Text A Families
1.definition n. 定义，释义
define v. 解释；给…定义；明确表示
He simply said it was very difficult for him to give a definition for that word.（他只是说要他给那个词下个定义是很困难的。）
The dictionary gives us several definitions， which makes me more confused about the meaning of this word. （辞典给了我们好几个释义，这使我对该词的意思更加困惑。）
People define him as a genius. （人们说他是天才。）
I have already defined my position on that issue. （我已经明确表示了我在这个问题上的立场。）
2.marriage n. 婚姻，结婚
marry v. 结婚
married adj. 结了婚的
No one expected that their marriage could break up because of a misunderstanding.（谁也没想到他们的婚姻竟会因为误解而破裂。）
Her second marriage lasted only 6 weeks. （她的第二次婚姻只维持了六个星期。）
They are in love with each other and wish to marry. （他们彼此相爱，希望结婚。）
Her parents said they wouldn't allow her to marry that poor young man.（她的父母说他们不会允许她与那个穷苦的年轻人结婚。）
He was 35， married with two children. （他35岁，已婚，有两个孩子。）
She was married to the young artist last month. （她上个月与那位年轻的艺术家结了婚。）
（请注意：要表述某人同某人结婚，不能用sb. marries / married with sb. else，而应该用sb. marries/married sb. else 或者sb. is/was married to sb. else 来表述。）
3.descend v. 下降；传下，遗传；堕落
descendant n. 子孙，后裔
ascend v. 上升；登高；追溯到某个时期
ascendant n. 优势；祖先（与descendant相对而言） adj. 优势的
The sun descended behind the hills. （太阳下了山。）
The customs have descended to our generation. （这些习俗一直传到我们这一代。）
He was so poor that he descended to begging. （他穷得只好乞讨度日。）
As descendants of the early settlers， they were tolerant and hardworking.（作为早期移民的后裔，他们忍耐而勤劳。）
They are descendants of an Indian tribe. （他们是一支印第安部落的后裔。）
The airplane ascended into the cloud. （飞机高高飞入云端。）
Queen Victoria ascended ascended the throne in 1837.（维多利亚女王于1837年登上王位。）
His party is no longer in the ascendant. （他那一派已经优势不再。）
We still have the ascendant position in world politics. （我们在国际政治中仍占优势地位。）
4.ancestor n. 祖先，祖宗
His ancestors came to America on the Mayflower. （他的祖先乘“五月花”号来到美洲。）
Their grandfathers were the ancestors of some of the well-known families in Boston.（他们的祖父辈是波士顿几家望族的祖先。）
ancestry n. [总称] 列祖列宗；血统
He was born of good ancestry. （他出身名门。）
She is an American of German ancestry. （她是德国血统的美国人。）
5.household n. 家庭，户；一家人
How many people are there in your household？ （你们家有几口人？）
Early in the morning the household got into a car and headed for the beach.（一大早，全家人坐上汽车往海边驶去。）
Household chores are not just women's work. （家务杂事不只是妇女的活。）
Einstein is a household name in the civilized world. （爱因斯坦是文明世界里家喻户晓的名字。）
6.relative n. 亲属，亲戚 adj. 相对的
His wife had to visit some of her relatives for a few days. （他妻子需要几天时间去看娘家的亲戚。）
The apes are man's closest relatives. （猿是与人类亲缘关系最为接近的动物。）
He told me that his aunt was his only immediate relative. （他告诉我说姑母是他唯一的至亲。）
All human values are relative. （人类的一切价值标准都是相对的。）
The Jackson's are living in relative comfort now. （现在，杰克逊一家生活过得比较舒适。）
7.traditional adj. 传统的
tradition n. 传统
Alice said she would be happy to have a traditional Chinese wedding.（爱丽丝说能有一个传统的中国婚礼她会很开心。）
More and more Westerners believe in traditional Chinese medicine now.（现在，越来越多的西方人相信传统中医了。）
He reassured his grandfather that he would keep up the family tradition by all means.（他向祖父保证，他会尽一切可能保持家庭传统。）
In his lecture he talked briefly about the history and traditions of the movement.（在他的讲座中，他简述了那次运动的历史和传统。）
8.security n. 完全；保障；把握
secure v. 保卫，保证，获得 adj. 完全的
We are all concerned for the security of the passengers. （我们都很担心旅客的安全。）
Children rely on their parents for love and security. （孩子们靠父母给他们爱和完全感。）
The girl delivered her speech with great security. （那个女孩满怀信心地讲演着。）
She felt secure only when she made sure that both doors were locked.（只有确信两道门都锁上了时，她才感到放心。）
We all dream of living a quiet and secure life. （我们都梦想过上平静、安定的生活。）
His carefulness secured him from making more mistakes. （他的细心保证了他不犯更多的错误。）
