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09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit8)

2009-06-12 16:02  自考365论坛 【 】【我要纠错

  Text A  Telecommunication via Satellite

  本课主要单词

  1.telecommunication   n. 电信,远距离通信

  请注意这个词的构成,tele-是一个前缀,意思是“远”,“远距离”。用tele-为前缀构成的词很多,如: television(电视), telegram(电报) ,telegraph(电报机;发电报) ,telephone(电话),telescope(望远镜)等。

  The Japanese hope that we can be persuaded to buy their telecommunications equipment.(日本人希望能劝说我们购买他们的电信设备。)

  AT&T has been allowed to enter the field of telecommunications in Shanghai.(在上海,AT&T公司已获准进入电信领域。)

  2.via  prep. 经由,经过,通过

  He went to Shanghai via Wuxi.(他经由无锡去上海。)

  He booked a ticket to Washington via New York.(他预定了一张经由纽约去华盛顿的票。)

  They transmitted television pictures via satellite all over the world.(他们通过卫星把电视画面传送到世界各地。)

  3.transmit  v. 播送,发射,传送,传递

  Glass transmits light and water transmits sound.(玻璃能透光,水会传声。)

  The TV program was transmitted by satellite throughout the world.(电视节目被卫星播送到世界各地。)

  They were reluctant to transmit the information to the control center.(他们不愿意把信息传送到控制中心去。)

  4.photography  n. 摄影,照相;摄影术

  photo是一个词根,表示“光;光电;照相术”;graph表示“记录”。以photo为词根的词还有: photochemistry(光化学),photocopy(影印),photoelectric(光电的),photograph(照片), photographer(摄影师),photosensitive(感光的)等等。以graph为词根的词有:autograph(亲笔), biography(传记),calligraphy(书法),geography(地理学),telegraph(电报)等等。

  5.telegraph  n. 电报机;电报     v.用电报发送;发电报

  我们刚刚讲到过tele是一个前缀,表示“远,远距离”,graph是一个词根,表示“写,记录。”

  She told him the news by telegraph.(她用电报把消息告诉了他。)

  I telegraphed him the result last week.(上个星期,我把结果告诉他了。)

  6.establish  v. 建立,创办;使确认

  He decided to leave school and establish his own company.(他决定离开学校,创办自己的公司。)

  They have established diplomatic relations with that country.(他们已经同那个国家建立了外交关系。)

  It is important for businessmen to establish credit.(对于商人来说,建立信誉十分重要。)

  It is strange that they haven't established the cause of death so far.(很奇怪,他们至今还没有确定死因。)

  There is no way to establish the identity of the man.(没有办法确认那个人的身份。)

  7.signal  n. 信号;暗号   v. 向…发信号

  He didn't notice the traffic signals when he rode on the street.(他在街上骑车时,没有注意到交通信号。)

  He sat in the room and waited for the signal to speak.(他坐在房间里,等候着让他说话的信号。)

  The ship signaled its position hourly.(该船每小时用信号报告它的位置。)

  He signaled me to enter the classroom.(他做手势叫我进教室。)

  8.visual  adj. 视觉的;栩栩如生的

  vision   n. 视力,视觉;想像力;幻想

  visualize  v. 设想,想像

  Are you sure it is not your visual illusion?(你能肯定这不是你的视错觉吗?)

  His stories are very visual.(他的故事写得很生动。)

  If you don't tell me anything, it is difficult for me to visualize the scene.(如果你什么也不告诉我,要想像这个景象很困难。)

  9.capable  adj. 有能力的,有才能的

  capability  n. 能力

  I always thought mother was very capable.(我一直认为妈妈很能干。)

  With the knowledge and experience, we are capable of overcoming the difficulties.(有了这些知识和经验,我们能克服困难。)

  Don't say anything capable of being misunderstood.(别说任何容易引起误解的话。)

  They don't have the capability of solving practical problems.(他们没有解决实际问题的能力。)

  Some jobs are beyond their capabilities.(有些工作超出了他们的能力。)

  10.broadcast  v; n. 广播,播音

  broadcaster  n. 播音员

  broadcasting  n. 广播,播音

  broadcast可以做规则动词用(-ed),也可以做不规则动词用。(过去时,过去分词与动词原形一致。)

  The news was broadcast to the whole country.(这一消息对全国广播了。)

  Did you watch the evening broadcast of world news yesterday?(你昨天有没有看晚上播送的国际新闻?)

