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    1.希腊罗马Homer Author of epics Sappho Lyric poet

    三大悲剧家:Aeschylus Tragic dramatist Sophocles Tragic dramatist Euripides Tragic dramatist

    喜剧家:Aristophanes Comedy writer

    历史学家:Herodotus wrote about wars between Greeks and Persians Father of history Thucydides wrote about wars between Athens and Sparta and Athens and Syracuse the greatest historian that have ever lived

    哲学和科学:Pythagoras All things were numbers founder of scientific mathematics Heracleitue Fire is the primary element Democritus Materialist, one of the earliest exponents of the atomic theory Socrates Dissect of oneself, virtue was high worth of life, dialectical method Plato Man have knowledge because of the existence of certain general ideas

    Aristotle Direct observation, theory follow fact, idea and matter together made concrete individual realities Euclid a textbook of geometry Archimedes when a body is immersed in water its loss of weight is equal to the weight of the water displaced “Give me a place to stand and I‘ll move the World”

    Others Diogenes (the Cynics) Pyrrhon(the Sceptics) Epicurus (the Epicureans) Zeno(the Stoics)

    4th century B.C.后半叶希腊在Alexander, king of Macedon的领导下,5th century B.C.达到顶峰,146 B.C.被罗马攻克

    2.基督教和圣经Jews—以前叫Hebrews,3800B.C.穿过中东沙漠,1300B.C.Moses带领Hebrews离开埃及,开始他们的Exodus,他在Sinai山定了ten commandments in the name of God,40年后Hebrews定居Pelestine, known as Canaan,Hebrew人的历史口头传送记入the old Testament, 6th century B.C.,他们在Babylon形成synagogue(忧太集会)来发扬他们的教义。

    Jesus Christ生活在第一个罗马帝国Augustus, Emperor Constantine 1于313年宣布基督教合法,Emperor Theodosius于392年宣布基督教为国教。

    Hebrew人的历史口头传送记入the old Testament,旧约包含39本书,写了从1000B.C.——100A.D.的事情,最重要的前五本是Pentateuch,旧约主要由Hebrew写成,the New Testment主要是Greek的形式,包含14本书,最古老的Latin Bible叫Vulgate,在1382年被John Wycliff翻译成了英语,Greek Bible叫Septuagint

    3.中世纪开始于476年西罗马帝国的衰败5-11世纪a period in which classical, Hebrew and Gothic heritage merged 1054,教堂分裂为the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church反击Moslems,开始了Crusades Charles Martel给士兵们estates known as fiefs in 732 St. Thomas Aquinas(Scholasticism)写了 Summa Theologica,这本书sums up all the knowledge of medieval theology他认为feudal hierarchy(层次,等级) of society is God‘s rule The power of feudal rulers is God’s will Pope is Christ‘s Plenipotentiary Charlemagne and Alfred the Great encouraged learning by setting up monastery schools. They copied various ancient books and translated the Latin works into the venacular Roger Bacon and Experimental Science one of the earliest advocates of scientific research, called for careful observation Dante(但丁) 神曲 one of the landmarks of world literature Chaucer first modern poet in English literature

    4.文艺复兴与宗教改革14th and 17th Century Starting in Florence and Venice Boccaccio the greatest achievement of prose fiction in中世纪Petrarch Sonnet, father of modern poetry

    文艺复兴早期的艺术家:Giotto forerunner of renaissance Brunelleschi showed a systematic use of perspective Donatello one of the first artists engaged in anatomy Giorgione made happy use of colour schemes to unify his pictures

    意大利文艺复兴全盛时期的四位艺术家:Da Vinci Michelangelo Raphael Known for his Titian Oil color the most prolific of the great Venetian painters of Western World

    Pre-Luther Religious Reformers John Wycliffe chief forerunner of the reformation, took up the translation of the Bible into English for the first time in 1382 Jan Hus Czech Religious leader

