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2006-04-28 16:16  自考365社区 【 】【我要纠错



    Modernism was a complex and diverse (复杂多样的) international movement in all the creative arts (创造性艺术), originating about the end of the 19th century. It provided (出现) the greatest creative renaissance of the 20th century. It was made up of many facets (方面), such as symbolism, surrealism (超现实主义), cubism (立体主义), expressionism, futurism (未来主义), ect.

    2、Greatest creative renaissance of the 20th century refers to modernism.

    3、The term “modernist” is usually reserved for more experimental and innovative modern works, those that view experience in new ways and adopt new forms.



    Freud divided human personality into three functional parts - Id, Ego and Superego. The Id is the container (容器) of the instinctual urges (本能的主张). It is the unconscious (无意识的) part of mind, which seeks (查找) immediate (即刻的) satisfaction of desires (欲望). Id is concerned with what a person wants to do.


    Freud divided human personality into three functional parts - Id, Ego and Superego. Ego is the rational (理性的), thoughtful (深思的), realistic personality process. It is characterized by a desire for independence (独立的), autonomy (自发的) and self-direction. Ego is concerned with ability.


    Freud divided human personality into three functional parts - Id, Ego and Superego. Superego is the idealized (理想化的) image that a person builds of himself in response (反映,响应) to authority (权威) and social pressures (压力).

    7、Oedipus Complex名词解释

    Oedipus Complex is a Freudian term originating from a Greek tragedy, in which King Oedipus unknowingly killed his father and married his mother. Oedipus Complex was established by Freud.

    8、The Lost generation名词解释

    The Lost generation refers to a group of young intellectuals (知识分子) who came back from war, were injured (受伤害) both physically (身体上) and mentally (精神上). They lived by indulging (放任) themselves in the Bohemian (波西米亚) way of life. Their American dream was disillusioned (破灭了). The best representative of the lost generation was Ernest Hemingway.

    9、The Beat Generation名词解释 垮掉的一代

    The Beat Generation in America refers to a group of American youngsters (儿童) who refused to accept “respectability” and conventional (传统的) social behaviour and who cultivated (培养) a rootless manner of living. The distinctive features (有特色的特征) of the Beat Generation is that they used a special slang language and loved jazz. The Beat Generation was represented by Ginsberg's Howl (嚎叫) and Jack Keroual’s on the road.

    10、Angry Young Men名词解释 年轻愤怒的一代

    Angry Young Men was a term referring to a group of English writers who found themselves to be social misfits (不能适应环境的人). They felt they were socially stateless (无政府状态). Even though they were university graduates. They were very sensitive (敏感) to the undesirable (讨厌的人) things of the society. Angry Young Men was represented by John Osborne's play Look Back in Anger (愤怒问题) and Amis’ novel Lucky Jim.

    11、Nouveau Roman名词解释 新小说主义

    Nouveau Roman refers to some 20th -century French novels. The term Nouveau Roman came into being with the publication (发表) of some essays (短文) by Grillet (新小说主义源于他), a French writer. The New Novel tends to be objective (客观的). Human characters are on an equal footing (地位) with things. The New Novelists try to avoid taking sides (走极端) when they come to the description of characters, making no distinction (不加以区别) between good and bad or between important and trivial (平凡). Therefore, their characters are often shapeless (无形状态) and sometimes even nameless (没有姓名).

    12、Existentialism名词解释 存在主义

    Existentialism is a philosophy (哲学倾向) that became a self-conscious movement (自发的运动) in the 20th century. Its basic concern is human existence (人的存在). A key concept (关键概念) of existentialism is that man is only what he makes of himself. Existentialism in literature was represented by Bernard Shaw's problem plays. And Sartre’s (萨达尔) Being and Nothingness (存在与虚无).

