Text A How Dictionaries Are Made
1.mainly adv. 主要地；大部分地
1）I don't know what his interests are， because we talk mainly about work when we meet.
2）The visitors were mainly students from Mainland China.（来访者多半是来自中国大陆的学生。）
3）He quit the job mainly because of health problem.（他辞了那份工用是由于健康原因。）
2.grammarian n. 语法学家
-ian或-an是一个名词后缀，表示“…地方的人”，“精通…的人”，“信奉…的人”，如： American（美国人），Italian（意大利人），Musician（音乐家），Historian（历史学家），Confucian（儒家）， Christian（基督徒）
3.supreme adj. 最高的；极度的，最主要的
1）He enjoys supreme power in this country（他在这个国家享有至高无上的权力。）
2）They are fulfilling a task of supreme importance.（他们正在完成一项极其重要的任务。）
3）No one expected that he would change his idea at the supreme moment.（谁也没料到他会在决定性的时刻改变主意。）
The supreme commander （最高统帅）
Supreme Soviet （前苏联最高苏维埃）
4.authority n. 官方，当局；权利，权威
1）The government is the highest authority in the country（政府是国家的最高权利机构）
2）Have you talked it over with the authorities concerned？（你已经跟有关当局讨论过这个问题了吗？）
3）What authority do you have for entering this house？（你有什么权利进这个屋子？）
4）Who is the authority on this subject？（谁是这门学科的权威？）
5）Chinese parents have more authority over their children（中国的父母对孩子更有权威。）
5.usage n. 惯用法；使用；用法
1）It's difficult to master the usage of these grammatical forms.（要掌握这些语法形式的用法很困难。）
2）That phrase has gone out of usage.（那短语已不再为大家所惯用。）
Usage 常表示语言等的“用法”，“使用”，“惯用法”，我们不能说incorrect usage，而应该说incorrect use.
6.dispute v. 争吵；对…提出质疑 n. 争论，争端
1）They are disputing with each other on/about the ownership of the territory.
2）They disputed how to get the best results. （他们争论如何才能取得最好的效果。）（dispute作及物动词用）
3）Your honesty has never been disputed.（没有人怀疑过你的诚实。）（dispute作及物动词用）
4）There has been much dispute， and the question is certainly not yet settled（争论很多，所以这个问题当然还没解决。）（dispute作不可数名词用）
5）They lived together happily without disputes.（ 他们快乐地生活在一起，没有任何争吵。）（dispute作可数名词用）
6） Her ability to do the job is not in dispute.（对她的工作能力人们没有疑问。）
7.self-assurance n. 自信
1）His self-assurance was based upon his faith in his own ability（他的自信基于他坚信自己的能力。）
2）His self-assurance enabled him to pull through difficulties.（他的自信使他能够渡过困难。
assure v. 使确信；使放心；向…保证；保障
1）Please assure my parents that I am safe and sound.（请让我父母放心我安全而健康。）
2）I can assure you of the reliability of the information.（我可以向你保证这消息是可靠的。）
3）This film had assured him a place in movie history.（这部影片保证了他在电影史上的地位。）
assurance n. 把握；信念；自信；保证
1）I have full assurance of the feasibility of the plan.（我充分相信这个计划的可行性。）
2）“He will be here soon”， said Mary with assurance.（“他很快会到这儿”，玛丽很有把握地说。）
3）He gave us the assurance that he wouldn't let out the secret.（他向我们保证他不会泄露秘密。）
8.regard v. 看待，考虑；把…看作为；尊重 n. 关心，重视；尊重；（复数）问候
1）I regard it as difficult.（我认为这事是困难的。）
2）They are regarded as the best table-tennis players.（他们被看作为最好的乒乓球运动员。）
3）He was regarded highly by his students.（他很受学生们的尊敬。）
4）You have to pay regard to public opinions.（你得重视舆论。）
5）My regard for him grew day by day.（我对他的尊敬与日俱增。）
6） Give my regards to your parents.（请代我问候你的父母。）
9.peuiliar adj. 特殊的；独特的，奇怪的
1）She expressed her gratitude to him in her own peculiar way.（她用自己独特的方式对他表达谢意。）
2）He says this change is not peculiar to this small village.（他说这个变化不是这个小村子所独有的。）
3）The young girl was wearing a very peculiar pair of glasses.（那个年轻姑娘戴着一副很古怪的眼镜。）
4）She gave him a peculiar look.（她朝他古怪地看了一眼。）
10.occurrence n. 发生，出现，事件
1）Researchers are trying hard to find ways to reduce the occurrence of cancer.
