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09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit17)

2009-06-12 16:37  自考365论坛 【 】【我要纠错

  Text A  Panic and Its Effects

  本课主要单词

  1.panic vi. 恐慌,惊慌      n. 恐慌,惊慌

  panic-stricken adj. 惊慌失措的

  1)The crowd panicked at the ringing of the siren.(听到警报器响,人群惊慌失措。)

  2)Don't panic, Sit still keep calm.(不要惊慌,安静地坐着保持冷静。)

  3)The little boy panicked when thinking about the punishment he might get from his master.(想到主人可能会给他的惩罚,那个小男孩惊恐不安。)

  4)We didn't want to start a panic on the stock exchange.(我们不想引起证券交易恐慌。)

  5)The panic-stricken mother is looking for her child.(那位惊恐万状的母亲在寻找她的孩子。)

  6)The panic-stricken crowd rushed to the emergency exit.(惊恐万状的人群朝紧急出处口跑去。)

  (请注意,当panic用做动词时,其过去式是panicked,进行式是panicking.)

  2.severe adj. serious(严重的);strict(严厉的);艰难的

  1)He felt a severe pain in his left leg.(他感到左腿一阵剧痛。)

  2)They had a severe shortage of food.(他们的食品严重短缺。)

  3)He is very severe with his children.(他对孩子们很严厉。)

  4)He had a severe look on his face.(他脸上神色严肃。)

  5)A severe competition is waiting for them.(激烈的竞争在等待着他们。)

  6)Severe weather conditions hindered the rescue.(风雨交加的天气妨碍了营救。)

  3.accompany vt. 陪伴;伴随;为…伴奏

  1)She asked me to accompany her to the supermarket.(她让我陪她去超市。)

  2)He was accompanied to the party by a friend.(他由朋友陪同去参加聚会。)

  3)She came out of the house accompanied by her husband.(她在丈夫的陪同下走出了那座房屋。)

  4)A high fever often accompanies a mild infection.(轻微的炎症常常伴有高烧。)

  4.shortness n.(长度、距离或持续的时间)短;缺乏,不足

  1)The shortness of the trip relieved his anxiety.(行程的短暂减轻了他的焦虑。)

  2)Shortness of breath is one of the symptoms of a heart attack.(气急是心脏病的症状之一。)

  short adj. 短的;近的;不足的

  1)He has his hair cut short.(他剪短了头发。)

  2)The bus stop is a short walk from our school.(汽车站离我们学校不远,走一会儿就到。)

  3)Water is short in this area.(这个地区缺水。)

  4)We are short of hands, will you come to help us?(我们缺少人手,你能来帮我们吗?)

  5)They were running short of food.(他们的食品快吃完了。)

  5.nearby adj. adv. 附近的;在附近

  1)He was sent to the nearby hospital by his fellow workers.(他被同事送进了附近的医院。)

  2)She threw the key into the nearby bushes.(她把钥匙扔进了附近的灌木丛。)

  3)There is a supermarket nearby.(附近有一家超市。)

  4)The car stopped nearby.(汽车在附近停下。)

  6.diagnose v. 诊断;调查分析原因;判断

  dia-是一个前缀,通常表示“通过;在两者之间”的意思。如

  diagram(图表,图样);dialogue(对话)

  1)The doctor diagnosed the illness as flu.(医生诊断这病为流行性感冒。)

  2)The expert is diagnosing the pupil's reading difficulties.(专家正在找寻这个学生阅读困难的原因。)

  3)It is necessary to diagnose the cause of the economic and political decline.(有必要对经济和政治衰退的原因进行分析。)

  diagnosis n. 诊断

  1)He is sure his diagnosis will be confirmed.(他肯定自己的诊断会得以证实。)

  2)The boy's fever led to a diagnosis of pneumonia.(那男孩的发烧被诊断为肺炎所致。)

  7.moreover adv. 而且,此外

  1)I don't want to go swimming and, moreover, it is not warm enough.(我不想去游泳,再说天气也不够暖和。)

  2)The proposal was not well thought out; moreover, it was impractical.(这个建议本身就考虑得不周全,再说也不实际。)

  8.conduct v. 处理,管理;指挥;传导       n. 举止,行为

  1)They are conducting a survey of the region.(他们正对那一地区进行调查。)