His father couldn't believe that he secured such a good job. （他父亲不相信他找到了这么好的一份工作。）
9.basically adv. 基本上；从根本上说，大致说来
basic adj. 基础的，根本的；初步的；主要的
base n. 基础，根据；基地 v. 把…基于
My work is basically to train students' ability in reading and writing.（从根本上说，我的工作是训练学生的读、写能力。）
There are basically two types of families： nuclear families and extended families.（大致说来，有两类家庭：核心家庭和大家庭。）
The basic theme of these stories is more or less the same. （这些故事的主题大致相同。）
They are trying to solve the basic economic problems. （他们正试图解决那些基本的经济问题。）
What is your basic aim in life？ （你基本的生活目标是什么？）
The base of his argument is that our after service is not very satisfactory.（他的论据是我们的售后服务不十分令人满意。）
The weary soldiers marched back to their base. （疲惫不堪的士兵们列队返回基地。）
We should base our opinions on facts. （我们的观点应该基于事实的基础之上。）
This film is based on the life story of a general. （这部影片是根据一位将军的生平改编的。）
10.nuclear adj. 核子的，核能的；中心的
Mao Zetong used to say that under no circumstances would China be the first to use nuclear weapons.（毛泽东曾经说过在任何情况下，中国都不会第一个使用核武器。）
Greece was once a nuclear civilization of the world. （希腊一度是世界文明的中心。）
a nuclear explosion 核爆炸 nuclear electricity 核电力
a nuclear power plant 核电站 nuclear technology 核技术
the nuclear age 核时代 nuclear monopoly 核垄断
nuclear waste 核废料 a nuclear nation 拥有核武器的国家
nuclear bomb 核弹 nuclear disarmament 核裁军
nuclear family 核心家庭 nuclear-free zone 无核区
nuclear fuel 核燃料 nuclear reactor 核反应堆
11.nucleus n. 核，核心，中心；起点，开始
These young people formed the nucleus of the internet bar. （这些年轻人成了网吧的核心。）
The strange behavior of the absent-minded professor became the nucleus of all the stories.（“心不在焉”教授的奇异举止成为所有故事的中心内容。）
12. agricultural adj. 农业的
agriculture n. 农业
More and more modern agricultural methods are used in that village.（在那个村子里，人们越来越多地使用现代农业方法。）
The agricultural production is on the rise this year. （今年的农业生产呈上升态势。）
His solution greatly improved the agriculture in this area. （他的方法极大地推动了这一地区的农业发展。）
13.industrial adj. 工业的，产业的
industrialize v. （使）工业化
The industrial output of this city doubled last year. （去年这个城市的工业产量增加了一倍。）
The Industrial Revolution influenced the whole world. （工业革命影响了全世界。）
The country has been steadily industrializing. （这个国家一直在稳步实现工业化。）
14.post-industrial adj. 后工业化的
post-war policies 战后政策
postgraduate courses 研究生课程
post-harvest storage 收后贮藏
15.earner n. 赚钱者；获得收入者
earnings n. 挣得的财物；收入，利润
earn v. 挣得，获得
How many earners are there in your family？ （你们家几个人挣钱？）
Father is not the only earner in the family. （父亲不是家里唯一挣钱的人。）
What are you going to do with your earnings？ （挣来的钱你打算干什么用？）
He earns 40 dollars a day. （他每天挣四十美元。）
How did he make his living？ （他靠什么谋生？）
His brave act won him the name of a hero. （他的英勇行为使他得到了英雄的名声。）
16.split v. 撕裂；分开；使分裂；分担 n. 分裂，裂口
He is splitting the firewood with an axe. （他正用斧子劈木柴。）
They split the cost of the party between them. （他们两人分担了宴会的费用。）
They split up after years of marriage. （他们俩结婚多年之后分开了。）
She split with her boyfriend last week. （上个星期她与她的男友绝交了。）
Mother mended a split in my trousers. （妈妈缝好了我裤子上的一条裂缝。）
split second 一刹那
split personality 分裂人格
17.divorce v. 离婚；与…离婚 n. 离婚
The child's parents divorced last month. （这孩子父母上个月离了婚。）
He divorced his wife. （他同妻子离了婚。）
I don't think it is possible to divorce sports from politics. （我认为把体育与政治分离开来是不可能的。）
1.名词后缀 -ion definition
2.名词后缀 -age marriage
3.名词后缀 -ity security
4.形容词后缀 -al agricultural，industrial，traditional，social
5.动词后缀 -ize industrialize
1.…a group of people related by blood or marriage， …
句子中的by常可与某些名词连用，在名词前面不加定冠词the，意思相当于“with regard to”，“according to”。请看下面的例句：
1） He is an Englishman by birth. （他祖籍英国。）
2） He is a teacher by profession. （他以医生为职业。）
3）By birth and by education Thomas Jefferson belonged to the highest social class， but he never looked down upon the working-class people.