2）The occurrence took place in 1978.（这一事件发生于1978年。）
occur v. 发生；出现；被想到
1）Don't let the tragedy occur again.（不要让这样的悲剧再次发生。）
2）These animals occur in Africa only.（这些动物只在非洲才有。）
3）It occurred to me that I didn't ask for his telephone number.（我想起没有要他的电话号码。）
4）A good idea occurred to him（他想到了一个好主意。）
11.occupy v. 占用，占领，使忙碌
1）The village was occupied by the enemy.（村子被敌人占领了。）
2）I didn't expect this work would occupy so much of my time.（我没料到这一工作会占用我这么多时间。）
3）His speech occupied 5 minutes.（他的讲话占了五分钟。）
4）He is occupied （in） repairing the bike.（他正忙着修理自行车。）
5）The fridge occupies a big space in the kitchen.（这台冰箱占了厨房很大的空间。）
12.stack n. 整齐的一叠 v. 把…叠成堆
1）He saw a stack of paper boxes in the room.（他看到房间里有一堆迭着的纸盒。）
2）There are a stack of journals on the table.（桌子上有一叠杂志。）
3）I have stacks of work to do. （我有一大堆工作要做。）
4）It's dangerous to stack the firewood here. （把木柴堆在这儿很危险。）
5）The shelf was stacked with empty bottles. （架子上堆放着空瓶子。）
6）Father stacked up the plates and put them in the sink.（父亲把盘子叠放好，然后放入水池。）
13.illustrate v. 说明，阐明；（用图或例子）说明
1）Nothing illustrates his selfishness more clearly than his behavior to his wife.（没有什么比他对妻子的行为更能清楚地说明他的自私。）
2）He told us a story to illustrate the fact that bad habits die hard.（他通过给我们讲故事来阐明积习难改的事实。）
3）Children's books are often beautifully illustrated. （儿童书籍常常有美丽的插图。）
4）He gave us an example to illustrate his point. （他给了我们一个例子说明自己的观点。）
14.historical adj. 历史的，历史上的；
1）They played an important part in the historical process.（在历史的进程中他们起过重要的作用。）
2）The historical event changed him completely. （这一历史事件完全改变了他。）
historical 指历史上存在或发生过的（actually existed，or happened in history）。
historic指历史上有名的，有历史意义的（important in history）。
a historical event（历史事件）-真实存在于历史上；
a historic event （历史性事件）-具有历史意义的；
15.discard v. 丢弃，抛弃；
1）I don't think it is necessary for them to discard the present assembly line entirely.（我认为他们没有必要完全丢弃现有的流水线。）
2）They ate food discarded by the restaurant （他们吃饭店丢弃的食物。）
3）How could he discard his old friends？（他怎么能抛弃老朋友呢？）
16.reveal v. 揭露，泄露；展现，显示；
1）He didn't reveal what he had felt about her.（他没有透露对她的感觉。）
2）David revealed a talent for fixing things.（大卫展现出修理东西的才能。）
3）He didn't want to reveal his identity at the time. （那时他不想暴露自己的身份。）
17.influence n. 影响，v. 影响
1）The old man had a great influence on the family.（那位老人对家庭的影响很大。）
2）His teachings exerted a strong influence on the young people.（他的教导给年轻人施以深刻的影响。）
3）The government would use its influence to try to make the talk successful.（政府将以其影响努力使会谈成功。）
4）I didn't want him to influence me in my choice.（我不想让他影响我的选择。）
5）Do you think British art is influenced by American painting.（你认为英国的艺术受美国绘画的影响吗？）
请注意区别influence 和affect 这两个词。
1）The economic crisis has seriously affected the export of that country.（经济危机严重影响那个国家的出口。）
2）Too much smoking may affect your lungs.（吸烟过多会影响你的肺。）
18.scatter v. 撒；驱散；消散；
1）Clouds were scattered by the wind.（风起云散。）
2）The books scattered on the desk.（书桌上撒满了书。）
3）The noise scattered the dogs and chickens（响声使得鸡、狗四散。）
4）The Police scattered the demonstrators with tears gas. （警察用催泪弹驱散示威者。）
5）Don't scatter your strength. （不要分散精力。）
19.invention n. 发明，创造；虚构；
1）Telephone is the invention of Alexander Bell.（电话是亚历山大·贝尔发明的。）
2）The whole thing was an invention of a New York newspaper.（整件事都是一家纽约报纸虚构的。）
invent v. 发明、创造、虚构；
1）When the teacher asked the pupil why he had not come to class， he invented an excuse.
