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欧洲文化入门复习资料第五部分

2006-04-28 15:55  自考365社区 【 】【我要纠错

    第五章

    1、The first time to look at men's place in the Universe started in the 17th century.

    2、In modernism, men's position in the universe was looked at in a fresh new way.

    3、The outlook (世界观) of educated men was transformed. There was a profound (深远的) change in the conception (概念) of men's place in the universe.(人在宇宙中的位置)

    4、The 17th century philosophy was focus on materialist in nature.

    5、17th century Science: ☆physics ☆mathematics ☆chemistry biology psychology

    6、The modern world, so far as mental outlook is concerned, begins in the 17th century.现代世界从何时开始

    7、Kepler's Laws formed the basis of all modern planetary astronomy and led to Newton’s discovery of the laws of gravitation

    8、the laws of gravitation (万有引力的内容):

    the sun, the moon, the earth, the planets, and all the other bodies (天体) in the universe move in accordance with the same basic force, which is call gravitation.

    9、Francis Bacon's works —→ The Advancement of Learning

    —→ The New Atlantis

    —→ The Novum Organum (New Method)

    —→ Essays (散文集)

    10、Essays are Bacon's most widely read work.(流传最广的作品) 58 essays were included.(包含)

    11、Francis Bacon

    ① Knowledge is power. (知识就是力量)

    ② Virtue is like precious odours — most fragrant when they are incensed or crushed.

    品德像宝贵的气味-当被压碎或焚香时很芳香

    ③ Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed (大致浏览), and some few to be chewed and digested.(翻翻而已)

    ④ Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man.(纯粹的人) 读书可以使人成竹在胸

    ⑤ Histories make men wise. (学史可以使人明智)

    ⑥ Wives are young men's mistresses (情人), companions (伴侣) for middleage, and old men’s nurses.(照顾人的人)

    12、Tomas Hobbes —→ Leviathan

    13、the Great Instauration名词解释

    to break with the past (与过去相背离), and to restore (存储) man to his lost mastery of the natural world. This was what Bacon called the Great Instauration. (大恢复理论)

    14、Inductive method名词解释

    Inductive method was established by Francis Bacon in 17th century. Induction means reasoning (推理) from particular facts or individual cases to a general conclusion.(从特殊推一般)。 Induction was put over against Deductive method.

    15、All our ideas are ultimately (最后) derived from sensation (感受) or from reflection (反思) and these two make up experience and all our knowledge springs from experience as well.

    16、Locke also believed that the ruler of government is one partner of the social contract.(是社会契约的签约方)

    17、Hobbes —→ absolute Monarchy (君主制)

    Locke —→ Constitutional Monarchy (君主立宪制)

    18、The English Revolution is also called Bourgeoisie Revolution.

    19、Democracy (民主的体现是) —→ Parliament (议会)

    希腊民主的体现是公民大会

    20、The serfdom had begun breaking up as a result of the Enclosure Movement.(随着圈地运动德发展)

    21、By the end of the 16th century, Calvinism had spread (传播) to England. As a result, the Puritan Movement was started in England. (清教徒运动开始了)

    22、1689, the Bill of Rights was enacted by the English Parliament (议会)。

    23、There are two leaders in the English Revolution. Cromwell was the man of action and Milton the man of thought.

    24、Milton —→ Paradise Lost (失乐园)

    选自:The fall of men (圣经的旧约)

    Satan

    25、In Milton's poetic works, both the Renaissance and the Reformation showed their influence. (受两个运动的影响)

    26、Theory of Knowledge名词解释 简答 认知论

    Descartes employed (使用) methodic doubt (置疑方法论) with a view to discovering whether there was any indubitable (不容置疑的) truth. I doubt, therefore I think: I think, therefore I am. Doubting is thinking, thinking is the essence of the mind (精髓所在)。 Descartes believed that they are not dependable. (置疑是不可靠的)

    27、Descartes's Dualism 二元论

    ① Thought (思维) was the foundation of all knowledge (认知) while the senses might deceive (欺骗) us. This is idealist. (唯心主义者)

    ② The external (外部) world existed (存在), which was independent (无关) of the human mind. This is materialist. (不以人的意识为转移)

    28、Classicism (新古典主义)名词解释

    Classicism implies (意味着) the revival (复苏) of the forms and traditions of the ancient world, a return to works of old Greek literature from Homer to Plato and Aristotle. But French classicism of the 17th century was not conscious of being a classical revival (并非古典主义的复苏)。 It intended to produce a literature, French to the core (以法语为中心), which was worthy of (与…相媲美) Greek and classical ideals. This neoclassicism (新古典主义) reached its climax in France in the 17th century.(代表:莫里哀和德国的歌德?席勒)

    29、French classicism of the 17th century was not conscious of being a classical revival (并非古典主义的复苏)。 判断

    30、Rationalism (理性主义) was believed to be able to discover the best principles (原则) of human conduct (行为) and the universal (通用的) principles of natural laws. Here Descartes provided (提供的) the philosophical foundation for the French neoclassicism.(新古典主义)

    31、Molière (莫里哀) —→ The best representative of French neoclassicism.