  He works with the Central People's Broadcasting Station.(他在中央人民广播电台工作。)

  He suggested all television broadcasting should be prohibited.(他建议禁止播放所有的电视节目。)

  His wife is a famous television broadcaster.(他妻子是著名的电视播音员。)

  11.access  n. 通道,入口;接近(进入)的机会

  The door gives access to a living room. (从这个门可以进入起居室。)

  I cannot find the access to this building. (我找不到进入这座大楼的通道。)

  I demanded access to a telephone. (我要求有权使用电话。)

  You can easily get access to him. (你很容易接近他。)

  People in that mountain area had no access to education. (那个山区的人们过去没有受教育的机会。)

  access 也可以做动词用,意思是“取,利用”,如:

  The main problem was that they spent too much time accessing the information from the computer. (主要的问题是他们从计算机上存取信息花了太多的时间。)

  12.unlimited  adj. 无界限的;无限制的;无数的

  limited  adj. 有限的

  limit  n. 界限;限度      v. 限制

  He longed for unlimited power. (他渴望有无限的权利。)

  They stored unlimited amount of food when they heard there might be an earthquake. (他们听说有可能地震贮备了大量的食品。)

  Time is too limited, we have to finish this work in a hurry. (时间太紧,我们得匆匆完成这项工作了。)

  You have to realize we have limited sources of information. (你得意识到我们的消息来源很有限。)

  The driver was fined for exceeding the speed limit. (司机由于超速被罚款。)

  There is a limit to one's life, but no limit to serving the people. (人的生命是有限的,但为人民服务是无限的。)

  We have to limit the expenses as much as possible. (我们必须尽量节省开支。)

  The author will limit himself to a discussion of the first two chapters. (作者只准备讨论前两章的内容。)

  13.demonstrate  v. 说明,演示;论证,证实;示威游行

  demonstration n. 论证;表演;示范;示威

  The chemistry teacher demonstrated a very interesting experiment to the students. (化学老师给学生们演示了一个有趣的实验。)

  How would you demonstrate that the earth goes around the sun? (你如何证明地球围绕太阳转?)

  The workers demonstrated for pay increases. (工人们示威要求加薪。)

  Would you please give us a demonstration? (你能给我们演示一下吗?)

  His speech was a demonstration of his patriotism.(他的演讲是他一片爱国心的证明。)

  Tomorrow they will go to the street to stage a demonstration. (明天,他们将上街示威。)

  14.educational  adj. 教育的

  education  n. 教育

  educate   v. 教育

  There are many educational programs on TV. (电视播放很多教育节目。)

  He received a good education when he was young. (他年轻时受过良好的教育。)

  The education of young people is important to the future of a country. (年轻人的教育对于一个国家的未来来说十分重要。)

  He was educated in the United States. (他是在美国受的教育。)

  15.remote  adj. 遥远的,偏僻的;(可能性)很小的

  People came to Beijing from the remotest parts of our country. (人们从祖国最偏远的地方来到北京。)

  He decided to go to a remote mountain area after graduation from the university. (他决定大学毕业后到偏僻的山区去。)

  Can you imagine what will become the world in the remote future? (你能想像在遥远的将来世界会变成什么样吗?)

  There is only a remote possibility to finish it in two days. (在两天内完成的可能性极小。)

  Please give me the remote control. (请把遥控器给我。)

  16.isolate  v. 使隔离

  isolation n. 隔离,孤立

  He isolated himself from the outside world. (他把自己与外部世界隔绝了。)

  The bridge sank and the village was isolated. (桥沉了,那个村子被隔绝了。)

  He doesn't trust anyone and he lives in isolation. (他不信任任何人,过着孤独的生活。)

  17.transportation  n. 运输

  Bike is a convenient means of transportation. (自行车是很方便的运输物品。)

  They used both water and land transportation to send their goods. (他们用水陆两路运输工具。)

