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欧洲文化入门复习资料第三部分

2006-04-28 15:52  自考365社区 【 】【我要纠错

    第三章

    1、the Middle ages名词解释

    In European history, the thousand-year period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century is called the Middle Ages.

    2、The middle ages is so called because it came between ancient times and modern times. To be specific (具体说来), from the 5th century to 15th century.

    3、The transitional (过渡时期) period is called the middle ages, between ancient times and modern times.

    4、The transitional (过渡时期) period is called the 17th century, between the middle ages and modern times.

    5、In 476 A.D. a Germanic (日耳曼) general killed the last Roman emperor and took control of the government. 西罗马476灭,东罗马1653年灭

    6、Feudalism名词解释

    Feudalism in Europe was mainly a system of land holding (土地所有) — a system of holding land in exchange for military service (军事力量)。 The word “feudalism” was derived (来源) from the Latin “feudum”, a grant (许可的) of land.

    7、fiefs(次划分)名词解释

    In Feudalism, the ruler of the government redivided the large lands into small pieces to be given to chancellors (有功的大臣) or soldiers as a reward (奖赏) for their service. The subdivisions were called fiefs.

    8、vassals (占有fiefs的人)名词解释

    In Feudalism, the ruler of the government redivided the large lands into small pieces to be given to chancellors (有功的大臣) or soldiers as a reward (奖赏) for their service. The subdivisions were called fiefs. The owners of the fiefs was call vassals.

    9、code of chivalry (骑士制度)名词解释

    As a knight, he were pledged to protect the weak, to fight for the church, to be loyal to his lord and to respect women of noble birth. These rules were known as code of chivalry, from which the western idea of good manners developed.

    10、dubbing (骑士头衔加冕仪式)名词解释

    After a knight was successful in his trained and tournaments, there was always a special ceremony (选择) to award him with a title, knight. This special ceremony is called dubbing.

    11、knight trained for war by fighting each other in mock battles called tournaments.(模拟战场)

    12、The crusades ended up with the victory of Moslems.(穆斯林)

    13、The Manor (领地所有制)名词解释

    The centre of medieval life under feudalism was the manor. Manors were founded on the fiefs of the lords (农场主)。 By the twelfth century manor houses were made of stone and designed as fortresses. They came to be called castles.

    14、After 1054, the church was divided into the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

    15、The Catholic Church made Latin the official language and helped to preserve (保留) and pass on the heritage (传统) of the Roman Empire.

    16、The word “catholic”, meant “universal”。(广泛的,无处不在的)

    17、St. Jerome, who translated into Latin both Old and New Testament from the Hebrew and Greek originals. Vulgate (拉丁语圣经)

    18、Early Monasticism (早期修道院制)名词解释

    Between 300 and 500 A.D., many men withdrew from (放弃了) worldly contacts to deserts and lonely places. This movement developed into the establishment of monasteries (男) and convents (女) for monks and nuns. Some of the hermits (隐士) were great scholars known as “Father of the Church”, whose work is generally considered orthodox.(东正教)

    19、Augustine —→ “Confession” (坦白) and “The City of God” (上帝之都)

    20、St. Benedict —→ founded Benedictine Rule about 529 A.D. (专门给清修的人制定的法律)

    21、The Inquisition (问讯厅) to stamp out so-called heresy.异教

    22、The most important of all courses was Jerusalem. (耶路撒冷)

    23、Crusades went on about 200 years.

    24、There were altogether eight chief Crusades.

    25、(结束) By 1291 the Moslems (穆斯林) had taken over the last Christian stronghold. They won the crusades and ruled all the territory in Palestine that the Crusaders had fought to control.

    26、Carolingian Renaissance名词解释

    Carolingian Renaissance is derived from Charlemagne‘s name in Latin, Carolus. The most interesting facet (一面) of this rather minor renaissance is the spectacle (有见解) of Frankish or Germanic state reaching out to assimilate (吸收) the riches of the Roman Classical and the Christianized Hebraic culture.

