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2006-04-28 15:59  自考365社区 【 】【我要纠错


    1、Enlightenment名词解释 简答:启蒙运动

    Enlightement was an intellectual (知识分子) movement originating in France, which attracted (吸引) widespread (普遍的) support (支持) among the ruling (统治阶级) and intellectural classes of Europe and North America in the second half of the 18th century. It characterizes the efforts (作用) by certain European writers to use critical reason (批评推理) to free minds from prejudice (偏见), unexamined authority (权威) and oppression (压迫) by Church or State (国家政权)。 Therefore the Enlightenment is sometimes called the Age of Reason (理智的年代)。

    (Why do we say the 17th century provides the intellectual origin for the Enlightement?)

    2、启蒙运动的先行者:John Locke and Isaac Newton

    3、Newton‘s theory of gravitation (万有引力理论) further demonstrated (进一步证实) to the world that the universe is governed (控制) by laws that could be understood by the human mind.(可以为人所知)

    4、The major force of the Enlightenment was the French philosophes, such as Montesquieu, Voltaire (伏尔泰) and Rousseau (卢梭)。 Diederot, who edited the famous Encyclopédie (百科全书)。

    5、Diederot —→ Encyclopédie (百科全书)。


    —→ was the first of the great French men of letters associated with the Enlightenment


    —→ Persian Letters (波斯人的信札)

    —→ The spirit of the Laws (论法的精神)

    7、It is an investigation (研究) of the environmental and social relationships that lie behind the laws of civilized society.

    8、The definition of law by Montesquieu.

    9、“must be adapted to each people” 是Montesquieu 在 The Spirit of the Laws 中提到

    10、The theory of the separation of powers (三权分立理论) was put forward by Montesquieu in his work The Spirit of the Laws. He believed that the legislative (立法), executive (行政) and judicial (司法) powers must be confided (托付) to different individuals, acting independently. (独立的行为)

    11、The theory of the separation of powers was accepted by the U.S. Constitution.


    12、Voltaire (伏尔泰) —→ His works are an outstanding embodiment (杰出的体现) of the principles (原则性的) of the French Enlightenment.

    —→ Letters Anglaise (Letters philosophiques) 哲学信件

    —→ Candide (名字)

    13、Rousseau (卢梭)

    The greatest figures of the French Enlightenment (对浪漫主义文学思潮产生影响的法国哲学家是卢梭) he glorified human nature and attacked social inequality. (赞扬人的本质反对社会不平等)

    —→ The Origin of Human Inequality (论人类平等的根源)

    “man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.”

    —→ The Social Contract (社会契约论) social democracy 呼唤社会的民主

    14、Rousseau 之所以比 Hobbes 和 Locke 更高级是因为他提出了 social democracy. P233

    15、Daniel Defoe —→ Robinson Crusoe (鲁滨逊漂流记)

    —→ One of the greatest fiction writers (小说作家) of 18th century England.

    在启蒙运动中英国有一部触及现实主义的作品和人是:Daniel Defoe

    16、Swift —→ Satirist (讽刺大师) in the English language

    —→ A modest Proposal (温和的建议)

    —→ Gulliver‘s Travels (格列佛游记)

    17、Fielding —→ Father of the English novel (英国现代小说之父) 第一个写小说的是乔叟

    —→ 小说类型为:Modern novel

    —→ The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (一个弃儿的历史)

    18、He was also the first person to approach the genre (类型) with a fully worked-out theory of the novel. (用小说理论进行创作的第一人)

    19、Goethe (歌德) —→ 德国文学第一人

    —→ The Sorrows of Young Werther (少年维特的烦恼) 郭沫若翻译

    —→ Faust (浮士德)

    —→ Poetry and Truth (诗和真理) Autobiography (自传体)

    20、Schiller (席勒) —→ He was a founder of modern German literature. 多产的作家

    Schiller and Goethe are the chief representatives of German classicism

    —→ The Robber (抢劫者)

    —→ Cabal and Love (阴谋与爱情)

    —→ Wilhelm Tell (威廉如是说)

    21、Kant (康德) —→ Waterhead of modern philosophy (当代哲学的源头)

    nebular hypothesis (那不勒假说 or 星云假说)

    —→ General History of Nature and Theory of the Heavens

    (自然发展史和天体理论) nebular hypothesis在这部作品中提出

    —→ Critique of Pure Reason (论纯粹的推理)

    rationalism with empiricism (把理论主义与经验主义融为一体)在上书中

    human knowledge is limited to the phenomenal world. 局限于外部世界

    22、The Musical Enlightenment (音乐启蒙运动)名词解释

    By the beginning of the 18th century the art of creating music had become almost entirely (完全) rationalized (理性化)。 It came to its richest fruition (高潮) in the works of Bach (巴赫) and Handel (亨德尔)。 Bach and Handel represented a trend (趋势) towards greater regularity (规律性) of style in the clearly defined types and forms, in a series (系列) of standardized formulas (公式)。

    23、Bach (巴赫)

    —Bach created a synthetic art (人为艺术) which summarized (总结) all the developments of the Baroque era.

    —为 Haydn (海顿), Mozart, and Beethoven 打下基础的人是Bach

    —Schumann said, “Music owes as much to Bach as Christianity does to its Founder.”


    24、Handel (亨德尔)

    —combination (结合) of the Italian traditions of solo (独奏为主) and instrumental style, the English choral (合唱) tradition.

    —→ Messiah (米赛亚)轻歌剧教会音乐 ☆

    25、The Baroque Period was followed by the Classical Period, roughly between 1750 and 1820.

    26、Classical Period 三大代表:Haydn (海顿), Mozart, and Beethoven.

    27、以上三位代表为:Viennese School (维也纳流派)

    28、Haydn (海顿) —→ Austrian

    —→ London symphonies (伦敦交响乐) 以交响乐为主

    29、Mozart (莫扎特) 歌剧成就最高 英年早逝(文学上为:Keats)

    —→ Operas (歌剧)

    —→ Don Giovanni (唐璜)

    —→ The Marriage of Figaro (费加罗的婚礼)


    一、What is the historical context for the Enlightenment to develop?


    1、The American War of Independence (美国独立战争) of 1776 ended British colonial (殖民) rule over that country and got victory in 1783.

    ☆ The Declaration of Independence (独立宣言)

    2、The French Revolution broke out in 1789. The seizure (占领) of the Bastille (巴士底狱)。 The first French Republic was born in 1792.

    ☆ Declaration of the Rights of Man (人权宣言)

    3、The Industrial Revolution (工业革命) the 1760‘s — the 1830’s, beginning with the invention of the steam engine, rapidly (迅速的) changed the face of the world (世界的面貌), and ushered in a completely new age. (开创了一个崭新的时代)

    二、What is the great significant of the Industrial Revolution? (只要问到工业革命就答这个)


    1、The introdution引入 of machines which reduced the need for hand labour in making goods.

    2、The substitution (替代) of steam power for water, wind, and animal power.

    3、The change from manufacturing (手工作坊) in the home to the factory system.

    4、New and faster method of transportation (交通方式) on land and on water.

    5、The growth of modern capitalism and the working class. (两大阶级的对立)



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