    32、Baroque Art名词解释 承上启下的(法国新古典主义时期重要的)艺术形式

    Baroque Art, flourished first in Italy, and then spread to Spain, Portugal, France in south Europe and to Flander and the Netherlands (荷兰) in the North. It was characterized by dramatic intensity (强烈的艺术性) and sentimental appeal (哀婉的格调) with a lot of emphasis on light and colour.(强烈的明暗对比)

    33、Michelangelo Caravaggio —→ The Calling of St. Matthew (圣马赛的呼唤)

    —→ The Cardsharps (纸牌游戏)

    34、Dutch Protestant Art 新教艺术

    Rembrandt (伦勃朗) —→ Blinding of Samson (双目失明萨姆森)

    —→ The Polish Rider (荷兰骑士)

    论述简答

    一、Why do we say the 17th century is a transitional (过渡的) period from middle ages to the modern times?

    答:

    1、This advance (前进) began in science, in astronomy (天文学), physics and pure mathematics (纯粹数学), owing to the work of Galileo, Kepler, Newton and Descartes.

    2、The outlook (世界观) of educated men was transformed. There was a profound (深远的) change in the conception (概念) of men's place in the universe.(人在宇宙中的位置)

    3、The new science and philosophy gave a great push to the political struggle waged by the newly emerged class (新兴的阶级), the bourgeoisie (资产阶级), and other chasses.

    4、The modern world, so far as mental outlook is concerned, begins in the 17th century.

    二、How did science develop in the 17th century?

    答:

    1、Copernicus: Helio-centric (日心说)

    2、Kepler:

    ①Kepler's Laws of planetary motion. (开普勒行星定律)

    ②Kepler proved Copernicus Helio-centric theory to be true.

    ③Kepler's Laws formed the basis of all modern planetary astronomy and led to Newton’s discovery of the laws of gravitation. (万有引力理论)

    3、Galileo:

    ①He made a telescope. (望远镜)

    ②Galileo also proved Copernicus Helio-centric theory to be true.

    ③Galileo discovered the importance of acceleration in dynamics. (动力加速度)

    ④Galileo was also the first to establish the law of falling bodies. (落体理论的奠定)

    4、Newton:

    ①He invented calculus. (微积分)

    ②In optics (光学), he discovered that white light is composed (组成) of all the colour of the spectrum.(光谱)

    ③Newton established his name (声望) in the field of physics.

    ④Newton established the analytical method. (分析方法理论)

    5、Leibniz:

    ①Leibniz distinguishes three levels of understanding:

    the self-conscious (自我意识)

    the conscious and the unconscious or subconscious (无意识或下意识)

    This theory had a great influence on Freudian psychology.

    ②This theory of time and space had a great influence on einsteinian physics.

    ③He and Newton invented independently the differential (互不相关的) and intergral (整合性的) calculus.(微积分)

    三、What are the merits shared by the Great Scientists of 17th century?

    (Do you think there is something in common among the 17th century scientists? If there is, present your ideas on the statement.)

    答:

    During the 17th century, the modern Scientific method began to take shape (初见端倪)。 It emphasized (强调) observation (观察) and experimentation (实验) before formulating (表示) a final explanation or generalization (概括)。 Copernicus、Kepler、Galileo、Newton and other scientists of the time shared two merits (价值) which favoured the advance of science.(推动)

    1、First, they showed boldness (大胆性) in framing hypotheses.(假定框架)

    2、Second, they all had immense (极大的) patience (耐性) in observation.

    3、The combination (组合) of the two merits brought about fundamental (根本的) changes in man's scientific and philosophical thinking.

    四、What is Baconian Philosophical system?

    (What is the different between inductive method (归纳法) and deductive (演绎法) method?)

    答:

    1、The whole basis of his philosophy was practical (实用主义哲学): to give mankind (人类) mastery (主宰) over the forces of nature by means of scientific discoveries and inventions.