1）It is not difficult for people to relate the result to the cause. （人们要把结果和原因联系起来并不困难。）
2）It might be more helpful to you if you can relate theory to practice.（如果你能把理论和实践联系起来，对你的帮助也许会更大。）
1） He related us a story vividly. （他生动地给我们讲述了一个故事。）
2） His talk related to the international situation. （他的讲话涉及国际形势。）
3）He relates very well to his classmates. （他和同学们相处得很好。）
1） These four people are closely related to each other. （这四个人联系紧密。）
2） He is very much interesting in painting and the related arts. （他对绘画及其有关的艺术很感兴趣。）
2.…all those people descended from a common ancestor， …所有来自同一祖先的人们。
“descended from a common ancestor”是一个省略了that的定语从句，修饰people.descended from的意思是“传下，遗传”，如：
1） His family were descended from an Indian tribe. （他的家庭是印第安部落的后裔。）
2） Darwin concluded that men were descended from apes. （达尔文断定人由猿进化而来。）
descend to 的意思是“屈尊，降低；转而说到”
1） The firm had descended to using nude pictures for advertising. （那家公司堕落到用裸照做广告。）
2）Mr. Lee then descended to the details we had to be careful about.（李先生转而谈到了我们必须注意的细节问题。）
1）No doubt， this is a grammatical mistake common to beginners in English. （毫无疑问，这是英语初学者常犯的语法错误。）
2）How could you have no idea about this common knowledge？ （对这个普通常识你怎么会一无所知。）
3）They have no common interests. （他们没有共同的爱好。）
3.Some people thank of a family as a mother， a father， and their children， …
think of …as …是一个很常用的词组，意思是“把…看作…”，如：
1） He often thinks of himself as a genius. （他常把自己看作为天才。）
2） The Yellow River is thought of as the cradle of the Chinese nation. （黄河被看作为中华民族的摇篮。）
regard…as look upon…as…
4.For others， having a family simply means having children.
本句中，having a family做主语，mean为谓语动词，having children 做宾语。mean在句中的意思是“意味着”。当mean作“意味着”解释时，在它的后面应该跟名词或者动名词，如：
1）Accepting the job would mean moving to another city. （接受这份工作将意味着我得搬到另一个城市去。）
2）A raise in the worker's salary will mean a cut in the profit. （增加工人的工资意味着利润的降低。）
1）I didn't mean to offend you. （我无意冒犯你。）
2）I meant to give you the book yesterday， but I forgot it. （我原打算昨天把书给你的，但我忘了。）
5.Some families have long histories， while others know very little about their ancestors.
请注意while的用法，在本句中while是一个表示转折意味的连词，意思是“然而”。如：Fred gambled all his money away while Jane saved every penny for her son's schooling. （弗雷德赌输了他所有的钱，而珍妮却为儿子的教育攒下每一分钱。）
1）They decided to find a less expensive place to stay while in Paris.（在巴黎期间，他们打算找个更便宜的地方住。）
2）He looked at his watch several times while talking to her. （在跟她交谈时，他看了几次表。）
3）One group of children are quiet， while the second group was very active. （一组孩子很安静，而第二组孩子非常活跃。）
4）While I have sympathy for these people， I think they are guilty. （尽管我同情这些人，但我觉得他们有罪。）
5）We will succeed while we don't lose hope. （只要我们不失去希望，我们就会成功。）
6.No matter if it is young or old， large or small traditional or modern， every family has a sense of what a family is.
no matter if 连接让步状语从句，更常见的是用no matter whether.除了no matter whether以外，no matter wh-引导的让步状语从句还有：no matter what， no matter who， no matter whose， no matter which， no matter when， no matter where， no matter how等等。而用wh-ever引导让步从句也是十分常见的。请看下面的例句：
1） No matter what happens， please let me know. （无论发生什么事，请让我知道。）
2） No matter who telephones， tell him I'm out. （无论谁来电话，告诉他我出去了。）
3）No matter how hard I tried， I couldn't succeed. （无论我多努力，我总不能成功。）
4） No matter whether you believe it or not， it's truth. （无论你信不信，那总是事实。）
5） No matter where you go， I will follow you. （无论你去哪里，我都跟着你。）
6） No matter which book you like you can have it. （无论你喜欢哪本书，你都可以拿去。）
7） No matter whose money it is， we can't spend it so carelessly. （无论是谁的钱，我们都不能这样随意地花）
1） Whatever happens， please let me know.
2） Whoever telephones， tell him I'm out.
3）However hard I tried， I couldn't succeed.
4） Wherever you go， I will follow you.
5） Whichever book you like， you can have it.