  2)He is conducting the Boston Symphony Orchestra.(他正在指挥波士顿交响乐队。)

  3)Copper conducts electricity.(铜导电。)

  4)His conduct at the dinner party was disgraceful.(他在晚宴上的举止很丢人。)

  5)The government's conduct of the affair was satisfactory.(政府对这件事的处理是令人满意的。)

  9.disclose v. reveal(使显露;揭露,泄露)

  1)The surgeon took off his cap and surgical mask, disclosing a young and smart face.(外科医生除去手术帽和口罩,露出了一张年轻帅气的脸。)

  2)Make sure that he won't disclose the information to anybody.(确保他不会把消息泄露给任何人。)

  3)He reluctantly disclosed his views about this issue.(他很不情愿地透露了自己对这一议题的看法。)

  10.recurrent adj. happening many times(一再发生的;复发的)

  recur v. happen again(再发生,再现;回归)

  re-是一个前缀,意思是again(再次),如:recall(回忆),renew(更新);restore(恢复);revisit(重游)。

  cur是个词根,意思是run(流,跑),如:excursion(远足),occur(发生),concurrent(同时的,一致的)

  -ent是一个形容词后缀,如:ardent(热情的),obedient(服从的),prudent(谨慎的)

  1)We should pay attention to this recurrent spelling mistake.(我们应该注意这个经常发生的拼写错误。)

  2)The recurrent dream really disturbed him.(那个一再出现的梦的确令他不安。)

  3)If this cheating recurs, you will be expelled from school.(如果这样的作弊行为再发生,你将被开除出校。)

  4)His illness is likely to recur.(他的病可能复发。)

  5)Let's recur to what you mentioned just now.(让我们回到你刚才提到的话题上。)

  11.symptom n. 征候,征兆

  1)Fever is a symptom of illness.(发烧是患病的一种症状。)

  2)Most infections are contagious before any symptoms are noticed.(许多传染病在发现症状之前都已具有传染性。)

  3)The common symptom in these patients was poor appetite.(这些病人的共同症状是胃口不好。)

  12.bear v. 忍受;负担;结(果实),生(孩子)

  1)It was painful of course but I bore it.(这当然很痛苦,但我忍受住了。)

  2)It would be unjust for him to bear full responsibility for this accident.(让他为这起事故负全部责任是不公正的。)

  3)She had borne him a daughter.(她为他生了个女儿。)

  4)Some plants only bear fruit once every 25 years.(有些植物每25年才结一次果。)

  请注意bear,endure,stand,tolerate,put up with的区别。这几个词或词组的共同意思是“忍受”或“容忍”。

  bear和stand主要指对饥寒、疼痛、不幸、损失、困难等的忍受和承受;endure主要指对重大灾祸和困难的长时间地忍受;tolerate主要指容忍和自己的愿望相反的事;put up with指某些不愉快的或有轻微伤害的事情。

  bear多用于强调忍受的能力,不太强调其态度;endure则强调默默地、无怨言地忍受,但不屈服;stand强调自我约制、不屈不挠;tolerate强调宽恕和耐力。

  bear是个普通用语,而stand,put up with多用于口语中,endure比较正式,语气较强。

  1)I can't bear / stand black tea.(我喝不惯红茶。)

  2)The pain was almost more than he could bear.(疼痛几乎使他不能忍受。)

  3)She had endured great pain for several years.(她已忍受了几年极大的痛苦。)

  4)I cannot put up with your behavior any longer.(我再也不能忍受你的行为了。)

  5)The school cannot tolerate cheating on exams.(学校不容许作弊。)

  13.victim n. 牺牲品,受害者

  1)He was a victim of the second world war.(他是第二次世界大战的受害者。)

  2)They are trying to give some help to those flood victims.(他们正试图给水灾难民提供帮助。)

  3)After about two weeks,the victim's hair started to fall out.(大约两周后,受害人开始掉头发。)

  14.uneasy adj. 心神不安的,担心的,忧虑的

  1)He is uneasy about his future.(他为自己的前途担忧。)

  2)She looked uneasy but promised to follow his advice.(她看上去很不安,但答应听他的劝告。)

  3)She had an uneasy feeling that she was unlikely to get the job.(她有一种不安的感觉,觉得自己不可能得到那份工作。)

  4)Beneath his unease I sensed a nice nature.(在他拘谨的外表下,我感到他有一颗善良的心。)