    13、The Theatre of the absurd名词解释 荒诞剧

    The Theatre of the absurd is a term referring to the works of some European, particularly French, playwrights (剧作家) of the 1950s and 60s. The word “absurd” originated from the works of Camus (加谬斯). The play writers of the Theatre of the absured employed (被使用) many techniques used by the popular theatre such as: acrobatics (杂技). Their language is very often dislocated (错位), with plenty of jargon (行话), clichés (老生常谈) and repetitions (反复使用). The Theatre of the Absurd of represented by Beckett's (贝克特) waiting for Godot (等待哥达).

    14、Black Humour名词解释

    Black Humour is a term derived (源于) from Black Comedy. Its origin can be traced back to Shakespeare's time. But now the term (术语) is usually used to refer to some Western, especially American Post-World WarⅡ writers. Black humour is kind of desperate humour (会让人产生绝望的幽默). In Black humour, man’s fate is decided by incomprehensible powers. (人的命运自有安排) Black humour was represented by Joseph Heller's Catch-22.

    15、Fauvism名词解释 野兽派

    The Fauvism expressed their emotional reaction to the subject in the boldest colour and strongest pattern of lines (表现强烈的情感). They preferred this to objective representation. (支持主观反对客观) In this way the Fauves freed colour from its tradition. (解放了传统对色彩的束缚)


    Expressionist art is marked by the expression of reality (对现实的意志) by means of distortion (扭曲) to communicate one's inner vision (内部观察). The artists of this school used bright colours to bring out their pessimistic views on life (对生活的悲观态度). They showed a world of subconsciousness (下意识的世界).

    17、Rontgen -→ the discovery of X-rays

    18、Pierre and Marie Curie (皮埃尔与居里夫人) -→ the discovery of radium (镭)

    19、Einstein (爱因斯坦) -→ Special Theory of Relativity (专业相对论)

    -→ General Principles of Relativity (普通相对论)

    20、Freud -→ The Interpretation of Dreams (梦的解析)

    -→ Three Contributions to the Sexual Theory (性学理论的三大原则)

    -→ The Ego and Id (自我与本我)

    21、The 17th century metaphysical poetry (玄学派代表), represented by John Donne (但恩).

    22、T. S. Eliot (埃利奥特) -→ The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock (普罗弗里克的情歌)

    -→ The Waste Land (荒原)

    23、The Waste Land is influenced by the Bible and Dante's Divine Comedy (神曲)……

    24、Joseph Conrad (康德拉) -→ Lord Jim (杰姆老爷)

    -→ He wrote mostly of sea.

    25、Virginia Woolf (沃尔芙) -→ Mrs. Dalloway in post-war London (描述一战后的伦敦)

    -→ To the Lighthouse (到灯塔去)

    very little action (没有人物的活动) be lack (缺乏) of action

    -→ The Mark on the Wall (墙上瑕疵)

    -→ 两战间唯一一名女作家

    26、Woolf is the only women writer of stream of consciousness in British modernist literature.

    27、Woolf established a literary society known as Bloomsbury group. (文学社团)

    28、Lawrence (劳伦斯) -→ Lady Chatterley's Lover (查泰来夫人的情人)

    pornographic (色情作品blue)

    -→ Sons and Lovers (儿子与情人)

    autobiographical (自传体) Freud 恋母情节

    -→ The Rainbow (虹)

    -→ Women in Love (恋爱中的女人)

    -→ The Lost Girl (迷途的女孩)

    29、Lawrence major theme (创作主题):男人与女人的关系 (human relationship)

    30、W. B. Yeats (叶织) -→ The Wanderings of Oisin and Other Poems

    -→ the greatest poet of our time (二十世纪最伟大的诗人)

    -→ 叶织的诗中渗透着盖尔特文化(Celtic)

    -→ Irish Literary Society (爱尔兰文学社团)

    -→ He used symbolism.

