您的位置:自考365 > 复习指导 > 笔记串讲 > 文学 > 欧洲文化入门复习资料第九部分


2006-04-28 16:11  自考365社区 【 】【我要纠错



    In art and literature the term realism is used to identify (区分) a literary movement in Europe and the United States (选) in the last half of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. But the practice (应用) of realism is very old and can be traced back to ancient times. This is fundamentally (根本的) the difference between romanticism and realism. In Europe, the Realist movement arose (起源于) in the 50s of the 19th century and had its origin in France. It centred in the novel (侧重于小说的创作) and lay emphasis on fidelity (准确的)to actual experience. (用现实主义创作现实)

    2、Realism is a literary movement In Europe. (错) and also in United States

    3、The spirit of realism lies in (在于) the literary area.

    4、The realist literary focus on (侧重于) novel writing.

    5、The character realistic Stendhal (司汤达) of the method used by the realists.

    6、“A novel is a mirror walking along the road”said Stendhal.(司汤达) 小说是映射现实的镜子

    7、By the 1850s the term realism was applied to the art of Gustave Courbet. (哥斯塔王)

    8、现实主义与浪漫主义的区别realism can be track back to the ancient times, but romanticism can not. And the realist‘s language was usually simple, clear and direct.

    9、The European Communist (共产主义) movement, armed (武装) with Marxist thought in realism.

    10、Germany and Italy, achieved their unification (完成统一) in realism.

    11、Stendhal —→ Armance

    French —→ The Red and the Black

    —→ The Charterhouse of Parma (帕尔玛大教堂)

    12、Balzac —→ The Human Comedy (人间喜剧)

    —→ Divine comedy (神曲) 受但丁神曲影响

    —→ Eugenie Grandet (葛朗台)

    —→ Le Père Goriot (高老头)

    —→ La Cousine Bette (贝蒂姨妈)

    13、The novels contented in the Human Comedy mark the beginnings of French realism. (标志着法国现实主义的开端)

    14、Balzac has been called “the French Dickens” as Dickens has been called “the English Balzac”

    15、Flaubert —→ Madame Bovary (包法利夫人)

    ⊙ 写作特点:the right word or phrase (用词恰如其分)

    ⊙ Flaubert is called “the first French realist” (法国现实主义第一人)

    ⊙ a model not only to French authors, among them Maupassant and Zola, but to Americans and Russians as well, notably (值得一提的是) Henry James and Turgenev.

    16、Zola —→ Les Rougen-Macquarts (罗根。马塔里)

    ⊙ Zola was the founder of the naturalist school. (自然主义流派的创始人)


    ⊙ the naturalistic novel is not only a record (记录) of men and manners (行为)。

    ⊙ to the naturalists the novel is a demonstration of social law. (社会法则的显示与说明)

    ⊙ the language used by naturalists must be the actual language used by people.

    18、Maupassant —→ The Necklace (项链)

    —→ The Piece of String (红丝带)

    —→ The Umbrella (雨伞)

    ⊙ Norman people (纯正法国后裔) Franco-Prussian War (普法战争)

    19、In the French realism, Maupassant was the only short story teller.

    20、The literary school in Russia realism was dangerous men.

    21、The beginnings of modern Russian literature are to be traced to the Napoleonic wars. (拿破仑战争) Later the Russians participated in the battle of Waterloo. (滑铁卢战役)

    22、Gogol (果戈尔) —→ The Inspector General (钦差大臣)

    Russia —→ Dead Souls (死魂灵) 主人公是:Chichikov

    23、Turgenev —→ A Hunter‘s Sketches (猎人日记)

    on the abolition (废除) of serfdom

    —→ Rudin

    —→ A Nest of Gentlefolk (富人的巢穴)

    —→ Fathers and Sons

    24、Dostoyevsky (托斯妥耶夫斯基) —→ The House of Death (死亡之屋)

    a record of life in Sibria (西伯利亚)

    —→ Crime and Punishment (罪与罚)

    criminal psychology (第一次研究犯罪心理学)

    —→ The Brothers Karamazov (~家族的三兄弟)

    never completed

    25、The first novel on the study of criminal psychology in the European literature is Crime and Punishment written by Dostoyevsky.