  18.instruction  n. 教学,指导;指示,说明

  instruct  v. 命令、指示

  Read the doctor's instruction before taking the medicine. (服药前请看一看医嘱。)

  We will carry out your instructions very soon. (我们将很快执行你的指示。)

  He is giving instruction in English. (他在讲授英语。)

  The teacher instructed her to do more oral practice. (老师指导她多做口头训练。)

  I was instructed to take you to Beijing. (我受命带你去北京。)

  19.risk  v. 冒…的危险    n. 风险、冒险

  He risked his life in saving the drowning child. (他冒着生命危险救那个溺水儿童。)

  I don't want to risk my life to find out whether he told the truth. (我不想冒丧命的危险去查证他是否说了真话。)

  It must be done at any risk. (不管冒什么危险,这事必须完成。)

  He is unwilling to run the risk of losing his money. (他不愿意冒丧失金钱的危险。)

  20.privacy  n. 私事;隐私;独处

  private  adj. 私人的

  A person should have some privacy. (一个人应有自己的隐私。)

  She likes to live in privacy. (她喜欢清静地独居。)

  They are having a private conversation. (他们在密谈。)

  This is only my private opinion. (这只是我的个人意见。)

  21.contact  n. 接触,联系    v. 与…接触

  They have lost contact for many years. (他们失去联系已有多年了。)

  We have to get into contact with him as soon as possible. (我们得尽快跟他取得联系。)

  Contact me by telephone. (跟我电话联系。)

  He contacted the control tower by radio. (他用无线电与指挥塔取得了联系。)

  22.application  n. 申请;应用

  apply  v. 申请;实施

  Please fill in the application form. (请填申请表。)

  The company rejected his application. (公司拒绝了他的申请。)

  It is important to put the theory into application. (把理论应用起来很重要。)

  He applied for party membership. (他申请入党了。)

  We are trying to apply book knowledge to real work. (我们正努力把书本知识运用于实际工作中。)

  本课主要构词法

  conversion (转类法)

  orbit (n.)——(v.)

  telegraph (n.)——(v.)     broadcast (n.)——(v.)

  channel (n.)——(v.)      risk (n.)——(v.)

  contact (n.)——(v.)       harm (n.)——(v.)

  affixation (词缀法)

  1.名词后缀-ation

  application

  conversation

  transportation

  communication

  2.形容词后缀-al

  personal

  educational

  本课主要词组及语法要点

  词组:

  1.a group of         2.by blood / marriage

  3.descend from        4.think of…as

  5.mean doing sth.       6.know little about

  7.sense of          8.come from

  9.consist of         10.the center of

  11.from…to         12.move away from

  13.in order to        14.care for

  15.take care of        16.split up

  17.the result of        18.talk of

  19.be able to         20.in…age

  语法:

  1.注意掌握副词放在句首做状语,修饰整个句子的用法,如:

  1)Basically, there are two types of families.

  2)Traditionally, all the members of an extended family lived in the same area.

  2.掌握连接词的用法,连接词可以用来帮助使前后文更加连贯。

  1)The children stay in the nuclear family until they grow up and marry.

  2)Then they form new nuclear family.

  3)The members…are related by blood or by marriage.

  4)They are all related, so the members of an extended family are called relatives.

  5)However, with the change from an agricultural to an industrial society, many nuclear families moved away from the family home in order to find work.

  6) …but most extended families do not live together.

  7) Therefore we can say that the nuclear family becomes more important than the extended family as the society industrializes.

  8) The nuclear family is becoming smaller as parents want fewer children, and the number of…

  9) …both the father and the mother earn money for the family…

  10) Most single parents find it very difficult to take care of a family alone, so they soon marry again and form remarried families.