    John Calvin 基督教教义 one of the most influential theological works Calvinism Rabelais 拉伯雷  french writer Ronsard Pleiade七星诗社代表人 法国第一个近代抒情诗人Montaigne 蒙田 散文集 French Writer Cervantes father of modern European novel spain Thomas More British writer Shakespeare 作品包括>点击下载>点击下载>点击下载>> crowned literature of England 代表欧洲文艺复兴的最高成就Copernicus The father of modern astronomy 现代天文学之父Vesalius marked the beginning of a new era in the study of anatomy (解剖学) founder of modern medicine Aldus Manutius foremost printer in Italy Machiavelli Father of political science Vosari 1492, Columbus发现了America 1487,Dias发现了the cape of good hope 1497,da Gama发现了the route to India round the Cape of Good Hope

    5. 17世纪Copernicus 天体运行论 Although he did not belong to the 17th century he was the forerunner of modern medicine Kepler Kepler‘s Law (the three laws of planetary motion)德 国 the three laws formed the basis of all modern planetary astronomy and led to Newton’s discovery of the laws of gravitation Galileo 意大利 acceleration in dynamics, the law of inertia, the law of falling bodies动力加速度,惯性定律,落体定律Newton 英国Leibniz Distinguishes three levels of understanding: self-conscious(自我意识)conscious(意识)unconscious/subconscious (潜意识)他和牛顿都是caculus的创始人Milton Areopagitica, English revolution Bacon Knowledge is power 英国 反对deductive method,创立了inductive method 认为哲学应该与神学分开Hobbes 利维坦 Materialist (knowledge come from experience) Social Contract 英国 认为最好的统治方式是monarchy Locke 政治论 Materialist views (ideas derived from sensation or from reflection) Social Contract英国在英国革命中有两个领袖,Cromwell 和John Milton Cromwell the man of action John Milton the man of thought 在英国文学史上ranks with Shakespear and Chaucer Descartes 笛卡尔 Cartesian Doubt I think therefore I am 法国 it is generally believed that modern philosophy begins with Bacon in England and Descartes in France Corneille 高乃依熙得 法国第一部古典主义悲剧,表现责任与爱情的冲突Racine the greatest tragic dramatist of French neoclassical theatre 表现情感和理性的冲突Moliere 达尔杜夫愤世嫉俗吝啬鬼 the best representative dramatist of French Classical comedies很多科学器械在被发明:microscope, telescope, thermometer, barometer, pendulum 1689,the Bill of Rights建立了the Parliament至高无上的权利法国最著名的建筑:Palace of Versailles Garden Front East Front of the Louvre英国最著名建筑:St. Paul‘s Cathedral

    6.启蒙运动 the age of reason 18th century intellectual movement starting from France the most important forerunners of the enlightenment were two 17th century Englishmen John Locke and Issac Newton.Locke‘s materialist theory and Newton’s theory of gravitation

    Major force of the enlightenment is French Philosophes

    18世纪两大著名运动:The American War of Independence(1776)ended British colonial rule over the U.S.独立宣言The French Revolution(1789)ended the French Monarchy and the first French Republic was born in 1792人权宣言

    French Philosophy and Literature Montesquieu Separation of powers法国启蒙运动的先驱Voltaire most famous of his novels Rousseau one of the greatest figures of French enlightenment Diderot

    English Literature Pope spokesman in verse of the Age of Reason, translation of Homer, good at heroic couplet 擅长英雄双韵体Defoe one of the greatest fiction writer of the 18th century England 鲁滨逊漂流记Swift the foremost satirist in the English language and one of the satiric masters of all time Henry Fielding Father of the English novel

    Samuel Richardson The founder of English domestic novel Samuel Johnson editor of 18世纪英国文学最著名的期刊 The Tatler 和 The Spectator, Addison 和 Steele经常在上面写文章

    German Literature and Philosophy Lessing German dramastist German classicism Goethe Apprenticeship/Travels> the Greatest German Poets Schiller a founder of modern German literature Kant Waterhead of modern philosophy Propose the nebular hypothesis History of Nature and Theory of the Heavens> reason>

    The Musical Enlightenment J. S. Bach Christianity Major musicians of the musical Enlightenment Handel 亨德尔  being his crowning masterpiece Bach and Handel showed the world Baroque musical architecture at its imposing best The Baroque period was followed by the Classical Period, roughly between 1750 and 1820 Haydn Classical period Viennese school Mozart Beethoven occupy a Pivotal position, leaning in much of his work towards the Romantic Movement in Music

    7. 浪漫主义 Romanticism late 18th and early 19th century starting from the ideas of Rouseau in France and from the Storm and Stress Movement in Germany The enlightenment brought about two revolutions and they caused Romanticism to rise: the French Revolution and the Industrial revolution New economic ideas were put forward by Adam Smith in his book , which laid the theoretical groundwork for capitalism.

