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09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit14)

2009-06-12 16:17  自考365论坛 【 】【我要纠错

  Text A  The importance of being kind and polite

  本课主要单词

  1.frankly adv. 坦白地,直率地;坦率地说

  1)He frankly admitted that he had made a mistake. (他坦率地承认自己犯了个错误。)

  2)She asked me to tell her frankly what I wished to do. (她让我坦率地告诉她我希望做什么。)

  3)Frankly, he is not easy to get along with. (坦率地说,他这个人不好打交道。)

  4)Quite frankly, I don't care about what they may say. (坦率地说,我不在乎他们会说什么。)

  frank adj. 坦诚的    v. 盖免费邮戳于(邮件);准许…自由通过

  1)They gave us a frank reply. (他们给了我们一个坦率的回答。)

  2)They have franked these letters. (他们已经给这些信件盖了邮资已付的邮戳。)

  3)We are trying to frank him through customs. (我们正努力使他免检通过海关。)

  2.boring adj. 令人厌烦的;乏味的

  bored adj. 感到厌烦的

  bore v. 使厌烦,使厌倦    n. 令人讨厌的人或事

  boredom n. 厌烦,厌倦;乏味

  1)It was such a boring journey that he didn't want to say anything about it.(这次旅行很乏味,他什么也不想提及。)

  2)I am bored. I don't have anything to do. (我无事可做,感到乏味。)

  3)Most of the book had bored him, with the exception of one chapter.(除了其中的一章,这本书的大部分内容使他感到乏味。)

  4)Sam is such a bore that no one wants to have anything to do with him.(山姆是个很令人讨厌的人,谁都不想与他打交道。)

  5)She seems so depressed by the boredom of her city life. (城市生活的乏味似乎令她沮丧。)

  3.honestly adv. 诚实地;的确

  honest adj. 诚实的

  honesty n. 诚实

  dishonest adj. 不诚实的;不正直的

  1)Honestly, I don't know what you’re talking about. (说实在的,我不知道你在讲些什么。)

  2)You have to answer the following questions honestly. (你得诚实地回答下列问题。)

  3)He is honest, he doesn't tell lies. (他是老实人,不说谎。)

  4)First of all, you should be honest about why you want the money. (首先,你应该坦率地说为什么要这些钱。)

  5)We have no doubt as to his honesty. (对他的诚实我们毫不怀疑。)

  6)How can you believe such a dishonest person. (你怎么能相信这样一个不诚实的人?)

  7)He got his money in dishonest ways. (他以不正当的方式搞钱。)

  4.impress v. 给…深刻的印象

  impression n. 印象;效果,影响

  impressive adj. 给人以深刻印象的

  1)What I saw and heard there impressed me deeply. (那儿的所见所闻给我留下了深刻的印象。)

  2)I was impressed by his high efficiency. (他的高效率给我留下了深刻的印象。)

  3)My advice seemed to make no impression on him. (我的劝告似乎对他不起作用。)

  4)She made a very good impression on her employer. (她给雇主留下了极好的印象。)

  5)The impressive scene will be always in his mind. (那个难忘的场面将永远留在他的脑海中。)

  5.collection n. 收集;收藏品

  collect v. (去)取;接;聚集

  1)He has a large collection of books. (他有大量的藏书。)

  2)The collection of butterfly specimens takes up all his spare time. (他所有的业余时间都用于采集蝴蝶标本了。)

  3)He likes collecting stamps. (他爱好集邮。)

  4)I have to go and collect my daughter. (我得去接女儿了。)

  5)A large crowd collected in front of the building. (那座楼前聚集了一大群人。)

  collect 也可以做副词用,意思是“由受话人付费”,如:

  I will call London collect. (我将给伦敦打一个对方付费的电话。)

  6.misunderstand v. 误解,误会

  misunderstanding n. 误会;争执

  1)Don't misunderstand us, we are here to help, not to make trouble.(别误解我们的意思,我们是来帮忙的,不是惹麻烦的。)

  2)She misunderstood what her friend said, and went away in a fury. (她误解了她朋友所说的话,怒气冲冲地走了。)

  3)They had a misunderstanding, but they have become friendly again. (他们曾有过争执,不过又言归于好了。)

  4)I don't hope the minor misunderstanding will affect our friendship. (我不希望这点小误会会影响我们的友谊。)

