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欧洲文化入门复习资料第四部分

2006-04-28 15:54  自考365社区 【 】【我要纠错

    第四章

    1、 Renaissance名词解释

    Generally speaking, Renaissance refers to the period between the 14th and mid-17th century. The word “Renaissance” means revival (复兴), specifically in this period of history, revival of interest in ancient Greek and Roman culture. Renaissance, in essence (从实质上讲), was a historical period in which the European humanist thinkers and scholars made attempts (试图) to get rid of conservatism (保守主义思想) in feudalist Europe and introduce new ideas that expressed the interests of the rising bourgeoisie (资产阶级), to lift the restrictions (禁忌) in all areas placed by the Roman church authorities.(权利威信)

    2、 Generally speaking, Renaissance refers to the period between the 14th and mid-17th century.

    3、 Renaissance started in Florence and Venice with the flowering of paintings, sculpture (雕塑) and architecture. 最早开始于painting

    4、 Florence was the golden city which gave girth to a whole generation of poets, scholars, artists and sculptors (雕塑家)。

    5、 In Renaissance literature of Italy, Petrarch (彼得拉克) was the representative poet.

    6、 Intellectuals became closely tied up (息息相关) with the rising bourgeoisie.

    (人文主义兴起的重要原因 Humanistic ideas to develop)

    7、 At the heart of the Renaissance philosophy was the assertion of the greatness of man.

    (以人为本—人文主义的核心)

    8、 Literature: The idea of the greatness of man is reflected in Shakespeare‘s literature.

    9、 painting: The idea of the greatness of man is reflected in Da vincci‘s Mona Lisa.

    10、Renaissance Art名词解释

    A radical (根本的) break with medieval (中古的) methods of representing the visible (可见的) world occurred (发生) in Italy during the second half of the 13th century. It was not until the second decade (十年) of the 15th century that there was a decided break with the medieval pictorial tradition (田园式风格)。

    11、Last Supper adapted from the New Testament of the Bible.

    12、Mona Lisa —— model wife of a banker.

    —— the ambiguity of the smile. (永恒的微笑)

    13、Michelangelo —— David

    —— Sistine Chapel (from the First book of the Bible, the Genesis )

    —— Dying Slave (垂死的奴隶)

    —— Moses (摩西)

    14、Raphael was best known for his Madonna. (圣母玛利亚)

    15、He painted his Madonnas in different postures (姿势), against (靠) different backgrounds.

    16、One of the famous paintings besides the Madonnas is School of Athens (雅典学派)。 Plato and Aristotle engaged (使用) in argument.

    17、Titian —— The Venus of Urbino (断臂的维纳斯)

    Man with the Glove (带手套的人) ☆

    18、John Wyclif —— translation of the Bible into English for the first time.

    19、Jan Hus —— Czech

    —— in Czech language

    20、Martin Luther —— translation of the whole Bible with the vernacular language.

    21、The reformation get it‘s victory first in England.

    22、Reformation名词解释

    The Reformation was a 16th century religious movement as well as (同时) a socio-political (社会政治) movement. It began as Martin Luther posted on the door of the castle church at the University of Wittenberg (机智) his 95 thesis (论题)。 This movement which swept over (席卷了) the whole of Europe was aimed at opposing (反对) the absolute authority (权威) of the Roman Catholic Church and replacing (代替) it with the absolute authority of the Bible. The reformists (改革者) engaged (使用) themselves in translating the Bible into their mother tongues. 宗教改革的实质是:反对罗马天主教,直接形式是用母语翻译圣经

    23、Calvinism名词解释

    Calvinism was established by Calvin in the period of Renaissance. Presbyterian government (长老会)。 Only those specially elected by God can be saved (上帝的选民) . This belief serves so well to help the rising bourgeoisie on its path (有助于资本主义的兴起)。

    24、The national religion established after reformation in England was called The church of England or The Anglican Church.

    25、It was under the reign (统治) of Henry Ⅷ that reformation was successful in England.

    26、The English Bible was adopted (采纳) in England after Reformation.

    27、Counter-Reformation (反宗教改革)名词解释

    By late 1520 the Roman Catholic Church had lost its control over the church in Germany.