    Romanticism in Germany The Storm and Stress Movement prepared the way for European Romanticism Goethe combined Romanticism with Classicism It was Love and Intrigue that made Schiller the best dramatist for the Storm and Stress The Jena School: Schlegel Brothers, Novalis and Tieck Heine: 海涅在1836年发表>,宣告浪漫主义在德国文学中的统治地位的结束

    Romanticism in England Blake:The Lakers: Wordsworth and Coleridge Byron: is considered his masterpiece the fact that the poet died for the Greek causes made him more respected his poem expressed an ardent love of liberty and a fierce hatred of tyranny Shelley noted for his lyrics Keats famous for his sonnets Walter Scott

    Romanticism in France Chateaubriand :Victor Hugo: 法国浪漫主义文学的最重要的作家。他于1827年发表的 Cromwell>是法国浪漫主义运动的一篇重要宣言。他的长篇小说巴黎圣母院 悲惨世界宣扬了“爱”与“仁慈”等人道主义精神。The greatest poet of his day George Sand:法国浪漫主义文学最杰出的女作家

    Romanticism in Italy Manzoni: 约婚夫妇是意大利文学史上第一部以爱压迫的劳动人民为主人公的小说Leopardi: he was the greatest poet of Italy Romanticism

    Romanticism in Russia Russia Romanticism began that way-adapting French plays and translating German and English poetry Pushkin: 俄国浪漫主义先锋(van) a Byronic character his masterpiece is 创造了俄国文学中的第一个“多余的人”的典型Lermontov: draws a fine portrait of Pushkin

    Romanticism in Poland Adam Mickiewicz: beginning of Polish Romanticism is his masterpiece Art and Architecture Goya Spanish painter and etcher(蚀刻家)欧洲浪漫主义先驱 Execution of the Third of May> Children> David French Painter Delacroix 代表着法国浪漫主义绘画的最高成就Gericault French painter Turner English landscape painter Constable English landscape painter Turner and Constable代表了浪漫主义画派的最高成就

    Music早期浪漫主义音乐家:Beethoven(贝多芬) German Composer marked the beginning of 19th century programme music Schubert(舒伯特)Austrian composer Chopin(肖邦)Polish composer Schumann(舒曼) German composer Mendelssohn(门德尔松)German composer

    后期浪漫主义音乐家:Berlioz(伯辽兹)French composer Liszt(里斯特)Hungarian composer Wagner(瓦格纳)German composer Brahms(伯拉姆斯)German composer Tchaikovsky(柴科夫斯基)Russian composer

    8. 马克思主义和达尔文主义 Marxism and Darwinism The Three Sources and Three Component Parts of Marxism German Classical Philosophy and Marxist Philosophy:Hegelian dialectics 黑格尔辩证法Feuerbach‘s materialism费尔巴哈唯物论Marxist Philosophy Dialectical materialism马克思主义辩证唯物论Historical materialism 马克思主义历史唯物论English Classical Political Economy and Marxist Political Economy Capital is the most important work by Marx about Marxist economics Surplus value was the source of profit, the source of the wealth of the capitalist class Doctrine of surplus value in Capital is the cornerstone of Marx’s economic theory Utopian Socialism and Scientific Socialism Robert Owen: English industrialist and social reformer Henri de Saint-Simon: French social philosopher Charles Fourier: French social philosopher

    Darwinism As Newton dominated 17th century science with the discovery of the laws governing the bodies of the universe, Charles Darwin dominated the 19th century science for his discovering of the laws governing the evolution of man himself. In the history of science he takes up a position as important as these occupied by Copernicus, Galileo and Newton. Darwin was not the first man to put forward the theory of evolution Lamarck was the first man whose conclusion on the subject. However, he failed to produce any evidence, French naturalist(自然主义者)

    Lyell English geologist Karl Marx

    Darwin‘s works and Theories:On the origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life The Descent of Man