  7.friction n. 摩擦;不和,争执

  1)Constant friction caused the rope to break. (不断的摩擦使绳子断了。)

  2)The efficiency of the machine is higher because there is less friction.(由于摩擦力较小,这台机器的效率更高了。)

  3)Family frictions can interfere with a child's schoolwork. (家庭中的争吵会影响孩子的学业。)

  4)The friction between the two countries is getting more and more serious. (两国之间的摩擦在加剧。)

  8.conflict n. 冲突,抵触      v. 冲突,抵触

  1)The conflict between the two villages lasted for years. (两个村子之间的冲突持续了数年。)

  2)They came into conflict over the ownership of the house. (他们就房屋的所有权问题产生了激烈的争执。)

  3)His statement conflicted with what his friend said. (他的说法与他的朋友所言截然不同。)

  4)My idea might conflict with his. (我的观点,可能会与他的观点相冲突。)

  9.enforce v. 实施,执行;强制;强调

  1)The president of our university said time and again that it was necessary to enforce the school regulations.(我们大学的校长一再说执行校规很有必要。)

  2)People were dissatisfied with the government's inability to enforce its law.(人们对政府无力执行法律十分不满。)

  3)Very often parents enforce their own will on children. (父母常常把自己的意愿强加给孩子们。)

  4)Illness enforced him to lie in bed. (疾病迫使他卧床。)

  5)You need to enforce you arguments by producing facts and figures. (你需要提出事实与数据来加强你的论点。)

  10.interact v. 相互影响,相互作用,相互交流

  interaction n. 相互影响,相互作用

  1)Mothers and babies internet in a complex way. (母婴以一种复杂的方式相互交流。)

  2)Students are encouraged to interact in class in English by the teacher. (老师鼓励学生在课堂上用英语互动。)

  3)There is a need for more interaction between parents and children. (父母和孩子之间需要更多的相互交流。)

  4)They are doing some research on the interaction between seawater and lava.(他们正对海水与溶岩的相互作用进行研究。)

  inter-是一个前缀,表示“相互”:“在…中间”。如:interchange (互换);intercommunicate (互相联系;互相通信);interdependent (相互依赖,互相依存);international (国际的);interstate (州际的);interuniversity (大学间的)

  11.consensus n. 合意;(意见等的)一致;舆论

  1)There was a kind of unspoken consensus between them. (他们之间有一种默契。)

  2)The consensus was to abandon the project. (大多数人的意见是放弃该项计划。)

  3)It is very difficult for them to reach a consensus on what they are going to do.(要就他们将要进行的事情达成大致意见是很困难。)

  4)You have to build a consensus with them if you really want to get their help.(如果你真想得到他们的帮助,你得与他们达成一致意见。)

  12.guideline n. 指导方针,准则,标准

  1)They are going to adopt new guidelines for national economy. (他们将采取新的国民经济指导方针。)

  2)Today the moral guidelines are not as obvious as they were. (现在的道德准则不再以前一样明确了。)

  3)The chemical additives still exceed guidelines set to protect public health.(化学添加剂仍然超过了为保护公众健康而确定的标准。)

  13.unacceptable adj. 不能接受的,不受欢迎的

  acceptable adj. 可接受的

  accept v. 接受

  1)It is entirely unacceptable to break the law for the sake of money. (为了钱而犯法是完全不可接受的。)

  2)The proposal was unacceptable. (这个建议是不能接受的。)

  3)This is a proposal that is acceptable to all sides. (这是一个各方面都能接受的建议。)

  4)They didn't accept the invitation to attend the evening party. (他们没有接受出席晚会的邀请。)

  14.adolescent adj. 青春期的;青少年的      n. (16岁以下的)青少年

  adolescence n. 青春期(13-16岁的发育期)

  1)He was afraid that his son had anything to do with the adolescent gang.(他担心他儿子与青少年犯罪集团有牵连。)

  2)This film aimed at adolescents. (这部电影专为青少年拍摄。)

  3)His adolescence was not a happy time for him. (他的青春期过的不快乐。)

  4)Before his parents could realize it Tom had already reached the age of adolescence.(父母还没意识到这个问题,汤姆已到了青春期年龄。)

  15.swear v. 诅咒;发誓      n. 誓言

  1)Don't swear in front of the children. (别在孩子们面前骂人。)

  2)Will you swear that you were not on the scene? (你愿意起誓说你当时不在现场吗?)