    The Roman Catholic Church did not stay idle (坐以待毙)。 They mustered (召集) their forces, the dedicated (专用的) Catholic groups, to examine the Church institutions and introduce reforms and improvements (改良), to bring back its vitality (活力)。 This recovery of power is often called by historians the Counter-Reformation.

    28、The Jesuits (耶稣社团)名词解释 Ignatius (拼写)

    Ignatius and his followers called themselves the Jesuits, members of the Society of Jesus. The Jesuits went through strict (严格的) spiritual training (精神训练) and organized (有组织的) their own colleges to train selected youth who would be centre of their influence in the next generation.

    29、Francis Bacon introduced Montaigne “Essais” into the English literature.

    30、Montaigne was a French humanist known for his “Essais”(Essays)。

    31、The representative author of Renaissance in France was Montaigne with his famous work Essais. The representative novelist of Renaissance in Spain was Cervantes with his famous work Do Quixote, which marked European culture entry into a new stage. (歧视文学作品)

    32、Art Greco —— counter-reformation (反宗教改革的代表)

    —— the Baroque-treatment (巴洛克)

    —— The Burial of Count Orgaz (伯爵的葬礼) 典型的反宗教改革

    33、Renaissance in Germany: Dürer —— The Four Horsemen of Apocalpse

    —— Knight, Death and the Devil

    34、到达英国晚的原因:The war of Roses and Its weak and unimportant position in world trade.

    35、达到高潮的第一个原因:It was to produce some towering figures (顶级人物) in the English.

    William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser, Sir Thomas More.

    达到高潮的第二个原因:The Reign of Elizabeth I was a period of political and religious stability (稳定) on the one hand and economic prosperity (繁荣) on the other. ☆

    36、England began to embark (从事) on the road to colonization (殖民扩张) and foreign control that was to take it onto its heyday (鼎盛) of capitalist development.

    37、William Shakespeare

    悲剧 —→ Hamlet (哈姆雷特), Othello (奥赛罗), King Lear (李尔王), Macbeth (麦克白)

    喜剧 —→ As You Like It and Twelfth Night (第十二夜)

    38、悲剧上的特点:① astonishing variety in presentment (表现上的多样性)

    ② dramatic movement (戏剧上的时刻)

    ③ in characterization (人物的个性化)

    乔叟中具有个性化的是女性

    39、Shakespeare‘s comedies prove Shakespeare to be a great humanist writer.

    40、喜剧表现出的 between humanists and feudal and capitalist reality.

    41、Copernicus (哥白尼): —→ Centric (日心说)

    42、Which was proved by Kepler and Galieo? Centric (日心说)

    43、Dante: The equality (平等) of the divine (神) power and the secular (世俗) power.(Satan)

    44、Machiavelli —→ Father of political science.(Prince诸侯论 Discourses演讲篇)

    45、美国小说之父 —→ 马克吐温

    英国小说之父 —→ 费尔丁

    英国诗歌之父 —→ 乔叟

    论述简答

    一、Why do we say Renaissance first came to Italy?

    (what propositions先决条件 were there in Italy for renaissance to flourish?

    What priorities优势 were there in Italy for renaissance to flourish?)

    答:

    1、 Because of its geographical position (有利的地理位置), foreign trade developed early in Italy. This brought Italy into contact with other cultures and gave rise to (有推动力) urban (城市的) economy and helped Italy to accumulated wealth (积累财富)。

    2、 Beginning from the 11th century, cities began to rise in central (中) and north (北) Italy. But there existed (存在) rivalry (竞争) among the cities and they were constantly (不变的) at war with each other.

    3、 City-states (城邦) have been established in Italy in beginning from the 11th century.

    4、 For two centuries beginning from the late 15th century, Florence was the golden city which gave girth to a whole generation of poets, scholars, artists and sculptors (雕塑家)。 There was in Florence a revival of interest in classical learning and rising of humanist ideas.

    二、What are the characteristics of Renaissance art?

    (How does Renaissance art differ from the other kinds of arts?)

    答:

    1、Art broke away from the domination of the church.

    2、Themes (主题) of paintings changed (变化) to an appreciation(鉴赏) of all aspects of nature and man.