    27、Roger Bacon‘s work was the Opus maius.

    28、National Epics(民族史诗运动)名词解释

    The epic was the product of the Heroic Age. It was an important and mostly used form in ancient literature. “National epic” refers to the epic written in vernacular languages—that is, the languages of various national states (民族国家) that came into being in the Middle Ages. Literary works were no longer all written in Latin. It was the starting point of a gradual transition of European literature from Latin culture to a culture that was the combination of a variety of national characteristics.

    29、Chaucer (乔叟) 的诗歌特点: ① power of observation (观察)

    ② piercing irony (敏锐的讽刺) ③ sense of humour ④ warm humanity (温暖的人性)

    与狄更斯相似

    30、Gothic名词解释

    ① The Gothic style started in France and quickly spread through all parts of Western Europe.

    ② It lasted from the mid-12th to the end of 15th century and, in some areas, into the 16th. More churches were built in this manner than in any other style in history.

    ③ The Gothic was an outgrowth (丰富与发展) of the Romanesque.(罗马式)

    31、The Canterbury Tales:

    ① The Canterbury Tales was written by Chaucer.

    ② Chaucer introduced French and Italy writing the English native alliterative verse.(压头韵)

    ③ Both Chaucer and The Canterbury Tales are the best representative of the middle English.

    论述简答

    一、In the middle ages, what cultures began to merge (融合)?

    答:

    Classical, Hebrew and Gothic heritages merged (文化融合)。 It paved the way for the development of what is the present-day European culture.中世纪为现代欧洲文化铺平道路

    二、Why is the middle ages is called Age of Faith (信仰的年代)?名词解释和简答

    答:

    1、During the Medieval (中世纪) times there was no central (中央的) government to keep the order. The only organization that seemed to unite (团结) Europe was the Christian church.

    2、The Christian church continued to gain (赢得) widespread (普及的) power and influence.

    3、In the Late middle ages, almost everyone in western Europe was a Christian and a member of the Christian Church. Christianity took the lead in politics, law, art, and learning (思想领域) for hundreds of years.

    4、It shaped (形成) people‘s lives. That is why the middle ages is also called the “Age of Faith”。

    三、How did Feudalism develop in Europe in middle ages?

    答:

    1、feudalism in Europe was mainly a system of land holding (土地所有) — a system of holding land in exchange for military service (军事力量)。 The word “feudalism” was derived (来源) from the Latin “feudum”, a grant (许可的) of land.

    2、In order to seek the protection of large land-owners, the people of small farms or land gave their farms and land to large land-owners, but they still had freedom, they were called freemen.

    3、While the people from towns and cities did not possess farms or land. They had nothing but their freedom to be given to large land-owners, and then they lost their freedom for protection. They were called serfs.

    4、In Feudalism, the ruler of the government redivided the large lands into small pieces to be given to chancellors (有功的大臣) or soldiers as a reward (奖赏) for their service. The subdivisions were called fiefs. The owners of the fiefs was call vassals.

    5、There came a form of local and decentralized (分散化的) government.

    6、As a knight, he were pledged to protect the weak, to fight for the church, to be loyal to his lord and to respect women of noble birth. These rules were known as code of chivalry, from which the western idea of good manners developed.

    四、What positive influence does the Crusades exert on the European Culture?

    (What is the great significance of the Crusades?)

    答:

    1、The crusades brought the East into closer contact with the West. And they greatly influenced the history of Europe. (拉近了东西方的交流)

    2、During the wars while many of the feudal lords went to fight in Palestine, kings at home found opportunities (机会) to strengthen (加强) themselves. Thus among other things, Crusades helped to break down feudalism, which, in turn led to the rise of the monarchies. (取而代之的是君主专制) 霍布斯主张君主专制

    3、Besides, through their contact with the more cultured Byzantines and Moslems, the western Europeans changed many of their old ideas. Their desire (期望) for wealth or power began to overshadow (战胜) their religious ideals.