  3)I swear that I will never trust him any more. (我保证再也不相信他了。)

  4)He swore by his honor that he would return the money in two weeks.(他以自己的名誉发誓保证在两周内还钱。)

  5)They refused to swear on a Bible. (他们拒绝手按圣经发誓。)

  6)Don't take his swear seriously. (别拿他的誓言当真。)

  16.indifferent adj. 冷漠的,不关心的

  indifference n. 冷漠

  1)If parents are indifferent to their success, children will fail to make progress.(如果父母漠视孩子的成功,孩子就不会进步。)

  2)He is absolutely indifferent to other people's miseries. (他对别人的痛苦漠不关心。)

  3)He put on an air of indifference. (他摆出了一副满不在乎的神气。)

  4)She was annoyed by her son's indifference to her. (她儿子对她的冷漠态度令她恼怒。)

  17.discipline n. 纪律,训练;学科      v. 训练;使有纪律;惩罚

  1)The discipline of hard work would do you a lot of good. (艰苦工作的磨练会对你大有好处。)

  2)The young teacher couldn't keep discipline in her classroom. (那个年轻的教师无法维持课堂秩序。)

  3)Scientists of many disciplines would work together to solve the problem.(许多学科的科学家们将一道来解决这个问题。)

  4)They must learn to discipline themselves. (他们必须学会锻炼自己。)

  5)He was disciplined for being late. (他因迟到而受罚。)

  18.individual n. 个人,个体      adj. 个别的,单独的;独特的

  1)The freedom of the individual was greatly emphasized in his talk. (他在讲话中十分强调个人的自由。)

  2)Handwriting varies from individual to individual. (每个人的笔迹都不相同。)

  3)Each individual leaf on the tree is different. (树上的每一片叶子都各不相同。)

  4)There was nothing individual about him except a deep scar across his right cheek. (他除了右脸颊有条深疤外别无特征。)

  本课简介

  在人类共同生活的社会里有一些共认的社会准则,这些准则为大多数人所接受。如果你不能遵循这些准则,你则会被看作为一个缺少文明礼 貌举止的人。善待他人,尊重他人能给我们带来一种优势,而这种优势会帮助我们成功。正因为如此,我们应该学会在看电影时保持安静;在点燃香烟前征得他人同 意;注意选择接听移动电话的场合;与老师交谈时摘下随身听的耳机;满口含着食物时不随意开口讲话;该尊称他人时不随性而为乱称呼……。这些看似不重要的小 节恰恰是最能反映一个人的社会公德的。

  本课主要语言点

  1. Unless you want to end a relationship, you don't tell another person what you think of her or him like this.

  unless在本句中的意思是“if not” (除非,如果不),如:

  1)You will fail the exam unless you study harder. (你若不更加努力学习,考试会不及格。)

  2)We will go on with the experiment unless something unforeseen happens. (如果不发生意外,我们将继续试验。)

  3)I will not go to the party unless he invites me. (如果他不邀请我,我就不去参加聚会。)

  4)Nothing, unless a miracle, can save him. (除非出现奇迹,他无法得救。)

  end在本句中用作动词,意思是“结束”。如:

  1)The meeting did not end until midnight. (会议开到半夜才结束。)

  2)The anti-Japanese War ended in 1945. (抗日战争于1945年结束。)

  3)He refused to end his four-week tour in such a manner. (他不愿以这种方式结束为期四周的旅行。)

  2. Failing to be impressed by a friend's collection of stamps, yawning when a golfer tells you about what great shot he made… are all things that educated people try not to do.