    2、He held that philosophy should be kept separate from theology (神学), not intimately be blended with it as in Scholasticism.(与经院主义混为一谈)

    3、Bacon established the inductive method. Induction means reasoning (推理) from particular facts or individual cases to a general conclusion.(从特殊推一般)。 Deductive method emphasized (强调) reasoning from a known principle (原因) to the unknown and from the general to the specific.(从已知推未知,从一般推特殊)

    4、In a word, to break with the past (与过去相背离), and to restore (存储) man to his lost mastery of the natural world. This was what Bacon called the Great Instauration. (大恢复理论)

    五、What is Hobbes' material system?

    (What are Hobbes' materialist view?)

    答:

    1、Our knowledge comes from experience.(知识来源于实际)

    2、Only material things are perceptible (可感知的), and knowable to us (为我们所知的)。 Our own experience alone is certain (个人的实践是确定无疑的)。 Men could not know anything about the existence of God. (人类无法感知上帝是否确定存在)

    3、When a thing lies (静止) still, unless something else stirs (搅动) it, it will lie still for ever.

    4、Hobbes systematized (系统化) Baconian materialism, but basically (基本上) he was a mechanical materialist.(机械唯物主义),费尔巴哈也是

    六、What is the natural state of war according to Hobbes?

    答:

    1、Equality of hope arises from the equality of ability.(欲望来自于能力的平等)

    2、If any two men desire (得到) the same thing, which nevertheless (虽然如此) they cannot both enjoy, they become enemies (敌人)。鱼和熊掌不可兼得

    3、From this, he concluded, until such time as men live under a common power (努力均衡), they are in a state of war with one another.

    七、What are the Laws of nature, according to the Hobbes?

    答:

    1、It is obviously (显然的) in man's interest to emerge from this natural state of war.(人的利益导致战争)

    2、For by nature men have their passions (激情) and their reason. It is their passions which bring about the state of war (导致战争的自然状态)。

    3、Peace is necessary for survival (生存) and certain articles (条款) of peace, upon which men may be drawn to agreement (达成一致)。

    八、What is the theory of the Social Contract, according to the Hobbes?

    答:

    1、It is necessary that there should be a common power (权利的集中) or government backed by force and able to punish (处罚)。

    2、Commonwealth (英联邦), in Latin, Civitas (共有财产)。

    3、To escape (避免) anarchy (无政府状态), men enter into a social contract, by which they submit to the sovereign (君主)。 In return for (作为回报) conferring (赠与) all their powers and strength to the sovereign, men attain (达到) peace and security (安全)。

    4、The powers of the sovereign must be absolute (绝对的), and it is only be the centralization (中央集权) of authority (权利) in one person that the evil (邪恶) can be avoided.

    5、As to the form of government, Hobbes preferred monarchy.(主张君主制)

    6、Government was not created by God, but by men themselves.

    九、What are John Locke material view?

    答:

    1、All our ideas are ultimately (最后) derived (来自) from sensation (感受) or from reflection (反思) and these two make up (组成) experience and all our knowledge springs from experience as well.

    2、Neither principles nor ideas are innate.(规律与人的思维都并非天生的)

    3、Sensation and reflection are the fountains of knowledge.(两大源泉)

    十、What is Locke's Political Philosophy?(政治哲学)

    答:

    1、Locke flatly rejected the theory of divine right of kings.(排除了君权神授的思想)

    2、He ridiculed (嘲笑) the theory of transmission of royal authority (王权的世袭制) by saying that there was no evidence (证据) that Adam possessed (控制) a divinely (像神一样的) granted royal authority (授予王权), nor is there any evidence that his heirs (继承人) had it.

    3、Locke put forward the idea of the state of nature.(提出自然状态的观点)

    4、For Locke, Nature Law, therefore, means a universally (普遍) obligatory (强制性的) moral law (道德法则) promulgated (发布) by the human reason. Whereas (然而) for Hobbes it means the law of power, force and fraud (欺骗)。

    5、Locke firmly believed in natural rights (天赋人权)。 The natural right is the right of private property (财产)。

    十一、What is the difference between Hobbes and Locke in terms of nature Law?

    答:

    For Locke, Nature Law, therefore, means a universally (普遍) obligatory (强制性的) moral law (道德法则) promulgated (发布) by the human reason. Whereas (然而) for Hobbes it means the law of power, force and fraud (欺骗)。

    十二、What is John Locke's Social Contract?

    答:

    1、Society is out of necessity, convenience and man's own interest, and therefore, society is natural to man.