  以上句子中的画线单词有连词也有副词,在句子中都起连接词的作用。

  本课简介

  技术是否也是一把双刃剑,在给人们带来帮助的同时也带来了弊端?本课通过卫星通讯的利弊昭示人们“明智”地运用技术才能使我们走向成功。

  卫星、计算机和电视的三结合改变了人们的生活。卫星被用来传送电视节目、电话和印刷材料;卫星被用于远程教育,使边远地区的人们通 过“空中教室”接受教育;卫星被用来帮助生活在交通不便的偏僻地区的人们;卫星使世界各地的人们便捷地获取信息。然而侵犯隐私、使人与人之间疏于接触交流 等弊端也应引起关注。

  本课主要语言点

  1.At the beginning of the twentieth century, there were four powerful means of transmitting and receiving information over long distances:…

  本句中的beginning 是一个名词,意思是“开始,开端”。如:

  1)from beginning to end (从头到尾)

  2)He has made a good beginning. (他开了个好头。)

  3)I'm afraid I won’t have the time to come back at the beginning of the term. (恐怕我不会有时间在开学初回来。)

  means在本句中的意思是“方法;工具”,请看例句:

  1)The most convenient means of transport for people in the United States are cars.(对美国人来说最便利的交通工具是汽车。)

  2)He had no means of escape other than jumping. (除了跳窗,他没有别的逃跑方法。)

  3)He succeeded by means of painstaking effort. (他依靠苦干获得了成功。)

  by all means 尽一切办法

  live within/beyond one's means 量入(不量入)为出

  a means to an end 达到目的的方法

  by some means or other 用某种方法

  2.By the middle of the century, both radio and television had become established means of transmitting sounds and pictures.

  句中所用的过去完成时,表示过去某时前已经发生的动作或情况。该动作已经完成,或者可能延续下去。用by引起的时间状语常与过去完成时连用。例如:

  1)By the end of last June, they had visited 15 countries. (到去年六月底为止他们已经访问了15个国家。)

  2)By the end of last year Henry had collected 1500 butterfly specimens. (到去年年底,亨利已经采集了一千五百多个蝴蝶标本。)

  3)By the middle of 1999, more than 10 high buildings had been built in this area. (到1999年年中,这一地区已建造了十座高楼。)

  4)By the time they got to the cinema, the film had already begun. (他们赶到电影院时,电影已经开映了。)

  established在句中做形容词,意思是“常规的”。这个词还可解释为“(被)设立的;确认的;既定的;公认的”。例如:

  1)a newly established organization (新设的组织)

  2)the established principles of international law (公认的国际法准则)

  3)an established fact (既成事实)

  4)an established custom (常规)

  3.In order to transmit an event such as the Olympics Via satellite, television signals are first changed into radio waves, which are then sent from a station on earth to an orbiting satellite.

  such as的后面既可以跟名词也可以跟从句,意为“诸如…之类的”:“例如”或“像…这样的人或事物”。请看例句:

  1)They will plant flowers such as roses, sunflowers, etc. (他们将栽种玫瑰、向日葵一类的花。)

  2)Countries such as France, Germany, Japan and America are developed countries. (像法国、德国、日本和美国这类国家是发达国家。)

  3)I felt a weight at my heart such as I had never had before. (我心中感到了一种从未有过的沉重情绪。)

  4)I don't have many reference books but I will send you such as I have. (我的参考书不多,但我愿把我手头有的那些寄给你。)

  which引导的是一个非限定性的定语从句。非限定性定语从句在修饰人时用who, whom或whose, 在修饰物时用which.非限定性定语从句常用逗号与主句分开。例如:

  1)The students, who wanted to go outing, were disappointed when it rained. (那些学生想去郊游,天下雨了大家都感到失望。)

  2)The team is headed by an American, whose wife is a Chinese. (队长是一个美国人,他的妻子是中国人。)

  3)The book, which he borrowed from me yesterday, cost 1/3 of my salary. (他昨天从我这儿借走的那本书花了我三分之一的工资。)

  非限定性定语从句也可用关系副词where或when来引导。非限定性定语从句的先行词可以是一个词,也可以是前面主句中的一个短语、从句或前面整个句子,通常用关系代词which引导。例如:

  1)The small town, where he once worked, has turned to be a modern city. (那座小城,他曾在那儿工作过,已变成一座现代化的城市了。)

  2)We will put off the outing until next week, when we won't be so busy. (我们把郊游推迟至下周,那时我们不会这么忙了。)

  3)They turned a deaf ear to our demands, which made all of us angry. (他们对我们的要求置之不理,这使我们大家都很生气。)

  4.In theory, every person will have access to an unlimited amount of information.

  in theory意为“从理论上来说;在理论上”,与其意思相反的词组是in practice (在实践中;实际上)。例如:

  1)Your plan is good in theory, but does it work in practice? (你的计划在理论上是不错的,但实行起来能行吗?)