7.It is that feeling of belonging， of love and security that comes from living together， helping and sharing.
本句中的it代指课文前一句中的a sense of what a family is. feeling of belonging 意思为“归属感”。
that comes from living together， helping and sharing 是定语从句，修饰that feeling of belonging， of love and security.
8.However， with the change from an agricultural to an industrial society， many nuclear families moved away from the family home in order to find work.
1） This， however， is not your fault. （但这不是你的错。）
2） I'd like to go with you， however， my hands are full. （我很想和你一起去，可是我忙不过来。）
1）With the change of the economic foundation， the superstructure has to be transformed too.（随着经济基础的改变，上层建筑也必须改造。）
2）With the development of science and technology， the society is changing rapidly.（随着科学技术的发展，社会在迅速地改变。）
1）Who will go with you？ （谁和你一起去？）
2）The teacher is very strict with us. （老师对我们很严格。）
3）At the news we all jumped with joy. （听了这个消息，我们都高兴得跳了起来。With表示原因。）
4）He wanted to kill two birds with one stone. （他想一举两得。With意为“用，以”，译法可灵活。）
5）China is a country with a large population. （中国是一个有众多人口的国家。With表示“有，带有”）
6）He finished this work with great difficulty. （他好不容易才完成了这项工作。With引起短语作方式状语。）
7）He was sitting in a chair with his hands folded.
8）What's wrong with you？ （你怎么了？with意为“就…来说”）
9）With your knowledge and experience， you are sure to find a good job. （以（凭）你的知识和经验，你肯定会找到一份好工作。）
10）With all his shortcomings， he was a nice person. （尽管他有缺点，他还是个不错的人。）
句子中的in order to find work做目的状语，除了用in order to 以外，还可以用so as to，也可以把in order，so as省去，只用不定式。请看例句：
1）He decided to study harder （so as ） to catch up with the others. （他决定加紧学习好赶上别人。）
2）He ran out in a hurry （in order） to catch the last bus. （为了赶上末班车，他匆匆向外跑去。）
9.Therefore we can say that the nuclear family becomes more important than the extended family as the society industrializes.
句子中的therefore是一个副词，通常用来表示后面将要表述的内容是前面已经表述的内容的结果，也可以用来引导一个结论。类似的表达还有：so，consequently，as a result 等等。请看例句：
1）It rained， therefore the football match was put off. （天下雨，所以足球比赛延期了。）
2）He is too careless， as a result he failed the exam. （他太粗心，所以考试没及格。）
3）He was ill for about a month， consequently he lagged behind his classmates.（他病了一个月，因此落在了同学后面。）
as the society industrializes随着社会的工业化。as是一个连词，表示“当…时”。请看例句：
1）As time goes on， you'll like this place better. （随着时间的推移，你会更喜欢这个地方。）
2）As he talked on he got more and more excited. （他谈着的时候，越来越兴奋。）
1）The nuclear family is becoming smaller as parents want fewer children.
2）As social scientists study these two new family forms， they will be able to tell us more about the future of the nuclear family in the post-industrial age.
10.social scientists now talk of two new family forms…
1）What are you talking about？（你们在谈什么？）
2）They are talking of visiting Mr. Zhang.（他们正谈论去看张先生的事。）
3）What do you mean when you talk about culture？（你谈论文化时指的是什么？）
Text B The Changing American Family
We have friends all over the world.
I have been looking all over for him.
Father had to work very hard to provide food and clothes for the family.
They are trying to provide some guidance for the newcomers.
3.be expected to
Parents are expected to provide for their children.
You are expected to be here before eight.
4.take care of
The nurse took care of the old lady when her daughter was away.
The cat and the dog were taken good care of.
5.on the other hand
I don't think this proposal is workable. On one hand we don’t have so much money， on the other hand time is too limited.
6.be considered to be
He is considered to be the best candidate for the job.
Father is considered to be a humorous and responsible person.
7.in addition （to）
In addition， there are some magazines on the table.
In addition to bread， we had some milk and eggs for breakfast.
You have to make an immediate decision about the project.
It is difficult for me to make a decision right now.
He hoped that his brother would help him with his math.
At weekends I often help my mother with the housework.
In contrast with the low grade I got， Paul got a full mark on the biology test.
Their club， in contrast， reached a membership of 2000 last year.
You will amount to nothing if you always give up easily.
The doctor persuaded my father to give up smoking.
12.get ready for
He got up early in the morning in order to get ready for the exam.
I haven't got ready for the interview yet.
13.be busy doing
Mother is busy cooking in the kitchen.
The teacher is busy distributing the test papers.
She will say a few words about the arrangement in conclusion.
In conclusion，the old people are happy in most of the Asian countries.
Instead of getting the bike repaired he bought a new one.
Who is going to the meeting instead of you？