    2、The institution (制度) of political society and government must proceed (进行) from the consent (赞同) of those who are incorporated into (与…融为一体) political society and subject themselves to government.(人要完全屈服于政府的统治)

    3、Locke emphasized (强调) that the social contract must be understood as involving the individual's consent (同意) to submit (服从) to the will of the majority (大多数人的意志) and that the will of the majority must prevail (流行)。

    4、Locke also believed that the ruler of government is one partner of the social contract.(是社会契约的签约方), If he violates (违反) the social contract, then government is effectively dissolved.(有效地取消), This idea was welcomed (采用) by the Americans during the American Revolution and the bourgeoisie revolution in England.(北美独立战争和英国资产阶级革命)

    十三、What is the different between Tomas Hobbes and John Locke in terms of Social Contract?

    答:

    1、Tomas Hobbes:

    ① It is necessary that there should be a common power (权利的集中) or government backed by force and able to punish (处罚)。

    ② Commonwealth (英联邦), in Latin, Civitas (共有财产)。

    ③ To escape (避免) anarchy (无政府状态), men enter into a social contract, by which they submit to the sovereign (君主)。 In return for (作为回报) conferring (赠与) all their powers and strength to the sovereign, men attain (达到) peace and security (安全)。

    ④ The powers of the sovereign must be absolute, and it is only be the centralization (中央集权) of authority (权利) in one person that the evil (邪恶) can be avoided.

    ⑤ As to the form of government, Hobbes preferred monarchy.(主张君主制)

    ⑥ Government was not created by God, but by men themselves.

    2、John Locke:

    ① Society is out of necessity, convenience and man's own interest, and therefore, society is natural to man.

    ② The institution (制度) of political society and government must proceed (进行) from the consent (赞同) of those who are incorporated into (与…融为一体) political society and subject themselves to government.(人要完全屈服于政府的统治)

    ③ Locke emphasized (强调) that the social contract must be understood as involving the individual's consent (同意) to submit (服从) to the will of the majority (大多数人的意志) and that the will of the majority must prevail (流行)。

    ④ Locke also believed that the ruler of government is one partner of the social contract.(是社会契约的签约方), If he violates (违反) the social contract, then government is effectively dissolved.(有效地取消), This idea was welcomed (采用) by the Americans during the American Revolution and the bourgeoisie revolution in England.(北美独立战争和英国资产阶级革命)

    3、Although both Tomas Hobbes and John Locke used the term “social contract”, they differed fundamentally.(根本上的不同)

    ① First, Hobbes argued men enter a social contract to escape the state of war, for, in his view, men are enemies and at war with each other. Locke argued men are equal and that they enter a social contract by reason.

    ② Secondly, Hobbes argued that individuals surrender (放弃) their rights to one man, the sovereign whose power is absolute. Locke argued that the individuals surrender their rights to the community as a whole (少数服从多数)。 According to him, by majority vote a representative is chosen, but his power not absolute. If he fails to implement (履行) the people's will, the people have the right to overthrow (推翻) him.

    十四、What are the courses of the English Revolution?

    答:

    1、The growth of capitalism (资产阶级的出现)

    2、The break-up of serfdom (农奴制被打破)

    3、The Puritan movement (清教徒运动)

    十五、How many stages has the English Revolution undergone (经历)?

    答:

    1、The war between Parliament and the King: It was ended with the victory of the king.

    2、The first civil war from 1642 to 1646.

    3、The second civil war in 1648: It was ended with the victory of the Parliament.

    4、The establishment of the Republic by Oliver Cromwell in 1649: CharlesⅠwas be headed.

    5、The Restoration (复辟) of the stuart dynasty (斯图亚特王朝): in 1660.

    6、The Glorious Revolution (光荣革命) in 1688: Mary and William.

    十六、What is the great significant of the English Revolution?

    答:

    1、It was the first time that capitalism has defeated (击败) absolute monarchy (君主专制) in history.

    2、The English Revolution marked that the modern times are approaching (接近)。

    3、After the English Revolution the constitutional monarchy (君主立宪制) has come into being as well as the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Right established the supremacy (至高无上的权利) of the Parliament and put an end to divine monarchy in England. The Bill of Rights limited the Sovereign's power (王权) in certain important directions.(方向)

    十七、What are the characteristics of French classicism?

    (How does French classicism differ from the other classicism?)

    答:

    1、In the French classical literature, man was viewed (认为) as a social being consciously (有意识的) and willingly (自动的) subject (主体) to discipline (纪律)。社会自然人

    2、Rationalism (理性主义) was believed to be able to discover the best principles (原则) of human conduct (行为) and the universal (通用的) principles of natural laws. Here Descartes provided (提供的) the philosophical foundation for the French neoclassicism.(新古典主义)

    3、French classicism was fond of using (善于使用) classical forms, classical themes (思想) and values (价值观念)。

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