  2)His proposal worked well in practice. (他的建议很行得通。)

  have access to是一个很常用的词组,意为“可接近,可进入”,to是介词,动词have也可用其他词替换。如get,gain,give,win等。在词汇部分,对access已做过讲解,在此仅举例一、二。

  1)The only access to that building is blocked. (进入那座楼的唯一通道被堵住了。)

  2)Students need easy access to books. (学生需要很容易地接触到图书。)

  2)You can easily get access to the humorous old man.(你很容易接近那个幽默的老人。)

  information是一个不可数名词,后面不可以加s,许多信息可以用a lot of information, a large amount of information, much information等表达。一条信息可以表达为a piece of information.

  amount通常用在不可数名词前面,如the amount of money; a considerable amount of prejudice (相当大的偏见)。在复数名词前面可用number,如the number of mistakes; the number of students

  5.The satellite also demonstrated how it could provide help to people living in isolated areas where transportation is difficult.

  how引导的是一个宾语从句。我们很熟悉的是that引导的宾语从句,而且that常常可以省略。如:We must remember (that) things are easier said than done. (我们必须记住事情都是说起来容易,做起来难。)

  用连接代词或副词引导的宾语从句我们也应弄清楚。请看下面的句子:

  1)He didn't tell me where the shopping center was.(他没有告诉我购物中心在哪里。)

  2)Do you know what they were talking about?(你知道他们刚才在谈论什么吗?)

  3)Let's see how we can solve the problem. (我们看看怎么来解决这个问题。)

  4)I'm wondering if the letter is overweight.(我想知道这封信是不是超重。)

  5)We must find out who did this. (我们必须弄清楚这是谁干的。)

  provide是一个常用单词,通常可以有如下用法:provide sth. to/for sb.; provide sb. with sth.; provide sb. sth.;provide that…,在前一个单元中,我们已对provide一词有过讲解,再请看几个例子:

  1)It is impossible for the government to provide all young people with a job. (政府不可能给所有的年轻人都提供一份工作。)

  2)Can you provide 5 buses for/to the tourists? (你们能为游客们提供五辆巴士吗?)

  3)The agreement provides that the two sides shall meet once a month. (协议规定双方每月会晤一次。)

  6.He was then able to follow the doctor's instructions on how to care for the patient.

  句子中的on意思为“关于;有关”,可用about替换。例如:

  1)He wrote a book on India. (他写了一本有关印度的书。)

  2)He gave us a report on the international economy. (他给我们做了关于国际经济的报告。)

  3)They exchanged views on questions of common concern. (他们就共同关心的问题交换了意见。)

  care of 在句子中的意思是“照顾”,可用attend; look after替换。例如:

  1)The whole society should care for the younger generation. (全社会都应该关怀年轻的一代。)

  2)You can't really find out how to care for children from books. (你从书本上不可能真正找到照顾孩子的方法。)

  care for 还可以解释为“担心”,“介意”,“愿意”,可用about替换for.

  1)He doesn't care about/for his clothes. (他不讲究衣着。)

  2)The old lady cared much for her daughter's safety. (老太太非常为女儿的安全担心。

  3)Would you care for a cup of tea? (来杯茶,好吗?)

  4)I don't care for him to read the letter. (我不愿意让他看这封信。)

  7.The most common use of telecommunication satellites, however, has been for transmitting telephone calls.however

  在本句中做副词用,意思相当于but.但是however和but在用法上是有差异的。however不放在句首或句末时,前后通常都加逗号,而but则不用。请看例句:

  1)It is not, however, the only answer to the question. (然而,这不是问题的唯一答案。)

  2)I'd like to go and see the films, however,I don’t have the time. (我很想去看电影,但我没时间。)

  3)However, we still have 10minutes left. (不过,我们还有十分钟。)

  4)The composition is well written, there is room for improvement, however.