  5)They worried a lot about the social unease.(他们对社会的不安定感到焦虑。)

  15.claim v. 声称,主张;对…提出要求,索取      n. 主张;断言

  1)One organization has claimed responsibility for the bombing.(已有一个组织声称这次爆炸是他们干的。)

  2)She claimed to have told the truth.(她声称她说的是实话。)

  3)He claimed that he had nothing to do with them.(他声称自己与他们毫无关系。)

  4)No one came to claim on this box.(没人来认领这个盒子。)

  5)An old man claimed the watch.(一位老人认领了那块手表。)

  6)The matter claims our attention.(这事需要我们予以注意。)

  7)They have put forward a claim for compensation.(他们已经提出索赔。)

  8)Having made such a bold claim,she finds it hard to admit she was wrong.(作出了如此大胆的断言,她发现要承认自己错了很难。)

  9)His claim to the property was denied.(他对财产的所有权被否决了。)

  16.multiplicity n. 多种多样,多样性

  1)We are all amazed at the multiplicity of the nature.(大自然的多样性令我们大家惊奇。)

  2)They found a multiplicity of errors in the article.(他们在文章中发现了许多错误。)

  3)How could he cope with a multiplicity of duties.(他怎能应付这繁多的职责?)

  multiple adj. 多个的,多种的;许多的

  1)He got a multiple entry visa.(他签到了多次入境签证。)

  2)They have made multiple achievements in the past five years.(在过去的五年中,他们取得了种种成就。)

  17.endanger v. 危害

  请注意这个词是由动词前缀en-加名词danger构成的,英语中,这一类词很多,如encourage(鼓励),enlist(入伍;协助),enrage(激怒),entrust(委托)等等。

  1)His health is endangered by overwork.(他的健康因劳累过度而受到损害。)

  2)They claimed that the herbicides would not endanger human life.(他们声称这些除草剂不会危及人的生命。)

  18.disrupt v. 使破裂;扰乱

  1)The war disrupted the economy.(战争扰乱了经济。)

  2)Traffic was disrupted by the snow storm.(交通因暴风雪而中断。)

  3)Their misunderstanding disrupted the partnership.(他们之间的误解使他们散伙。)

  disruption n. 破裂,混乱

  1)The whole factory was in disruption.(整个工厂一片混乱。)

  2)The incident led to the disruption of the family.(那件事导致了家庭的破裂。)

  19.eventually adv. 终于,最终

  eventual adj. 最后的,结果的

  1)He eventually realized that he was wrong.(他终于意识到自己错了。)

  2)They eventually took over the company.(他们终于接管了那家公司。)

  3)His mistake led to his eventual dismissal.(他的错误致使他最终被解雇。)

  4)He is sure about his eventual success.(他肯定自己最终会成功。)

  20.confirm v. 证实,肯定;批准,确认

  1)You need to confirm your reservations 48 hours in advance.(你需要提前48小时确定预订。)

  2)The rumor is confirmed.(谣传被证实了。)

  3)Her remarks confirmed me in my belief that the young man was innocent.

  (她的话使我进一步认定那个年轻男子是清白的。)

  4)The United Nations has confirmed the treaty.(联合国已批准了这项条约。)

  本课简介

  越来越多的美国人会在一生中一次或多次地经历惊吓症。惊吓症的症状与心脏病的症状极其相似,于是得了惊吓症的 人往往误认为自己得了心脏病。那么惊吓症与心脏病如何区别?心脏病的症状只是气急和疼痛,而惊吓症则会有如下的表现:1)对一些极寻常的情况惊恐不安; 2)气急、胸痛。心跳加快,突然发抖,周围的人或物变得虚幻;3)恐惧死亡或疯狂;4)发病年龄在20-30岁;5)女性多于男性; 6)症状多样化;7)大量饮酒和使用药物的人多发。惊吓症虽然不会对人的生命产生直接危害,但是专家们建议最好向医生咨询,如果确实患有惊吓症,则需要心 理和药物治疗。

  本课主要语言点

  1.…suddenly had severe pains in her chest accompanied by shortness of breath.

