Text A Fallacies about Food
1.fallacy n. 谬误；谬论；错误的推理或信念
That the earth is flat used to be a popular fallacy.（地球是扁平的这一谬误曾一度很流行。）
Needless to say， this statement is based on fallacy.（不用说，这是一个基于谬误推理的陈述。）
What you had seen couldn't be true， it might be a fallacy of the eye.（你所看到的不可能是真的，也许是你的视错觉。）
2.quality n. 质量；品质，特性 adj. 优质的，高级的
He is a man of many good qualities.（他具有许多优秀品质。）
The quality of your products is superior to that of ours.（你们的产品质量比我们的好。）
They promised that they would offer the community a variety of quality services.（他们承诺为社区提供多项优质服务。）
You have no reason to deprive me of the right to a quality education.（你没有理由剥夺我受良好教育的权利。）
qualify v. 使合适，使胜任
I am not very sure if he is qualified for the job.（我不很肯定他是否胜任这份工作。）
His skills qualify him for the job.（他的技艺使他有资格担任这一工作。）
qualified adj. 有资格的；称职的
What are you going to do with all these poorly qualified officers？（你会拿这些不称职的军官怎么样呢？）
He is trying hard to make himself a qualified teacher.（他在努力使自己成为一个称职的教师。）
3.savage adj. 野蛮的，未开化的；凶猛的，残酷的 n.野蛮人，粗野的人
Most of the time elephants are tame but they can be very savage.（大多数时候大象很温顺，但他们也会大发野性。）
No one can put up with his savage manners.（谁也忍受不了他的粗暴态度。）
They don't know what will be there waiting for them once they get to the savage wilderness.（他们不知道进入蛮荒之后等待他们的会是什么。）
He was afraid that he would encounter some savages if he stayed on that isolated island.（他担心呆在孤岛上会碰上野蛮人。）
4.tribe n. 种族，部落；（动植物）族，类
This attitude still remains in some primitive tribes.（这种观念在一些原始部落中依然存在。）
They didn't quite expect that the tribe of cats could give them so much trouble.（他们没有料到猫族会给他们带来如此多的麻烦。）
5.bravery n. 勇敢，大胆 brave adj. 勇敢的 v.冒（危险等）；敢于做（某事）
Being a nurse requires infinite patience and bravery.（做护士需要无限的耐心和勇敢。）
He made a brave attempt to prevent the group fighting.（他勇敢地试图阻止群殴。）
They braved all the dangers and difficulties in completing their work.（他们冒着各种危险和困难完成了任务。）
6.eager adj. 热切的，渴望的
be eager to do sth. 渴望做某事
be eager for/about sth. 渴求某事
eager beaver 做事异常卖力的人；雄心勃勃的人
The eager crowd streamed into the hall.（急切的人群涌进了大厅。）
She opened the telegram with eager fingers.（她用手指急不可奈地拆开了电报。）
The teacher found all the students were eager to express their opinions.（老师发现所有的学生都渴望表述自己的观点。）
I am eager for the performance to begin.（我热切地等待着演出的开始。）
7.civilized adj. 文明的，开化的
civilization n. 文明，文化
Their aim is to create an orderly， just and civilized society.（他们的目标是建立一个有序，公正而文明的社会。）
Professor Smith is going to give us a lecture on the history of Western civilization.（史密斯教授将给我们做有关西方文明史的讲座。）
China is one of the four ancient civilizations.（中国是四大文明古国之一。）
8.root n. 根；根本，根源； v. （使）生根，（使）扎根
The edible part of this plant is its root.（这种植物的可食部分是根。）
She flushed to the root of her hair.（她羞得满脸通红。）
The lust for money is the root of all evils.（贪财是一切罪恶的根源。）
Her love for the mother country is deeply rooted.（她对祖国的爱坚贞不移。）
He sat there rooted like a statue.（他像一尊雕塑一样一动不动地坐在那儿。）
9.magic n. 魔法，魔力；魔术
magical adj. 有魔力的；神秘的
magician n. 魔术师；巫师
The prince was turned by magic into a beast.（王子被魔法变成了一只野兽。）
We are trying to find someone to do some magic at the party.（我们正找人在晚会上玩魔术。）
The magic of music is beyond words.（音乐的魅力无法用言语形容。）
He used to believe that the old lady had magical powers.（他曾以为那个老太太有魔力。）
No one would ever forget this magical experience.（谁也不会忘记这一神秘的经历。）
The magician waved his wand and the rabbit disappeared. （魔术师挥了挥魔杖，兔子不见了。）
10.poisonous adj. 有毒的
poison n.& v. 毒药；中毒，毒死；破坏
Be careful！ It is one of the most poisonous snakes in the world.（小心，这是世界上最毒的一种蛇。）