    3、The artists studied the ruins (毁灭) of Roman and Greek temples and put many of the principles (原则信念) of ancient civilization into their works. They began to be supported by individual collectors (私人收藏品)。

    4、Artists introduced (采用) in their works scientific theories of anatomy (解剖) and perspective (透视)。

    三、Why did Renaissance decline in Italy in the end?

    答:

    1、The feuds (不合) of families, the conflicts of classes and the rivalry (竞争) between the city-states kept the economic structure of Italy in the traditional local order.(停滞不前)

    2、In world trade Italy had lost its supremacy (优势) because of the discovery of America in 1492 and the rounding (环绕) of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, the opening of an all-water route (全线贯通) to India which provided (供应) a cheaper means of transport.

    单成选择题:Which of the following is not the course for Italy to lose its favorable position?

    3、The Protestant (新教徒) reformation forced (强迫) the Roman Catholic Church to tighten (拉紧) its control over thought, speech and publication.(语言和出版)

    4、One after another the cradles (摇篮) of Italian Renaissance, Florence, Venice, Naples, Milan were pillaged (掠夺) and devastated (毁坏) in the Italian Wars. Spain, France and England fought for the control of its resources(资源)。

    5、from the above, it can be concluded that Renaissance finally declined in Italy due to the reason of different kinds.

    ① War ② Foreign trade ③ Position ④ Wars with the other country

    五、How did capitalism rise and develop in Europe?

    答:

    1、Protestantism was prepared for capitalist development.

    2、Imagination, creation and free thinking (思维)。

    3、Calvinism.

    4、Navigation (航海) and the discoveries of new lands.

    5、Renaissance.

    6、Reformation.

    六、What is the great significance of the reformation?

    (What positive influence does the reformation exert on world culture?)

    答:

    1、The Roman Catholic Church was never the international court (法院) to which all rulers and states were to be morally (道德的) responsible for.

    2、Economically, peasants (农民) all over Europe had no need to pay a good amount (量) of their gains (利益) to the Pope.

    3、In educational and cultural matters, the monopoly (垄断) of the church was broken.

    4、In religion, Protestantism brought into being different forms of Christianity to challenge (挑战) the absolute rule of the Roman Catholic Church.

    5、In language, the dominant position of Latin had to give way to (为…让步) the national languages as a result of various (不同的) translations of the Bible into the vernacular.

    6、In spirit, absolute obedience (盲从) became out-moded (不复存在) and the spirit of quest (探索), debate (争论), was ushered in by the reformists.(凡事都要问为什么的精神)

    七、Why do we say renaissance came to England very late, but in England renaissance reached its climax?

    答:

    1、The war of Roses and Its weak and unimportant position in world trade.

    2、It was to produce some towering figures (顶级人物) in the English. William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser, Sir Thomas More.

    3、The Reign of Elizabeth I was a period of political and religious stability (稳定) on the one hand and economic prosperity (繁荣) on the other. England began to embark (从事) on the road to colonization (殖民扩张) and foreign control that was to take it onto its heyday (鼎盛) of capitalist development.

    八、What are the Geographical Discoveries (航海大发现) in the Renaissance?

    答:

    The Renaissance was the golden age of geographical discoveries: by the year of 1600 the surface of the known earth was doubled (两倍)。

    1、Columbus:

    Columbus discovered the land of America. On his fourth voyage (航行) he explored (探测) the coast (海岸) of Central America(中美洲)。

    2、Dias:

    Dias was a Portuguese navigator (领航员) who discovered the Cape of Good Hope in 1487.

    3、Da Gama:

    Gama was a Portuguese navigator, who discovered the route (路线) to India round the Cape of Good Hope between the years of 1497 and 1498.

    4、Amerigo: (亚美利哥)

    Amerigo was the Italian navigator on whose honour (给某人) America was named. His discovered and explored the mouth of the Amazon (亚马逊河) and accepted South America as a new continent.(新大陆)

    九、What contribution did the Renaissance make to the world culture?

    答:

    1、The Renaissance created a culture which freed man to discover and enjoy the world in a way not possible under the medieval Church‘s dispensation.

    2、The Reformation dealt the feudal theocracy a fatal blow. (给…以致命打击)

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