  哪个部位的疼痛,通常用pain in…来表示,比如:a pain in the abdomen(腹部疼痛),a pain in the chest(胸部疼痛)。当然我们也可以用abdomen pain,chest pain 来表达。而a pain in the neck 则是指“令人讨厌或恼火的人或事”)。

  pain是个常用词,可以做名词用也可以做动词用。

  1)No pains, no gains.(不劳则无获。)

  2)Father went to great pains to stress the importance of independence.(父亲煞费苦心地强调独立的重要性。)

  3)The death of his daughter gave the old man much pain. (女儿的去世令那位老人极为悲痛。)

  4)My left leg is paining.(我的左腿痛。)

  5)It pains her to see him thinner from illness.(看到他因病日渐消瘦,她心里很难过。)

  be accompanied by 意为“由…伴随”;如:

  1)He burst into the room accompanied by his body guards.(他在保镖的伴随下闯进屋里。)

  2)Pneumonia is often accompanied by fever and cough. (肺炎常常伴有发烧和咳嗽。)

  2.Her husband immediately rushed Anne to a nearby hospital where her pains were diagnosed as having been caused by panic, and not a heart attack.

  请注意“rush”在本句中的用法。在此作及物动词用。如:

  1)He rushed the tourists round the sights. (他带着游客们匆匆参观了各处名胜。)

  2)The ambulance rushed him to a hospital.(救护车火速送他进医院。)

  3)Let me think about it and don't rush me.(让我把这件事想一下,别催我。)

  在大多数情况下rush作不及物动词和名词用。如:

  1)The rain rushed against the house.(暴雨冲打着屋子。)

  2)The reporters are rushing to the scene.(记者们正赶往现场。)

  3)Blood rushed to his face when the young man offered to buy him a pudding.(当那位年轻人提出给他买个蛋糕时,血涌上了他的脸。)

  4)There is no rush.(不用急急忙忙的。)

  5)She felt a sudden rush of dizziness.(她感到一阵眩晕。)

  6) He went to America during the Californian gold rush.(他在加利福尼亚淘金热时去了美国。)

  nearby 可以做形容词用,也可以做副词用,在本句中用作形容词,修饰其后的名词hospital.

  diagnose…as… 把…诊断为…,如:

  1)His failure was diagnosed as being caused by carelessness.(他的失败被判定为由粗心所致。)

  2)The doctor diagnosed her illness as diabetes.(医生诊断她的病是糖尿病。)

  因为句子中的as是介词,在介词后要用动名词,又由于需用被动语态,所以出现了having been caused by的形式。

  3.More and more Americans nowadays are having panic attacks like the one experienced by Anne Peters.

  本句中的like是一个出现频率很高的词,在下列例句中,like用作介词:

  1)She is like a bird.(如像鸟儿一样。)

  2)It was not like him to forget her birthday.(他才不会把她的生日忘记呢。)

  3)I feel like sleeping.(我想睡觉。)

  4)It looks like a clear day tomorrow. (明天看来会是晴天。)

  5)He acts like a grown up person.(他的举止行动像成人。)

  experienced by Anne Peters 在句子中做定语,修饰the one .

  1)I don't like the one chosen by him.(我不喜欢他选择的那一个。)

  2)The camera bought by Xiao Li is stolen.(小李买的那个相机被偷了。)

  4.The symptoms of panic attacks bear such remarkable similarity to those of heart attacks that many victims believe that they are indeed having a heart attack.

  通常我们用so…that…。 表示“如此……以致于……” .本句中的such ,是因为so只能用来修饰形容词和副词,而名词(名词短语)则要用 such 来修饰,如:

  1)He ran so fast that no one could catch up with him.(他跑得这样快,没人能赶上他。)

  2)This book is so interesting that he doesn't want to put is down.(这本书太有意思了,他都不想把书放下。)

  3)It was such a sunny day that he wanted to go out to enjoy the warm sunshine.(天气如此睛朗,他想出去享受这温暖的阳光。)

  在形容词similar的后面通常用介词 to,使用名词 similarity 时,其后也用 to.如:

  1)My problems are similar to yours.(我的问题与你的类似。)

  2)The two cats are similar to each other in appearance and size.(这两只猫的模样和大小相仿。)

  3)Liverpool has a certain similarity to Marseilles.(利物浦和马赛有某种相像。)

  句子中的those 代指symptoms.

  5.A person seized by a panic attack may show all or as few as four of these symptoms.