Don't eat the leaves of this plant， they are poisonous.（别吃这种植物的叶子，有毒！）
If he drank the poison， he would probably die.（如果他喝了这毒药，他可能会死。）
One man's honey is another man’s poison.（对甲有利未必对乙也有利。）
He poisoned his wife.（他毒死了自己的妻子。）
Industrial wastes are poisoning the atmosphere.（工业废料在污染着大气。）
He had poisoned the political life of the nation. （他破坏了这个国家的政治生活。）
11.overseas adv. 在海外，在国外 adj. 海外的，国外的
He said he would travel overseas if he had a long holiday.（他说如果有长假，他就去国外旅游。）
These companies are investing large sums overseas.（这些公司正向海外进行高额投资。）
The overseas Chinese donated medicine and clothes to the flooded area.（海外华人向受灾地区捐赠药品和服装。）
There is a vast overseas market for our goods.（我们的产品有广阔的海外市场。）
12.widespread adj. 分布广的，普遍的
There was a widespread belief that she committed suicide.（人们普遍认为她是自杀的。）
Industrial robots will be in widespread use.（工业机器人将会广泛使用。）
Pollution problem is now attracting widespread attention.（污染问题正引起广泛关注。）
13.digestive adj. 消化的，有消化力的
digest v. 消化；领会
digestion n. 消化；领悟
indigestible adj. 难理解的；难消化的
The doctor told him there might be something wrong with his digestive system.（医生对他说他的消化系统可能有问题。）
It will be very helpful for you to digest the important points in the book.（领会这本书中的要点将会对你很有帮助。）
Every day they gave the old man food that was easy of digestion.（他们每天给老人易于消化的食物。）
The steak was tough and indigestible.（这牛排太老，不易消化。）
14.foundation n. 根据；基金会；基地
The early training gave her a very firm foundation.（早期的训练给她打下了坚实的基础。）
In fact the rumor is without foundation.（事实上，这个谣传没有根据。）
This conference is sponsored by the National Foundation for Educational Research.（这个会议是由全国教育研究基金会主办的。）
The construction workers are laying the foundations for a 28-story building.（建筑工人们正在为一座28层的高楼打地基。）
15.belief n. 相信；信念
believe v. 相信；认为
It is his belief that he will succeed sooner or later.（他相信他迟早会成功。）
What he told me just now is really beyond my belief.（他刚才对我说的话令我难以置信。）
I believe we will win the match.（我相信我们会赢这场比赛。）
Believe it or not he got a full mark in the exam.（信不信由你，他考试得了满分。）
16.combination n. 结合，联合；化合物
combine v. 结合，联合
The color purple is a combination of red and blue.（紫色是由红蓝两色混合而成。）
The football players showed good combination.（足球队员们配合默契。）
It will do us a lot of good if we can combine theory with practice.（如果把理论和实际结合起来将对我们大有好处。）
He very well combines the characters of soldier and poet.（他把军人和诗人的性格很好地融合在一起。）
17.chiefly adv. 主要地
chief n. 首领；长官 adj. 主要的
This vegetable juice is made up chiefly of tomatoes and cucumbers.（这种蔬菜汁主要由西红柿和黄瓜制成。）
I will have to go and talk to your department chief about it.（我得和你们部门的头儿好好谈谈。）
I think this will become the chief concern of the world today.（我认为这将成为当今世界的首要关心的问题。）
the editor in chief 总编 the chief engineer 总工程师
chief executive 最高行政长官 chief justice 首席法官
chief of staff 参谋长 chief of state 国家元首
18.contain v. 包含；容纳；克制
This mini-bus can contain 18 passengers.（这辆面包车可乘坐18人。）
How much water can this water tank contain？（这只水箱能装多少水？）
This book contains the material you need.（这本书里有你需要的材料。）
He cannot contain himself for the joy.（他高兴得不能自制。）
1.名词后缀 -ity quality
2.名词后缀 -ation；-ion； combination， civilization， foundation， digestion
3.名词后缀 -ture mixture
4.形容词后缀 -ous poisonous
5.形容词后缀 -ible indigestible
6.形容词后缀 -ful helpful， powerful
7.副词前缀 over- overseas
1.复合形容词 widespread； man-eating；
2.复合名词 man-eating； carbohydrate
1.Many primitive people believed that by eating an animal they could get some of the good qualities of that animal for themselves.