    26、Leo Tolstoy (列夫。托尔斯泰) —→ War and Peace (战争与和平)

    —→ Anna Karenina (安娜卡列尼那)

    —→ Resurrection (复活)

    27、With Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy made the Russian realistic novel a literary genre (类型) that ranks in importance with (与…并驾齐驱) classical Greek tragedy (悲剧) and Elizabethan drama. (莎士比亚的戏剧为主)

    28、He is especially known as an early champion of the non-violence protest. (非暴力运动先驱)

    29、He preached (倡导) a primitive Christianity. (基督教最初的教义)

    30、He denounced art for art‘s sake. (反对为艺术而艺术)

    31、Chekhov (契诃夫) —→ The Seagull (海鸥)

    —→ Uncle Vanya (万亚叔叔)

    —→ The Three Sisters (三姐妹)

    —→ The Cherry Orchard (樱桃园)

    —→ The Man in the Shell (套中人)

    32、His work is of smaller scope. (文学领域很狭窄)

    33、Chekhov is the only short story teller of the Russia realist literature.

    34、He avoided (没有使用) the “big scene” (大场面) and ignored the “heroic hero”。

    35、Stanislavsky (可能是主人公)

    36、Ibsen (挪威-易普生) —→ A Doll‘s House (玩偶之家)

    Norwegian —→ Ghosts (魂灵)

    —→ An Enemy of the People (人民公敌)

    —→ The Wild Duck (野鸭传)

    —→ Hedda Gabler (海达。盖勒普)

    37、Ibsen looked to ordinary (平常的) social and domestic relationships (国内关系) and situations for the subject-matter of his plays.

    38、His work is sharply (锐利的) critical of the hypocrisy (伪善) and seamy (丑恶的) politics of Norwegian provincial (地方性的) life.

    39、Ibsen‘s plays are viewed as the fountainhead of much modern drama. (当代戏剧的源头)

    40、Realism in England is Victoria‘s period. The climax of Capitalism. (资本主义全盛时期)

    41、Dickens (狄更斯) —→ Pickwick Papers (皮克。威克外传)

    —→ A tale of Two Cities (双城记)

    —→ Oliver Twist (雾都孤儿)

    —→ A Christmas Carol (圣诞欢歌)

    —→ Hard Times (艰难时刻) 描写了资本主义扩张时期

    —→ Bleak House (荒凉山庄)

    —→ David Copperfield (大卫。科波菲尔)

    42、Dickens reflects the history of the French Revolution.

    43、George Eliot (乔治。艾略特) —→ Middlemarch (米德马其)

    —→ The Mill on the Floss (福罗斯和尚的睡房)

    based on his own experience

    —→ Adam Bede (亚当拜德)

    —→ Silas Marner (织工马南)

    44、George Eliot belongs to the second generation of the critical realism. (加了心里活动和自然主义的笔调)

    45、Thomas Hardy (托马斯。哈代) —→ Far from the Madding Crowd (远离尘嚣)

    —→ The Return of the Native (还乡)

    以Wessex为源泉 —→ The Mayor of Casterbridge (卡斯特拉桥市长)

    —→ Tess of the d‘Urberyvilles (苔丝)

    —→ Jude the Obscure (无名的求得)

    46、Thomas Hardy is of local colorism. (地方色彩主义)

    47、Bernard Shaw (萧伯纳) —→ Heartbreak House (心碎之屋) 一战前的社会

    —→ St. Joan (圣女贞德)

    —→ Man and superman (人与超人) 哲学

    —→ The Doctor‘s Dilemma (医生的抉择) 悲剧

    —→ The Apple Cart (苹果车) examination of monarchy

    —→ Major Barbara (巴巴拉上校) 喜剧

    —→ Pygmalion (茶花女) 喜剧

    48、Stowe (斯陀) —→ Uncle Tom‘s Cabin (汤姆叔叔的小屋) 废除奴隶制

    49、Walt Whitman (惠特曼) —→ Leaves of Grass (草叶集)

    —→ When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom‘d (当花园里的紫丁香开放的时候)


    50、Whitman is the best representative of free verse. (自由体诗歌)

    51、Whitman is the first American modern poet.