2）Edison invented the electric bulb. （爱迪生发明了灯泡。）
人们普遍认为在每一个词都有其正确的词意。词典和语法书是我们寻求词意和用法的至上权威，但是我们甚少 去询问词典和语法的编著者以何为据。在本篇课文中，作者详细介绍了词典编写的过程，并且强调编写词典不是对词的意思，建立权威的解释，而是竭尽所能记录下 每一个词对其过去的作者而言是何意思。世界在变化，语言也在变化，我们不得不赋予旧词以新的解释、新的用法，因些词典需要增补新的内容。
1.…dictionaries and grammars are the supreme authority in matters of meaning and usage.
本句中in matters of 也可用in the matter of，意思是“在……方面”，“就……而论”，如：
1）It was impossible for them to reach an agreement because they had too many divergences in matters of detail. （他们不可能达成协议，因为在细节问题上，他们有太多的分歧。）
2）He is considered an expert in the matter of intellectual property.（他被看作是知识产权方面的专家。）
3）He would suffer heavy losses in matters of money if he continued to believe those dishonest people.（如果他继续相信那些不诚实的人，他会遭受巨大的经济损失。）
2.Few people ask by what authority the writers of dictionaries and grammars say what they say.
1）Very few people survived the explosion.（在爆炸中幸存的人很少。）
2）Many of us tried but very few succeeded .（我们许多人都试了，但成功者甚少。）
3）He will try it a few more times.（他会再试几次。）
4）A few of my friends speak English.（我的朋友中有几个人能讲英语。）
by在本句中的意思相当于according to （根据）。如：
1）Never judge a person by his appearance.（千万别以貌取人。）
2）He would be classified as rich by Chinese standards.（依照中国的标准，他会被归于富有一类。）
1）The labor union continued to seek dialogue with the authorities.（工会继续寻求与当局对话的机会。）
2）Police have the authority to arrest law-breakers.（警察有权逮捕犯法的人。）
3）He had made efforts to exercise his authority over those young people（他已努力对那些年轻人行使管辖权。）
4）A good dictionary is an authority on the meanings of words.（一本好的词典是词义方面的权威。）
5）He is now an authority on American literature.（现在他成了美国文学方面的专家。）
1）We always mean what we say.（我们向来说话算数。）
2）Let him do what he wants to do.（让他去做他想做的事。）
3）I don't know what they know.（他们知道的事我并不知道。）
3.I once got into a dispute with an English woman over the pronunciation of a word and offered to look it up in the dictionary.
1）He once lived in Shanghai.（他曾经在上海住过。）
2）Even if you only do it once， you will forever remember it.（即使你只做一次，你会永远记得。）
3）It once belonged to my father.（这个曾经属于我父亲。）
4）Once the sun had set， the air turned cold.（太阳一落，空气就变冷了。）
5）Once you show any fear， he will attack you.（你一直露出恐惧，他就会攻击你。）
6）Once published， the book will be very popular.（这本书一旦出版就会大受欢迎。）
get into a dispute with sb. over sth.与某人就某问题进行争论，over 也可用about 替换。如：
1）They had a dispute about where to go.（他们为了去哪里而争论。）
2）The workers and the management got into a dispute over pay.（工人和厂方由于工资问题产生争端。）
3）It was a dispute over economic policy.（这是一场关于经济政策的争论。）
4.…anyone who is willing to quarrel with the dictionary is regarded as either eccentric or mad.
be willing to意思是：愿意做……，如：
1）He is willing to help us.（他愿意帮助我们。）
2）No one is willing to pay so much money for this old bike.（谁也不愿意付这么多钱买这辆旧自行车。）
quarrel with sb.意思是“与某人争吵”。如：
1）He quarreled with his brother yesterday.（他昨天跟他兄弟吵架了。）
2）I don't want to quarrel with you about it.（我不想为此事跟你争吵。）
regard as 意思是“把……看作为”，在其后可以跟名词（或名词短语，动名词短语）；形容词等。如：
1）He regarded the book as one of his masterpieces.（他把这本书看作是他的杰作之一。）
2）He was regarded as an important figure in history.（他被看作为历史上的重要人物。）
3）Nobody would regard this as important.（没人会认为这件事很重要。）
4）Many people regard parents as being responsible for the control of their children.（许多人认为父母应负责管教子女。）
1）He is either drunk or mad.（他不是醉了就是疯了。）
2）Tell them that they can either stay or leave immediately.（告诉他们，他们要么留下，要么现在就离开。）
3）Either my brother or I am going to see my father off.（不是我兄弟就是我去为父亲送行。）
5.The task of writing a dictionary begins with the reading of vast amounts of the literature of the period or subject that the dictionary is to cover.