1）You must remember that it is never too old to learn.（你必须记住：活到老学到老。）
2）He says that friendship is very important to him.（他说友谊对他很重要。）
3）Don't forget what your parents said to you.（别忘了父母对你说过的话。）
4）Can you tell me where the bookstore is？（你能告诉我书店在哪儿吗？）
5）I don't know whether the letter is overweight.（我不知道这封信是否超重。）
1）By bribing a nurse I was able to see some files.（通过贿赂护士我才有可能看到一些卷宗。）
2）They made a living by selling newspapers.（他们通过卖报谋生。）
3）He tried to solve his problem by cheating me.（他通过骗我来解决自己的问题。）
4）We learn to swim by swimming.（我们在游泳中学会游泳。）
2.They thought that eating deer would make them run as fast as the deer.
1）Chatting on the internet would make him forget everything.（在网上聊天会使他忘记一切。）
2）Putting on air wouldn't do you any good.（摆架子不会对你有什么好处。）
3）Making friends with them is no easy job.（跟他们交朋友不是一件容易的事。）
make sb. do sth.意思是“使某人做某事”。make 后面的复合宾语中动词不定式符号to要省去，但是用被动语态时一定要用to，请看下面的句子：
1）The boss made them work from morning till night.（老板使他们从早到晚地干活。）
2）He made me sit here all the time.（他让我一直坐在这儿。）
3）She was made to finish the book in two days （by her father）。（父亲让她两天把书看完。）
4）I was made to return the money as soon as possible （by my friend）。 （朋友让我尽快还钱。）
3.Some savage tribes believed that eating enemies that had shown bravery in battle would make them brave.
本句中的第一个that 引导的又是一个宾语从句，而后一个that 引导的是定语从句，修饰enemies.请看下面的句子：
1）He is a man that you can rely on.（他是一个你可以依靠的人。）
2）She gave me some books that I am really interested in.（她给了我一些我很感兴趣的书。）
3）I would never forget the two years that I spent in that village.（我永远也不会忘记我在那个村子里度过的两年时光。）
本句中them brave 是make 的复合宾语，请看下面的句子：
1）Don't wait for him. He will make us late.（别等他了，他会使我们迟到的。）
2）He was afraid that the story would make things worse.（他担心那个故事会使事情更糟。）
3）I didn't know that the news had been made public.（我不知道这个消息已经公开了。）
4.It was once thought …
Eggs were thought to make the voice pretty.
Tomatoes were believed to have magical powers
They were called love apples and were supposed to make people who ate them fall in love.
1）孩子们受到很好的照顾。（The children are well taken care of.）
2）这个问题最近被谈论得很多。（This question has been much talked about recently.）
3）体育代表团在机场受到了热烈欢迎。（The sports delegation was given a warm welcome at the airport.）
4）那里讲什么语言？（What language is spoken there？）
5）这本书是为儿童写的。（This book is written for children.）
6）他被认为是这个工作的最佳人选。（He is thought to be the best candidate for the job.）
1）I suppose it was reasonable for him to want his money back.（我看他想要回他的钱是合理的。）
2）I suppose the answer is that he was not so hardworking.（我想答案在于他不够刻苦。）
3）The situation was even worse than was supposed.（形势比料想的更糟糕。）
4）Who do you suppose is the right person for the job？（你认为谁是这个工作的合适人选？）
5）I am not supposed to talk to you about this.（我不能和你谈这个。）
6）He was supposed to leave for Shanghai last night.（他应该昨夜动身去上海。）
7）Suppose / Supposing something should go wrong， what would you do？（如果有了什么差错，你怎么办？）
5.How surprised the people who thought tomatoes poisonous would be if they could know that millions of pounds of tomatoes were supplied to soldiers overseas during WWII.
“how surprised the people would be”是主句，这是一个感叹句；who 引导的定语从句修饰people；if 引导的是条件状语从句。
感叹句通常用what 或how 引起。what 用来修饰一个名词，how 修饰一个形容词，副词或动词。请看下面的句子：
1）What a kind-hearted man he is！（他是一个多么好心的人啊！）
2）What good news it is！（多好的消息啊！）
3）What a beautiful city！（多美的城市啊！）
4）How lovely the children are！（多可爱的孩子啊！）
5）How well she writes.（她写得多好啊！）
6）How I hated all this.（我多恨这一切啊！）
6.One such idea is that fish is the best brain food.