    52、Whitman is put forward the idea of universal brotherhood.

    53、Whitman used the common people‘s language or the humble speech. (卑下的发音)

    54、Whitman used long, sweeping lines. (拖沓冗长的诗)

    55、Mark Twain —→ Life on the Mississippi (密西西比河上的生活)

    —→ Jumping Frog (跳蛙) 成名之作

    —→ The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (哈克贝恩历险记)


    —→ The Gilded Age (镀金时代)

    —→ The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (汤姆索亚历险记)

    —→ The Prince and the Pauper (王子与贫儿)

    56、Mark Twain is of local colorism, based on the Mississippi.

    57、Mark Twain is called “the Lincoln of American literature”and “Father of the American Novel”


    59、Henry James —→ The Portrait of a Lady (贵妇人的画像)

    —→ Daisy Miller (米勒)

    —→ The Golden Bowl (金杯)

    60、“the Master beyond all masters” refers to Henry James.

    61、Impressionism (艺术的表现形式)名词解释

    Impressionism was a form of artistic expression in the 19th century. It was most pervasive (普及) in painting, but it was also found in literature and art. (在文学与艺术中也可发现他的踪影) The term “impressionism”first appeared in 1874 in a newspaper review of an exhibition held in the studio (工作室) by a group of young painters. It was taken directly from the title of Monet‘s (莫纳) Impression: Sunrise. (日出印象)

    62、Post-Impressionism (后印象主义)名词解释

    During the 2nd half of the 19th century, French impressionism created a dramatic break with the art of the past, and created a form of art that was to affect (影响) nearly every ambitious (有雄心的) artist in the Western world. Van Gogh reacted against impressionism by using colour to suggest his own emotion and temperament (气质)。

    63、Van Gogh —→ Starry Night (夜空) 后印象主义的代表是凡高

    —→ Sunflower (向日葵)

    —→ The Night Café (夜间咖啡屋)

    64、Dvorak (德望侠克) —→ From the New World (新世界的交响)

    —→ Goin‘ Home (回家)

    65、Dvorak is Czech.

    66、三种音乐形式:Program music (标题音乐)

    Symphonies (交响乐)

    Chamber works (室内乐)

    67、Debussy (德彪西) —→ French composer

    68、Debussy was among the first to break away from the melodic (旋律) and harmonic (和谐) conventions (常规的) of the 18th and 19th centuries. (打破传统旋律性和和谐性的音乐家)

    69、The American history is sharply Divide by the Great divide.

    70、The Civil War has divided the American history, last (持续)from 1681 to 1685.

    71、Contrasted with (对比) the British industrialization (工业化), the Industrialization in American began after the Civil War.

    72、In the realist period of American, the Cultural centre transformed from New England to New York.


    一、What is the historical background of Realism?


    1、The realism movement was greatly influenced by the development of science in the 19th century. The age of realism was age of technological inventions.

    2、The 19th century is the century of greatest change in the history of Western civilization. Germany and Italy, achieved their unification (完成统一)。

    3、The Profound (极深的) social dislocation (断层) and urban (都市的) poverty (贫穷) brought about by the social and economic changes created severe problems to which the political and intellectual leaders of the 19th century reacted in a number of ways. One group was the liberals (自由党)。 Another group was the nationalists (民主党), A third group was the socialists (社会党)。



  • 站内搜索
  • 课程搜索
  • 试题搜索

热门搜索:教材 报名 查分 免考 考试计划