begin with 在本句中的意思是“以……开始；以……为起点”。如：
1）I shall begin with this book today.（我打算今天先读这本书。）
2）The drought began with that dry and hot summer.（干旱是从那个干热的夏季开始的。）
3）The teacher began the class with a story.（老师以一个故事开始了讲课。）
1）A large amount of money was spent on this project.
2）Large amounts of money were spent on this project.
1）We are to meet at the station at 5：00 （我们约定5点钟在车站碰头。）
2）You are to be back by 9：00.（你得在9点钟前回来。）
3）The report is to be found in today's papers.（那个报道可在今天的报上找到。）
1）His researches covered a wide field .（他的研究涉及范围很广。）
2）They covered many topics in their conversation.（他们谈话时讨论了许多问题。）
6.The writing of a dictionary is not a task of setting up authoritative statements about the “true meanings” of words， but a task of recording to the best of one's ability， that various words have meant to authors in the distant or immediate past.
1）What he needs is not money but some understanding. （他所需要的不是钱，而是一些理解。）
2）The story I have read is not a comedy but a tragedy.（我读的那个故事不是个喜剧而是个悲剧。）
To the best of one's ability 意思是“尽某人的最大努力”。如：
1）I'll put the article into Chinese to the best of my ability.（我将尽最大努力把这篇文章翻成中文。）
2）He promised to do the work to the best of his ability.（他许诺说他会尽最大努力做这个工作。）
a task of recording what various words have meant to authors…。，what引导宾语从句，做recording 的宾语。Mean意思是“表示……的意思”，“意指”等。如：
1）What he said means nothing to me.（他所说的对我来说毫无意义。）
2）What does this word mean？（这个词的意思是什么？）
1）What do you mean by saying that to him？（你对他说那话的意思是什么？）
2）I didn't mean to make you unhappy.（我不是故事要使你不开心的。）
3）You know what I meant to say.（你知道我想说的是什么。）
4）He criticism is meant for all of us.（他的批评是针对我们大家的。）
7.… but we cannot be bound by it…。
Bound是动词bind是过去分词，be bound by sth.意思是“受……束缚”，也可用be bound to sth.
1）We should not be bound by conventions.（我们不应该受习俗的束缚。）
2）Housework kept her bound to the house.（家务把她束缚在家里。）
3）The term papers kept him bound to his desk.（学期论文使他终日厌案。）
2.in matters of
3.get into a dispute
5.offer to do sth.
7.be willing to
9.be regarded as
14.vast amounts of
15.a large number of
20. sccording to
22.be based on
23.in front of
24.be influenced by
26.not at all
28.to the best of one's ability
29.in the past
30. send out
31.force sb. to do sth.
32.be bound by
Text B reading provides necessary survival skills
The emphasis on education would certainly bring great changes to the people and the country.
2.be the case
He said he was the best tennis player in his school， but it was not the case.
3.involve sth. / doing sth.
Accepting the job would involve working at weekends.
4.get an idea about sth.
Have you got any idea about the whole incident？
Don't expect too much from others. You have to learn to depend on yourself.
Remember to cue in the headmaster on what happened during his absence.
It will be great if we can apply what we have learned in books to practical work.
The boy opened his sister's mail out of curiosity.
9.keep up with
What do you think a scientist has to do to keep up with the latest development in his field？
10.at top speed
If you run at top speed， you may get there in 10 minutes.
You will find it easier to concentrate on the reading material if you read in a quiet place.
12.be familiar with
I am mot familiar with the person you mentioned just now.
13.be aware of
He was not aware of the danger when he was walking toward the building.
If you look up the word in the dictionary you will find it has two different pronunciations.
You have to slow down or you may get a fine.
16.be alert to
Be alert to new words and you will enlarge your vocabulary.
His explanation added to my confusion.