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    Romanticism was a movement in literature, philosophy, music and art which developed in Europe in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Starting from the ideas of Rousseau in France and from the Storm and Stress movement (狂飙运动) in Germany. Romanticism emphasized individual values and aspirations (灵感) above those of society. As a reaction (反应) to the industrial revolution (工业革命), it looked to (承上启下) the Middle Ages and to direct contact with nature (与大自然的直接接触) for inspiration (灵感)。 Romanticism gave impetus (动力支持) to the national liberation movement (民族解放运动) in 19th century Europe.

    2、The literary and philosophical trend (倾向) in the Romantic philosophy was represented by Transcendentalism.(先验论)

    3、the theoretical (理论上的) groundwork (基础) for capitalism was Adam Smith‘s the wealth of Nations.


    5、French revolution with its slogans (口号) of liberty (自由), equality and universal brotherhood.

    6、Blake —→ Songs of Innocence (清白之歌) happy world

    —→ Songs of Experience (经验之歌) bitter world (苦涩)

    7、The Laker poets (The Lakers)

    ① Wordsworth —→ Lyrical Ballads (抒情民谣) 与 Coleridge 合写

    —→ The Prelude (序曲)

    ② Coleridge —→ Kubla Khan (忽必烈汗) exotic culture (外来文化)

    —→ The Rime of the ancient Mariner (古舟船泳)

    8、Lyrical Ballads marked the beginning of the Romantic literature.

    9、Coleridge‘s works possessed the characteristic of exotic culture. (外来文化)

    10、Byron —→ Isles of Greece (希腊诸岛)

    —→ Don Juan (唐璜) 莫扎特改编成歌剧 (选择)

    ⊙Byron 是浪漫主义时期中国最熟悉的

    ⊙两个战役 hence (战役) the mention (提到的) of Marathon (马拉松) and Thermopylae

    ⊙Byronic hero 对中国影响最深的是鲁迅

    11、Byron created a typical hero which is call The Byronic hero.

    12、Byron mentioned two important wars of Marathon and Thermopylae in Isles of Greece.

    13、Byronic hero名词解释

    Byronic hero was created by Byron in the Romantic period of the English literature. The Byronic hero is characterized by bravery and hard working spirit, such as Don Juan as the best representative of the Byronic hero.

    14、Shelly —→ Ode to the West Wind (西风颂) (If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?)

    —→ Prometheus Unbound The Lyrical drama 抒情戏剧

    15、“If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?” was written in Ode to the West Wind by Shelly.

    16、Shelly wrote a Lyrical drama Prometheus Unbound which is a parody Prometheus bound written by Aeschylus

    17、Keats —→ Ode to a Nightingale (夜莺赋)

    —→ Ode on a Grecian Urn (希腊古瓮颂) Beauty is truth, truth beauty.

    —→ sonnets (伤籁 十四行诗) 只有真理才是永恒的美

    18、“Beauty is truth, truth beauty,”was written in Ode on a Grecian Urn by Keats.

    19、(略)Scott —→ The Heart of Mid-lothian (密德罗安市的监狱)

    —→ Ivanhoe (撒克逊劫后英雄传)

    20、The death of Scott marked the end of Romanticism in England. 他的死标志着浪漫主义结束

    21、Victor Hugo —→ Cromwell (介于浪漫主义与古典主义之间)

    —→ Notre Dame de Paris (巴黎圣母院)

    —→ Les Miserables (悲惨世界) 主人公:Jean Valjean

    22、Victor Hugo was a best representative writer of Romanticism in France.

    23、George Sand —→ Indiana (印第安纳州) misunderstook woman没受到公正待遇的女性

    24、Russian Romantic literature was against The Tzarist rule.(沙皇统治)

    25、The representative writers of Russia Romanticism were Pushkin and Lermontov.

    26、Pushkin —→ Ruslan and Liudmila (罗斯兰与雷尔达米拉) 与 leaves of grass 相似

    —→ Boris Godunov (布达耶夫)

    It is people, not the Tzar that could change history.不是沙皇改变了历史而是人

    —→ Eugene Onegin (奥涅金) based on Byron‘s model Don Juan.

    ⊙Pushkin was himself a “Byronic hero”

    27、Lermontov (雷蒙托夫) —→ The death of a Poet 主人公 (poet) 是: Pushkin

    —→ A Hero of Our Time (时代英雄)

    28、Romantic Music名词解释 承前启后的年代音乐家是重点

    The Romantic Movement in music dominated (统治) the period about 1830 to about 1900. It was merely part of a general movement, which, all over Europe, especially in Germany and France, affected (感染着) all arts. The Romantic Music is divided into two periods: The early Romantic Music represented by Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, Schumann, and the later Romantic Music represented by Brahms and Tchaikovsky.

    29、Beethoven —→ Fate (命运交响曲)

    German —→ Pastoral (田园交响曲)

    30、Beethoven‘s most important contributions to the musical world were in those musical forms associated with (伴随着) the growth of the sonata.(把奏鸣曲放入钢琴去中)

    31、His treatment of the piano.

    32、Schubert —→ Lied (art song) 艺术歌曲是由 Schubert创的 Austrian (奥地利)

    Music came to him as naturally as breathing. (像呼吸一样顺畅) 是形容Schubert的

    33、Chopin (肖邦) Polish (波兰)

    ⊙ piano music的奠基者

    ⊙ He stood in the same relation to piano music that handle did to the oratorio (清唱剧), Mozart to the concerto (协奏曲) and opera, Beethoven to the symphony (交响乐), and Schubert to the lied (艺术歌曲)。

    34、Schumann German

    ⊙ His works were full of imagination. (充满幻想力)

    ⊙ He went a good deal further than most towards individualization (个性化) and program music (标题音乐)。

    35、Mendelssohn (门德尔松) —→ Fingal‘s Cave (圣格尔的洞穴) German

    ⊙ He was also a master in painting landscapes in music. (像描述风景一样)

    36、Belioz —→ Fantastic Symphony (交响乐狂想曲)

    37、Brahms浪漫主义与古典主义的完美结合—→German cerebral composer (理智的作曲家)

    38、Three B‘s refers to Bach, Brahms, Beethoven.

    39、Tchaikovsky (Russian) —→ Ballet (芭蕾舞) —→ Swan Lake (天鹅湖)

    His music mirrored the deep, emotional character of his people. (National emotion)民族情节


    一、What is the historical background for Romanticism to develop?

    (What gave a push for Romanticism?)



    1、The Enlightenment brought about two revolutions and they caused Romanticism to rise.

    2、First, the French revolution which broke out in 1789, established bourgeois democracy with its slogans (口号) of liberty (自由), equality and universal brotherhood (博爱)。 Individualism prevailed (个人主义流行)。

    3、Second, the Industrial Revolution, made possible by technological advances such as James Watt‘s (瓦特) invention of the steam engine in 1764, brought unforeseen (无法预料的) changes to each individual and society as a whole. Man’s thinking was fundamentally affected (发生了根本性的变化)。 New economic ideas were put forward by Adam Smith in his book The Wealth of Nations laid the theoretical (理论上的) groundwork (基础) for capitalism.


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