他们在会上没有发言权。（They had no right to speak at the meeting.）
12.Instead of waiting for the teacher to explain， they try to find the patterns and rules for themselves.
动词不定式to explain和名词 teacher构成复合结构，作wait for的宾语，称为复合宾语。此类用法在英语中很常见，例如：
1）I'll get someone to repair the bike for you.（我去找人来帮你修自行车。）
2）He wants you to call him in the afternoon.（他要你下午给他打电话。）
3）The teacher is waiting for the students to answer the questions.（老师在等学生们回答问题。）
4）You can count on him to give you full support.（你放心，他会给你全力支持。）
请注意 instead of 与 instead 的区别：
1）Instead of staying at home watching TV， he went out for a walk.
He didn't stay at home watching TV， instead he went out for a walk.
2）Instead of having milk for breakfast， he had a cup of coffee.
He didn't have milk for breakfast， instead he had a cup of coffee.
13.When they guess wrong， they guess again.
1）He was annoyed that he had been given some wrong information.（wrong adj.错误的）
2）I knew I had wronged her terribly when I gave her all the complaints.（wrong v. 冤枉）
3）The whole class burst into laughter when the teacher pronounced her name wrong.（wrong adv.错，不对）
14.… they look for such a chance.
1）I‘ve never seen such beautiful scenery.（我从没见过这样美丽的景色。）
2）He didn't expect that the audience would give him such a response.（他没料想到观众们会给予如此反应。）
3）She didn't feel like going out on such a cold day.（她不想在如此寒冷的日子里出门。）
1）The question was so difficult that nobody could answer it.
2）His eyesight was so poor that he couldn't see anything clearly.
3）He ran so fast that nobody could catch up with him.
15.It is more important for them to learn to think in the language than to know the meaning of every word.
不定式短语to learn to think in the language是句子的真正主语。it常常被用来代替不定式，在句子中充当形式主语，而把真正的主语移到句子后面去，这样使句子显得比较平稳。为了说明 不定式表示的动作是谁做的，便在不定式前加for引起的短语。又如：
1）It is not at all difficult for him to understand the poem.
2）It is necessary for us to lend him a helping hand at this time.
more important than是形容词比较级形式，请翻译下面的句子：
1）汤姆的年龄比玛丽大。（Tom is older than Mary.）
2）这本书比那本书更有趣。（This book is more interesting than that one.）
3）我们班的学生人数比他们班的多。（There are more students in our class than in theirs.）
16.… you have probably been learning independently， actively， and purposefully.
1）He has been working for a whole day.
2）They have been watching TV for two hours.
1）老李已经在南京生活了二十年。（Lao Li has been living in Nanjing for 20 years.）
2）雨下多久了？（How long has it been raining？）
3）我等了他一个多小时了。（I have been waiting for him for more than an hour.）
17.… if your language learning has been less than successful， you might do well to try some of the techniques outlined above.
less than用在形容词的前面是为了给所要表述的内容增加否定意味。又如：It would be less than fair to put all the blame on him.（把所有的责任都加在他身上是不太公平的。）
1）父亲对他的成绩不太满意。（Father was less than satisfied with his performance.）
2）这个计划远不够完美。（The plan was a good deal less than perfect.）
do well to do sth. 的意思是“最好…做”，如：She would do well to go away from these dishonest people.（她最好远离这些不诚实的人。）
本课主要词组1.disagree with 2.be different from 3.succeed in 4.offer sth. to sb.5.as much as 6.practice doing sth.7.be similar to 8.first of all 9.depend on 10.instead of 11.wait for 12.look for 13.learn from 14.communicate with 15.be willing to 16.be interested in 17.in order to 18.on the other hand 19.less than 20. do well to do sth.
1）Learning a language is easy.
2）Learning a language is a very difficult task.
1）Most adults who are learning a second language would disagree with this statement.
2）Some people who are intelligent and successful in their fields…
3）They are good guessers who find clues and form their own conclusions.
4）They find people who speak the language…
5）…they can accept information that is inexact or incomplete.
C.it 做形式宾语1）…some people…find it difficult to succeed in…
2）They find it easy to practice using the language regularly…
D.it 做形式主语1）It is more important for them to learn to think…
2）It is necessary for them to learn the language…
Text B Language
1.not only…but also （不但……而且）
例：To some people language learning is not only time-consuming， but also difficult.
You can find the place not only with the help of a map， but also by asking the way.
2.up and down （上上下下，前前后后）
例：His eyes moved up and down the rows of people， looking for the escaped prisoner.
He walked up and down the street， not knowing what decision he should make.
例：Neither you nor I should be responsible for this accident.
This book is neither interesting nor instructive.
4.mean to do sth.（打算做某事，想要做某事）
例：I meant to say “sorry” to him， but he didn’t want to listen.
He didn't mean to hurt you.
5.not at all（一点也不）
例：I am not at all tired.
He was not at all frightened by the strange noise.
例：Our class consists of 20 boys and 26 girls.
The medical team consists of 3 doctors and two nurses.