  本句中三个并列的动名词短语做主语,整个句子是一个“主语+系动词+表语”的句型。如:

  1)Smoking is not good for your health. (吸烟有害你的健康。)

  2)Making experiment is one way of learning. (实验是学习的一条途径。)

  be impressed by 意思是“给…深刻印象”。如:

  1)I was impressed by his talent. (他的才干给我留下了深刻的印象。)

  2)He was impressed by the gorgeous sunset. (绚丽的夕阳给他留下了深刻的印象。)

  golfer意思为“高尔夫球运动员”,这个词是由golf加后缀-er构成的,英语中这一类词很多。如:baker (面包师傅),gardener (园丁),miller (磨坊主),singer (歌唱家),user (使用者。)

  1)He tried not to let out the secret. (他试图不泄露秘密。)

  2)We tried not to be misled by them. (我们努力不被他们误导。)

  3. There are no laws enforcing respect.

  本句是一个There be + noun + V-ing 结构,表示存在(有),there失去表示场所的意义。如:

  1)There was a fire burning in the fireplace. (壁炉里火在燃烧。)

  2)There were two bulldozers knocking the place flat. (两台推土机把那儿夷平。)

  句中的enforce是一个及物动词,意思是“实施;强制”。如:

  1)It is necessary to enforce discipline in the army. (在部队里执行纪律是必要的。)

  2)He strongly objected to enforcing obedience on children. (他强烈反对强迫儿童服从。)

  4. These guidelines represent what a majority of people consider acceptable and what they consider unacceptable.

  represent在本句中做及物动词用,意思是“代表;体现”。如:

  1)The blue lines on the map represent rivers. (地图上的蓝线代表河流。)

  2)These views don't represent the real thinking of the local residents. (那些观点并不反映当地居民的真实思想。)

  句中what引导的是宾语从句,如:

  1)I will always remember what my mother said to me before I went to college.(我将永远记住我上大学前妈妈对我说的话。)

  2)I didn't see what they were doing there. (我没看见他们在那儿干什么。)

  3)His idea couldn't represent what the ordinary people really liked.(他的想法不能代表普通百姓真正所喜欢的东西。)

  consider是一个常用动词,通常有以下几种用法:

  1)consider + 宾语

  He had no time to consider the matter. (他没有时间考虑这件事。)

  2)consider + 宾语 + 宾语补足语

  Some people considered the attack a mistake. (有人认为那次进攻是个错误。)

  3)consider + that 从句

  We consider that the young man is not guilty. (我们认为那个年轻人无罪。)

  4)consider + V. + ing He considered changing his job. (他考虑换一份工作。)

  5)consider to be/as

  They consider themselves to be very lucky. (他们认为自己很幸运。)

  He is considered to be an authority. (他被认为是权威。)

  They considered the house as beautiful. (他们认为那房子很美。)

  在上面的三个例句中,to be和as都可以被省略,因此三例句可以改写为:

  They consider themselves lucky.

  He is considered an authority.

  They consider the house beautiful.

  5. They are not even aware that this habit will bother the other members of the audience.

  aware这个形容词很常用,需好好掌握,在第十二单元中我们已经接触过这个词,在此再巩固一下。

  1)be aware of

  If you were aware of all that, you would change your mind. (如果你知道了那一切,你会改变主意的。)

  2)be aware that

  He was aware that he had drunk too much. (他知道他喝的太多了。)

  bother在本句中做动词用,意思是“打扰”。在bother后用不定式则表示“费心去做某事”。如:

  1)Don't bother me, I have to finish the work in an hour. (别打扰我,我得在一小时内做完这个工作。)

  2)Don't bother to talk to him. He has no interest in anything. (别费心跟他讲话,他对什么都没兴趣。)

  audience (观众,听众)当一个整体看待,用做单数;当各成员看待,用做复数。如:

  1)The audience was (were) enjoying the performance. (观众在欣赏演出。)

  2)That book has a large audience. (那本书有广大的读者。)

  6. …the look-at-me phone users whose boring conversations are just as dangerous to our mental health as smoke is to our lungs.

  look-at-me是作者自造的复合形容词,意思是“看我多神气”。

  as dangerous…as…形容词的同等比较,意思是“与……同样危险”。

  这句话的意思是“如同吸烟有害我们的肺一样,'那些瞧我多神气’的移动电话使用者的无聊谈话有害我们的精神健康。”

  英语学习中,经常会有不善区别现在分词做形容词和过去分词做形容词的用法和词意的情况,请看下列例句:

  A. interested  interesting

  1. He is interested in that book.

  2. The book is interesting

  B. excited  exciting

  1. We were very excited on hearing the news.

  2. The exciting news was soon spread all over the country.

  C. bored  boring

  1. The audience was bored by the speaker's empty talk.

  2.The boring lecture made my sleepy.