1）My suggestion is that we should leave right now.（我的建议是我们现在就离开。）
2）What is troubling me is that I don't have much experience in teaching.（使我苦恼的是我在教学方面的经验不多。）
3）My idea is that we offer them more help.（我的意思是我们给他们提供更多的帮助。）
4）The fact is that we don't have enough hands.（事实是我们人手不够。）
7.Washing food down with water as a substitute for chewing is not a good idea.
substitute for 是一个常用词组，意思是“代替，代用品”；substitute也可以做动词用，意思是“替代”。请看例句：
1）Don't you think it a good idea to use plastic as a substitute for wood？（你觉得用塑料做木材的代用品是个好主意吗？）
2）Daydreaming cannot substitute for hard work.（白日梦不能取代辛勤的努力。）
3）A middle-aged woman substituted for the English teacher during her absence.（英语老师不在时，由一位中年妇女代替。）
8.Many people think of bread as a carbohydrate food.
think of … as是一个习惯用法，意思是“把…看作是…”，“认为…是…”。请看下面的句子：
1）People think of him as a hero.（人们把他看作英雄。）
2）He thinks of himself as the most important member of the family.（他认为自己是最重要的家庭成员。）
3）The Yellow River is thought of as the cradle of the Chinese nation.（黄河被看作是中华民族的摇篮。）
与think of …as 意思相近的习惯用法还有regard …as；consider…as；look upon…as；view…as；see …as 等等。
1.be eager to 2.be supposed to
3.fall in love 4.grow up
5.be supplied to 6.substitute for
7.have sth. to do with 8.at the meal
9.as a matter of fact 10.think of …as…
11.in the same way
1.Many people believe that by eating an animal they could get some of the good qualities of that animal for themselves.
2.They thought eating deer would make them run as fast as the deer.
3.Some savage tribes believe that eating enemies that had shown bravery in battle would make them brave.
1.One idea was that fish is the best brain food.
2.Another idea is that you should not drink water with meals.
3.The reason was that the acid in the orange juice would make the milk curdle and become indigestible.
4.A similar wrong idea is that fish and ice cream …for a poisonous combination.
5.Still another idea is that proteins and carbohydrates should never be eaten at the same meal.
1.How surprised that people…would be …。
1.They thought eating deer would make them run as fast as deer.
2.Man-eating may have started because people were eager to become as strong and brave as their enemies.
3.One such idea is that fish is the best brain food.
4.Fish is good brain food just as it is good muscle food and skin and bone food.
5.But no one has been able to prove that fish is any better for the brain than many other kinds of food.
6.It is just as foolish to say that one should never eat meat and potatoes together as it is to say that one should never eat bread or drink milk.
Text B Do Animals Think？
1.a great deal
There is a great deal of concern about energy shortage.
We learned a great deal from her.
Look at the little boy， he is so much like his father.
War is not like what he described in his novel.
3.have time for
I don't know why he didn’t have time for breakfast.
Don't worry， we will have enough time for discussion.
He is trying very hard to engage the woman in further conversation.
It is not appropriate for a former president to engage in commerce.
5.take care of
The old people are well taken care of in the nursing homes.
She took care of her little brother while mother was away.
6.in some / many respects
in one / this respect
He is different from the people around him in many respects.
We are lagging behind at least in one respect.
I knew nothing about Jane except what I had heard at the party.
There was nothing we could do except wait and pray.
All the boys except Tom went camping last week.
In the evening she never went anywhere except to the nearest coffee house.
There is no evidence to connect the young man with the theft.
Good health is connected with diet.
There are serious questions connected with the radioactive waste disposal （放射性废料的处理）。
9.make improvement in
The company made great improvement in the wages and working conditions of the employees.
Animals do not make any real improvement in their ways of doing things.
She knew by instinct that he wouldn't be back.
Birds build their nests by instinct.
Professor Blackwell always speaks highly of his assistant.
Did he speak of the serious earthquake that struck Taiwan last week？
“Let me out，” the boy shouted，but nobody came.
The prisoners were let out of their cells.
He looked at me as if I were mad.
She opened her eyes as if conscious of my gaze.
He works so hard as if he never knew fatigue.
14.have one's wits about one〔机警，保持警觉〕
In this part of the city you have to have your wits about you all the time.
He felt it unnecessary to have his wits about him on such a friendly occasion.
15.a variety of
Don't bother him， he has a variety of duties to perform.
The college library has a wide variety of books.
Will you please tell me the difference between the two countries？
I cannot see any difference between the two oil paintings.