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欧洲文化入门复习资料第八部分

2006-04-28 16:09  自考365社区 【 】【我要纠错

    第八章

    1、The Manifesto of the Communist Party (共产党宣言) 马恩合作

    2、Darwin‘s theory of evolution (进化)名词解释

    Darwin‘s theory of evolution contains four major arguments:

    ①new species appear (新物种的发现)。

    ②those new species have evolved (进化) from older species.

    ③The evolution of species is result (导致) of natural selection.

    ④The natural selection depends on variations (变异) and the maintenance (保护) of variations in spite of (不管) the tendency (趋势) of natural selection to eliminate (消除) unfit (不适当的) variants. Natural selection名词解释

    3、Social Darwinism名词解释

    For the term “natural selection” Spencer substituted (替代) the survival of the fittest. (适者生存)

    4、The term the survival of the fittest by Darwin. (错)

    5、For the term “natural selection” Spencer substitute the “survival of the fittest”

    6、Darwin 发现了人类社会发展的规律和资本主义的生产模式

    论述简答

    一、What are the three sources (来源) of Marxism?

    答:

    1、German Classical Philosophy and Marxist Philosophy:

    Hegelian dialectics and Feuerbach‘s materialism (黑格尔辩证法和费尔巴哈唯物主义)

    2、English Classical Political Economy and Marxist Political Economy

    3、Utopian Socialism and Scientific Socialism (空想社会主义和科学社会主义)

    Utopian was representative by Owen, Saint-Simon (圣西门), and Fourier (傅立叶)。

    二、What are the three components (成分) of Marxism?

    答:

    1、Marxist Philosophy: Hobbes

    ①Marx rejected (排斥) Hegel‘s idealist (唯心) views on universe and the metaphysical (形而上学) part of Feuerbach’s philosophy.

    ②Marx put forward historical materialism. (历史唯物主义)

    2、Marxist Political Economy:

    Marx established the theory of surplus value (剩余价值) in “Capital”。

    3、Scientific Socialism:

    Marx and Engels developed utopian socialism to scientific socialism. They declared (表明) that socialism (社会主义) would be realized (实现) through class struggle, and that only the proletariat (无产阶级) was a really revolutionary class.

    三、In what historical background did Marxism rise?

    答:

    1、The Industrial Revolution beginning in the 18th century in Britain resulted in the rapid development of modern capitalism as well as the growth of the working class as a powerful independent (独立的) political force.

    2、The first economic crisis (危机) occurred (发生) in the 1820s, intensifying (加深) class conflict (冲突)。

    3、The working class movement developed from the early stage of destroying machines to mass strikes (罢工), political demonstrations (游行) and armed uprising (武装起义)。

    四、What is Darwin‘s evidence (证据) for evolution by natural selection?

    答:

    1、Selection was related to adaptation. (选择与适应是相联系的)

    2、Problems of hybridization (杂交) and infertility (不育)。

    五、How does natural selection become a mechanism (机制) for evolutionary change?

    答:

    1、According to Darwin, natural selection is a process: each generation of organisms (有机体) is subject (使服从) to the selective impact of its environment and some of its members perish (消失) or fail to reproduce.

    2、Natural selection and adaptation (适应) are two sides of the same coin. (双重法)

    3、Natural selection is clearly understood to be a process that operates on a population of organisms.

    六、What is the great significance of Darwinism? ☆

    答:

    1、On Biology (生物学): Darwin‘s influence on the development of biology has been immeasurable (不可测量的)。 The immediate (立即的) effect of the publication (发表) of On the Origin of Species was to stimulate (刺激) research in different branches of knowledge……

    Thomas Huxley (赫胥黎)

    2、On Theology (对神学): Darwinism had a great impact on European Christian theologians (神学家)。

    Evolution and Ethics (进化论和伦理学) was translated in Chinese by Yan Fu and published under the title 《天演论》

    3、On Social Science: Herbert Spencer

    For the term “natural selection” Spencer substituted (替代) the survival of the fittest. (适者生存)

    1、Individual members of any species (物种) vary (改变)somewhat (有点) one from another in manifold characteristics (各样的特征), both structural and behavioural.

    2、Individual variation (个体的变体) is to some degree hereditary (遗传基因)。

    3、The Malthusian principle (马尔萨斯人口论) that organisms multiply (有机体繁衍) exceeds the environment to carry them, with the consequence (结果) that many must die.

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