  7. …they listen to their walkmans while the teacher is talking to them.

  listen是一个不及物动词,后面必须加介词to才可以跟宾语,如:听音乐(listen to music),听收音机(listen to the radio),听天气预报(listen to the weather forecast)。请注意,不能丢掉介词to.

  walkman指随身听。注意其复数形式是在后面加-s,而不是把man改成men.

  8. Kids who have no idea what being polite means will pay the price sooner or later.

  have no idea of sth. 意思是“对……不理解”。have no idea后面接从句,常可省去of,如:

  1)He had no idea what was likely to happen next. (他无法预料接下去会出现什么情况。)

  2)I have no idea why she left.(我不知道她为什么离去。)

  polite是形容词,前面必须用系动词,而在what从句中,做主语用的系动词be则要变成being.如:

  Being honest means telling no lies. (诚实意味着不说谎话。)

  句子中的who引导的是一个定语从句,修饰kids,而what则引导了一个同位语从句,对idea的内容加以解释。如:

  1)I have no idea what will turn up.

  2)I have no idea how soon they will arrive.

  3)Word came that they had succeeded.

  pay the price意思是“付出代价”。如:

  They will pay the price for their ignorance. (他们将为自己的无知付出代价。)

  sooner or later意思是“迟早”,如:

  You will understand me sooner or later. (你迟早会理解我的。)

  9. When they join the work force, their employers and associates alike will soon realize that the behavior of these rude young people is closer to that of animals than civilized people.

  associate在本句中做名词,意思是“同事”。

  alike通常做形容词用,如:The two brothers are very much alike. (这两兄弟非常相象。)在本句子,alike作副词用,意思是“一样地”。

  1)Teachers and students alike will have a 3-week holiday. (老师和学生一样将有为期三周的假期。)

  2)The book is interesting and instructive alike. (这书既有趣,也有教益。)

  句子中的第一个that引导的是一个宾语从句。第二个that则用来替代前面出现过的名词,本句中that替代前面的behavior,意思是“这些粗鲁的年轻人的行为更接近动物的行为。”

  1)By 1990, production in the area is expected to double that of 1980.

  2)The weather in Shanghai is milder than that of Beijing.

  10. Being polite and showing respect can give us an edge.

  Edge在本句中的意思是“优势”(advantage),如:

  1)The edge was with our team. (优势在我们队这边。)

  2)Since he obtained the edge, he was sure to win. (既然他取得了优势,他一定会赢。)

  3)have an edge over sb. (胜过某人)

  4)maintain a nuclear edge (保持核优势)

  本课主要词组

  1. think of           2. be impressed by

  3. fall asleep          4. a trip to

  5. interact with         6. a majority of

  7. show respect for       8. as well

  9. be aware of         10. listen to

  11. have no idea        12. pay the price

  13. sooner or later       14. be close to

  15. because of         16. get ahead

  17. give sb. an edge       18. be based on

  Text B   Why we walk in circles

  短语表达

  1.rather than

  He came all the way to China for promoting friendship rather than for making money.

  He was reading a book rather than watching TV.

  2.somewhat

  He felt somewhat tired.

  This book is somewhat difficult to understand.

  3.instead of

  Instead of pushing and crowding, he waited quietly for his turn.

  He gave us a lot of trouble instead of help.

  4.go astray

  The letter had gone astray.

  Make sure that no sheep go astray.

  5.keep from

  The poor child was kept from seeing his mother.

  The bad weather kept us from getting there as scheduled.

  6.cut off

  Cut me off if I talk too much.

  Gas supplies had now been cut off.

  7.be worth

  This book is worth reading.

  This problem is worth following up.

  8.reach one's goal

  You have to work hard to reach your goal.

  9. such as

  Many stories such as these will prove instructive to the children.

  10.intend to

  He intended to give us an explanation, but he didn't.

  I didn't intend to hurt you.

  11.no more…than

  He is no more a teacher than a writer.

  We are no more satisfied than you are.

  12.让步状语从句的倒装

  Young as he is, he holds an important position in the company.

  Smart as they are, they are always modest.

  Child as he was, he knew what was the right thing to do.

  13.独立结构:with +名词+过去分词

  With many eyes fixed on her, she felt very nervous.

  With all the work completed, we felt greatly relieved.

  With all his savings gone, he had to find a job now.

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本文转载链接:09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit14)

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