    4、The Crusades also resulted in renewing people‘s interest in learning and invention. By the 13th century, universities had spread all over Europe. Such knowledge as Arabic numerals (阿拉伯数字), algebra (代数), and Arab medicine (医学) were introduced to the West.

    5、As trade increased, village and towns began to grow into cities. And the rise of towns and trade in western Europe paved the way of the growth of strong national governments. (民族政府)

    五、How did learning and science develop in the Middle Ages?

    答:

    1、Charlemagne and Carolingian Renaissance: (查理曼的文艺复兴)

    ① He was crowned “Emperor of the Romans” by the pope in 800.

    ② Carolingian Renaissance is derived from Charlemagne‘s name in Latin, Carolus. The most interesting facet (一面) of this rather minor renaissance is the spectacle (有见解) of Frankish or Germanic state reaching out to assimilate (吸收) the riches of the Roman Classical and the Christianized Hebraic culture.

    2、Alfred the Great and Wessex Centre of Learning: (阿尔伏雷德大帝和威克萨斯王国)

    ① He promoted (奖励) translations into the vernacular from Latin works.

    ② He also inspired (授意) the compilation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. (编年史)

    3、St. Thomas Aquinas and Scholasticism: (经院主义,保守主义的雏形)

    4、Roger Bacon and Experimental Science: (实用主义)

    ① Roger Bacon, a monk, was one of the earliest advocates of scientific research. (最早的支持者) 亚里士多德最早提出

    ② He called for careful observation (观察) and experimentation. His main work was the Opus maius.

    六、How did literature develop in the middle ages?

    答:

    1、The epic was the product of the Heroic Age. It was an important and mostly used form in ancient literature. “National epic” refers to the epic written in vernacular languages—that is, the languages of various national states (民族国家) that came into being in the Middle Ages. Literary works were no longer all written in Latin. It was the starting point of a gradual transition of European literature from Latin culture to a culture that was the combination of a variety of national characteristics. Both Beowulf and song of Roland were the representative works of the National Epics.

    2、Dante Alighieri and The Divine Comedy: (但丁与神曲)

    ① His masterpiece, The Divine Comedy, is one of the landmarks of world literature.

    ② The poem expresses humanistic ideas which foreshadowed (预示) the spirit of Renaissance.

    ③ Dante wrote his masterpiece in Italian rather than in Latin. (只用意大利语创作)

    3、Geoffery Chaucer and The Canterbury Tales: (乔叟与坎特布雷集)

    ① The Canterbury Tales were his most popular work.

    ② Most of the tales are written in verse (诗) which reflects(反映) Chaucer‘s innovation (改革) by introducing into the native alliterative verse (压头韵诗) the French and Italian styles.

    ③ Chaucer is thus to be , regarded as (被看作) the first short story teller and the first modern poet in English literature.短篇写作第一人

    ④ Chaucer and the Canterbury Tales were representative of the Middle ages.

    七、What is the difference between the vernacular language used in the National epics and the vernacular language used by Mark twain? (重点☆)

    答:

    1、The epic was the product of the Heroic Age. It was an important and mostly used form in ancient literature. “National epic” refers to the epic written in vernacular languages—that is, the languages of various national states (民族国家) that came into being in the Middle Ages. Literary works were no longer all written in Latin. It was the starting point of a gradual transition of European literature from Latin culture to a culture that was the combination of a variety of national characteristics. Both Beowulf and song of Roland were the representative works of the National Epics.

    2、The vernacular (方言) language used by Mark twain refers to both local and colloq (地方式俗语) language used in the Mississippi area, with a strong characteristic of that region (地区) .Mark twain used vernacular language not only in dialogue, but also in narration. (叙述)

    3、His representative works Life on the Mississippi.

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