    9. 现实主义Realism arise in the 50s of the 19th century and had its origin in France

    Realism in France Stendhal 司汤达 红与黑是法国批判现实主义第一部成熟的作品 巴马修道院Balzac巴尔扎克 Balzac has been called the French Dickens as Dickens has been called the English Balzac Flaubert 福楼拜 非常重视艺术形式he is often called the first French realist包法利夫人Zora 左拉 founder of the naturalist school鲁贡玛-马卡尔家族史Maupassant 莫伯桑

    Realism in Russia Gogol果戈里 the first master of fiction in Russia Chickikov A character in Shame, and hypocrisy Turgenev屠格涅夫 the first Russian author to gain recognition in the West

    Dostoyevsky陀思妥耶夫斯基罪与罚卡拉马佐夫兄弟Leo Tolstoy列夫托尔斯泰 战争与和平安娜卡列尼娜  复活Chekhov契诃夫海欧 万尼亚舅舅 Sisters>三姐妹  樱桃园

    Realism in Northern Europe Ibsen a plea for the emancipation of woman His plays are viewed as the fountainhead of much modern drama Strindberg The above three are his autobiographical works His first play is

    Realism in England This period occurs at the latter half of the reign of Queen Victoria, 这时期意味着大英帝国的顶峰,但太平盛世只是外表,整个国家内乱不断,危机重重Charles Dickens 大卫科波菲尔 荒凉山庄艰难时世 其小说展现了广阔的社会生活,真实情节与诗意气氛的结合,幽默、风趣与悲剧的结合George Eliot(Mary Ann Evans-PEN NAME) is regarded by some critics as the finest English novel of the 19th century Thackeray萨克雷 名利场 他的写作范围多局限于上流社会Thomas Hardy Mayor of Casterbridge> Bernard Shaw萧伯纳 won the Nobel Prize in 1925

    Realism in the United States Harriet Beecher Stowe: greatest of all anti-slavery manifestoes Walt Whitman:Considered to be the greatest of all American poets Mark Twain: 哈克贝里芬历险记 a masterpiece of humour, characterization and realism, has been considered the first modern American novel 镀金岁月Henry James 出身世家,所以关注上层人物 the master beyond all masters贵妇人画像

    Art Courbet库尔贝 French artist 反映生活的真实是创作的最高原则石工 奥尔南的葬礼Millet米勒 French artist “农民画家”播种者拾穗者Impressionism in Art印象派艺术Manet 草地上的午餐福列斯贝热尔酒吧间Monet 日出印象Post-Impressionism in Art 后印象派艺术Paul Cezanne赛尚Van Gogh 凡高 dutch painter Paul Gauguin 高更 French painter

    10. 现代主义及其它思潮 Modernism and other trends also called “the tradition of the new” “dehumanization of art” originating from the end of 19th century Discoveries made at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century:Rontgen: the discovery of X-rays 伦琴 德国物理学家发明X射线Becquerel: the discovery of radioactive properties of uranium 贝克勒尔 法国物理学家 放射性现象的发现者,肯定了铀元素自发射线的性质Marie Curie the discovery of radium居里夫人 法国物理学家和放射学家发现镭Soddy the discovery of isotopes 索迪 英国放射化学家 同位素Rutherford the discovery of the atomic nucleus卢瑟福 英国物理学家发现原子核Einstein Special Theory of Relativity General Principles of Relativity

    Contemporary Western Literature Eliot Conrad polish novelist Woolf English novelist Lawrence English writer considered one of the “makers” of modern English fiction Love> Yeats Irish writer Joyce Man> Irish writer Pound a leading figure of the Imagist movement American poet Faulkner Hemingway Tolls> Thomas Mann The most influential and representative German author of his time Gide French writer Proust French novelist Albert Camus French novelist Gorky The greatest Russian literary figure of the 20th century Sholokhov soviet author

    Literature and Philosophy Since 1945 Angry Young Men in England 英国愤怒的青年Amis Osborne

    Beat Generation in America美国垮掉的一代Ginsberg Kerouac

    Nouveau Roman (New Novel) 法国新小说派Robber-Griller Sarraute

    The Theatre of the Absurd欧洲的荒诞派Beckett Irish writer Ionesco French writer

    Black Humour 美国黑色幽默派Heller


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