  请注意本句中seize这个动词的词意及用法。

  1)抓住;抓住(时机等),利用

  The police seized him by the collar.(警察抓住了他的衣领。)

  Seizing the bowl, he ran off through the door.(他抓起碗冲出门去。)

  He seized the chance to study abroad.(他抓住了那次去国外学习的机会。)

  2)逮捕

  He was seized outside the city.(他在市郊被捕获。)

  The escaped prisoner was seized on Sunday.(逃犯于周日被抓获。)

  3)(常用被动语态)(疾病)侵袭;(情绪)支配

  The old man was seized by a stroke.(那位老人中风了。)

  She was seized with jealousy.(她妒火中烧。)

  Panic seized the people in the cave.(洞里的人们惊慌失措。)

  “seize”也可用不及物动词,如:

  1)He would seize on (upon) any excuse to justify himself.(他会利用一切借口为自己辩解。)

  2)He was determined to seize on (upon) the opportunity to leave his employer a good impression.(他决心抓住这个机会给他的雇主留下好印象。)

  6.There has been a lot of explanations as to the causes of panic attacks.

  本句中的as to 意思是about(关于),如:

  1)John has been given no directions as to what to write. (没人对约翰说明该写什么。)

  2)I have no doubt as to his honesty.(对他的诚实,我毫无疑问。)

  3)I was asked my opinion as to why he refused our help.(对他为什么拒绝我们的帮助,我被要求发现见解。)

  7.It is reported that there are at least three signs that indicate a person is suffering from a panic attack rather than a heart attack.

  It + be + -ed 分词 +that从句……that引导的是一个主语从句, it 做形式主语放在句首。如:

  1)It is often stated that Shakespeare was born on April 23, 1564.(人们常说莎士比亚生于1564年4月23日。)

  2)It is believed that he has told the truth.(人们相信他说了实话。)

  3)It is known to all that light travels in straight lines.(众所周知,光以直线运行。)

  rather than在本句中的意思是“不是……而是……”,如:

  1)He lay rather than sat in his armchair.(他躺在扶手椅里而不是坐在里面。)

  2)The freckles over her face were an added attraction rather than otherwise.(她脸上的雀斑不但无损容貌反而令她更动人。)

  8.Dr. Crocker's advice to any person who thinks he is suffering from a panic attack is to consult a doctor for a medical examination to rule out the possibilities of physical illness first.

  to在本句中用作介词,advice to sb. 意为“给某人的劝告”,如:

  1)My advice to you is that you should be more polite to other people.(我对你的劝告是你应该对别人更礼貌一些。)

  2)The teacher's advice to me was to study harder.(老师劝我学习更努力。)

  consult在本句中的意思是“请教,咨询”,如:

  1)He consulted the doctor about his illness.(他找那位医生看病。)

  2)Your baby is losing weight, you should consult your doctor promptly.(你的孩子体重在下降,你应该立即去向医生咨询。)

  rule out的意思是“排除”,如:

  1)Police have ruled out murder but are still holding several people for questioning.(警方排除他杀的可能,但仍留了一些人审问。

  2)He ruled out the possibility that he could fight again.(他排除了再度出战的可能性。)

  本课主要词组

  1.be accompanied by

  2.shortness of

  3.rush sb. to (a place)

  4.be caused by

  5.suffer from

  6.bear similarity to

  7.most of all

  8.be seized by

  9.as to

  10.rather than

  11.be isolated from

  12.rule out

  13.at least

  14.as yet

  15.be likely to

  16.all the same

  Text B  Sleepwalking——Fact or Fancy?

  短语表达

  1.search for

  All his life he has been searching for the meaning of life.

  The police are searching for the escaped prisoner in the wood.

  2.in the middle

  Don't disturb him, he is in the middle of a meeting.

  He is standing in the middle of the room enraged.

  3.border on

  The American people's respect for President Lincoln borders on worship.

  China borders on Mongolia in the north.

  4.put…on record

  Students' performance at school is usually put on record.

  The criminal cases are all put on record.

  5.wake up

  He had a lot of difficulty waking up so early in the morning.

  The noise outside woke him up.

  6.take measures

  Effective measures have to be taken to control pollution.

  They have taken some measures to rid the boy of his bad habit.

  7.outgrow

  The boy will outgrow the jacket in a year.

  I believe he will outgrow the habit when he is older.

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本文转载链接:09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit17)

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