    31、James Joyce -→ Dubliners (都柏林人) naturalistic (自然主义) 创始人为法国左拉

    -→ A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (青年画家的肖像)

    autobiolgraphical (自传体)标志着英国小说的转折点turning point

    -→ Ulysses (尤里西斯)

    -→ Finnegans Wake (非尼金人的觉醒) 西方的红楼梦

    more than 30 languages encyclopaedic (百科全书似的作品)

    32、Ezra Pound (庞得) -→ Shi Jing or The Book of Songs (翻译了诗经)

    -→ In a Station of the Metro (地铁站)

    -→ Cathay (翻译李白的作品)

    33、Ezra Pound was the best representative of the Imagist movement. (印象派运动)

    34、William Faulkner (福克纳) -→ The Sound and The Fury (喧嚣与愤怒)

    -→ As I Lay Dying (在我弥留之际)

    ~ is of local colorism base on American South. (充满了地方色彩主义,美国南方)

    ~ is the best representative of the stream of consciousness. (美国意识流的最佳代表)

    ~ 强调博爱为主题

    35、Ernest Hemingway -→ The Sun Also Rise

    -→ A Farewell to Arms

    -→ For Whom the Bell Tolls

    -→ The Old Man and the Sea

    36、With the publication of The Sun Also Rise, Hemingway became the spokenman for what Gertrude Stein had called “a lost generation”.

    37、Tomas Mann (德国) -→ The Buddenbrooks

    -→ The Magic Mountain

    38、Gorky (高尔基) -→ Mother

    -→ Childhood

    -→ My Apprenticeship

    -→ My University

    the trilogy (三步曲):Childhood, My Apprenticeship, My University

    39、Gorky was the representative of Russian modernist literature.

    40、Sholokhov (肖洛霍夫) -→ The Quiet Don (静静的顿河)

    41、Cubism名词解释 立体主义

    Cubism is a type of abstract painting (抽象绘画) which aims to penetrate beyond surface appearances (超越表面现象) and single vision (想象) and depict (描绘) persons and objects (人和物) from varying angles (千变万化的角度) simultaneously (同时进行) and three-dimensionally (三位立体). The Cubism was represented by Picasso (毕加索)

    42、Futurism名词解释 未来主义

    The works of futurism portray (描绘) the dynamic life (动态的生活) of the 20th century. They glorify (崇尚) war, danger, machine age and attack (反对) museums and academies (学术). They are interested in expressing the speed (高速发展), progress and even the violence (暴力) of modern live.

    43、Dadaism名词解释 达达主义

    Dadaism created works that were anti-war, anti-modern life, and indeed (甚至), anti-art. When they held exhibitions the Dadaists sometimes encouraged (鼓励) the public to destroy (销毁) their displays. They thought that the world had become insane (病了) and art too seious (严肃). One of the most important ideas to develop out of the movement was automatism (自动主义)-the automatic production (自动产生) of art.

    44、Surrealism名词解释 超现实主义

    Surrealism was a which combined (结合) the Dada idea of automatism with the psychology (心理学) of Sigmund Freud. The surrealists felt that the job of the artist was to show an unconscious (无意识的) world.


    一、What are the Characters of modernism?

    1、Modernism was a complex and diverse (复杂多样的) international movement in all the creative arts (创造性艺术), originating about the end of the 19th century. It provided (出现) the greatest creative renaissance of the 20th century. It was made up of many facets (方面), such as symbolism, surrealism (超现实主义), cubism (立体主义), expressionism, futurism (未来主义), ect.

    2、Any break-away with the tradition can be classified (归类) into modernism.

    3、Modernism looks at the men's position in a fresh new way. (全新的方式)

    -→ 重新看待人在宇宙中的地位(第一次17世纪,第二次Modernism)

    二、What are the specialties of modernism? (特征)

    1、Modernism has been called “the tradition of the new”. It was characterized by a conscious (有意识的) rejection (排斥) of established rules, traditions and convention (常规).

    2、Modernism has also been called the “dehumanization (失去人性的) of art”. It pushed into (借鉴了) the background traditional humanistic notions (人文主义的观点) of the individual and society.


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