  5)I am sorry, but I won't be able to come this time. (很报歉,我这次不能来了。)

  6)He would like to go, but he was busy. (他想去,但他太忙。)

  7)It's not cheap, but it’s really good. (这个不便宜,但的确很好。)

  8.Telecommunication can make information from around the world available to use quickly and easily, but some people worry that this may be a risk to our privacy.

  available是一个形容词,意思是“可得到的;可用的;有效的”。

  1)I am sorry those shoes are not available in your size. (很报歉,那些鞋没你的尺码。)

  2)If I am not available when you call, leave a message. (你打电话来时如果我不在,请留个言。)

  3)If the tickets is available, I will go to the concert. (如果能弄到票,我会去听音乐会。)

  4)The ticket is available on the day of issue only. (此票仅发售当天有效。)

  9.We can prevent this from happening by carefully controlling the new technology.

  prevent…from…意思为“阻止…发生”,也可用stop…from…或keep…from.From可被省去。例如:

  1)They tried every means to prevent the disease (from) spreading. (他们想方设法阻止疾病曼延。)

  2)Nothing can prevent him (from) going there.(什么也阻止不了他去那儿。)

  本课主要词组及语法要点

  词组:

  1.at the beginning of       2.means of

  3.over long distance       4.by the middle of

  5.such as                      6.change into

  7.from…to…                8.be capable of

  9.not only…but…        10.in theory

  11.have access to         12.amount of

  13.provide…to…        14.follow sb's instructions

  15.care for                   16.as well as

  17.at the same time       18.make…available

  19.pay for                    20.isolate…from…

  语法:

  1.过去完成时

  1)…both radio and television had be come established means of transmitting sounds and pictures.

  2.非限定性定语从句

  1)…radio waves, which are then sent from a station on earth to an orbiting satellite.

  2)…back to earth, where another station picks them up and changes them back into television signals.

  3)The combination of satellites, which transmit information, computers, which store information, and television, which displays information, will change every home into an education and entertainment center.

  2.宾语从句

  1)We must remember that technology alone is not the answer.

  2)The satellite also demonstrated how it could provide help to people living in isolated areas…。

  3.注意such as,as well as,as的用法

  1)In order to transmit an event such as the Olympics via satellite, …

  2)…printed materials such as books and magazines.

  3)…as well as get any information they need, …

  4)As one telecommunication expert days, …

  Text B  What People Don't Know about Air

  短语表达

  1.without

  We couldn't have finished the work so soon without your help.

  Without air, there would be no wind or clouds.

  2.adv. + past participle

  It is widely known that the earth goes around the sun.

  It is generally believed that the earth is getting hotter.

  3.where

  Where there is a will, there is a way.

  Where there is hope, there is life.

  4.be forced to

  He was forced to drop out of school.

  They were forced to work 14 hours a day.

  5.shelter v.& n.

  Mother tried to shelter her from the blow of the tragic news.

  You have to find shelter from the blazing sun.

  6.protect from

  It is necessary that we protect our skin from being burned by the sun.

  She had his umbrella to protect her from the sun.

  7.deadly adj.

  They made a deadly attack on the enemy's air base.

  A drop of this poison might be deadly to man.

  8.burst

  As he braked a tire burst.

  All the boys burst from their tents.

  Everybody in the room burst out laughing.

  The little girl burst into tears.

  9.rest upon

  His arm rested upon the table.

  The task rested upon my shoulder.

  His eyes rested upon a strange object.

  10.gaze at

  He was standing at the window, gazing at the street.

  What are you gazing at?

  11.not…until

  He didn't go out to play until he finished his homework.

  No one was to go to bed until further order.

  12.in the meantime

  His case won't come to court for several months, and in the meantime more than half of the people think him guilty.

  At last we were released. In the meantime, our friend had informed the newspaper.

  13.pay attention to

  Please pay more attention to your spelling next time.

  I didn't pay much attention to what he said yesterday.

  14.add to

  If you praise others more often, you can add great happiness to their life.

  What he said just now added to my confusion.

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本文转载链接:09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit8)

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