1、There are many elements constituting（组成） European Culture.
2、There are two major elements： Greco-Roman element and Judeo-Christian element.
3、The richness（丰富性） of European Culture was created by Greco-Roman element and Judeo-Christian element.
1、The 5th century closed with civil war between Athens and Sparta.
2、The economy of Athens rested on（依赖） an immense（无限的）amount of slave labour.
3、Olympus mount， Revived in 1896（当代奥运会）
4、Ancient Greece（古希腊）‘s epics was created by Homer.
5、They events of Homer‘s own time. （错）
（They are not about events of Homer‘s own time， probably in the period 1200-1100 B.C.）
6、The Homer‘s epics consisted of Iliad and Odyssey.
7、Agamemnon， Hector， Achilles are in Iliad.
8、Odysseus and Penelope are in Odyssey.
9、Odyssey（对其作品产生影响）—→James Joyoe‘s Ulysses（描述一天的生活）。 In the 20th century.
10、Drama in Ancient Greece was floured in the 5th century B.C.
《Prometheus Bound》—→模仿式作品 Shelly《Prometheus Unbound》
《Oedipus the King》—→ Freud‘s “the Oedipus complex” （恋母情结） —→ David Herbert Lawrence’s《Sons and lovers》（劳伦斯）447页
B.He is the first writer of “problem plays”（社会问题剧） 在肖伯纳手中达到高潮，属于存在主义戏剧的人物
C.Elizabeth Browning called him “Euripides human”（一个纯粹的人）
D.Realism can be traced back（追溯到） to the Ancient Greece.
To be specific（具体来说）， Euripides.
12、The only representative of Greek comedy is Aristophanes. 18页
Aristophanes writes about nature. —→浪漫主义湖畔派（The lakers）华兹华兹
Swift says of him “As for comic Aristophanes， The dog too witty and too profane is.”
13、History （Historical writing）史学创作
※ “Father of History” —→ Herodotus —→ war（between Greeks and Persians）
This war is called Peleponicion wars. 博罗奔泥撒，3
※ “The greatest historian that ever lived.” （有史以来最伟大的历史学家） —→ Thucydides —→ war （Sparta， Athens and Syracuse）
14、The Greek historical writing writes mainly about wars.
15、受希腊文化影响的传教士St. Paul. Democritus （Materialism）
17、① Euclid‘s Elements解析几何
It was in use in English schools until the early years of the 20th century. （历史地位）
His work not only in geometry几何学，but also in arithmetic算术， machanics机械， and hydrostatics.流体静力学
选择：Give me a place to stand， and I will move the world.谁的理论（Archimedes）
① The Doric style
is also called masculine style. （宏伟的）
but the Doric style is monotonous and unadorned （单调）
is sturdy （坚强的）， powerful， severelooking （庄严肃穆） and showing a good sense of proportions and numbers.
② The Ionic style
is also called the feminine style. （阴柔的）
is graceful （优雅的） and elegant （优美的）。
The Ionic style often shows a wealth of ornament. （装饰性）
③ The Corinthian style
is known for its ornamental luxury. （奢侈）
19、The famous temples： The Acrpolis at Athens and the Parthenon.
20、The burning of Corinth in 146 B.C. Marked Roman conquest of Greece.
21、The melting between Roman Culture and Greek Culture. （罗马征服希腊的标志）
22、From 146 B.C.， Latin was the language of the western half of the Roman Empire.
Greek that of the eastern half.
23、Both Latin and Greek belong to Indo-European language.
24、The Roman writer Horace said “captive Greece took her rude conqueror captive”。
25、The dividing range（分水岭） in the Roman history refers to 27 B.C.
26、The year 27 B.C. Divided the Roman history into two periods： republic and empire.
27、The idea of Republic can be traced back to Plato‘s republic.
28、The land area of Roman empire reached its climax in 2 to 3 century.
29、north： Scotland east： Armenia and Mesopotamia
30、In the Roman history ，there came two hundred years of peaceful time， which was guaranteed（保证） by the Roman legions（罗马军团）
31、In the Roman history， there came two hundred years of peaceful time， which was known as Pax Romana.（神圣罗马帝国）
32、名解In the Roman history ，there came two hundred years of peaceful time， which was guaranteed（保证） by the Roman legions， it was known as Pax Romana
33、The Roman Law protected（保护） the rights of plebeians （平民）。
34、The important contribution made by the Romans to the European culture was the Roman Law.
35、After 395，the empire was divided into East （the Byzantine Empire） and West.
he legal and political speeches are models of Latin diction拉丁语用词
described as Ciceronian.西赛罗式的
an enormous influence（巨大影响） on the development of European prose.（散文）
37、Julius Caesar commentaries批评论 “I came， I saw， I conquered.”
38、Virgil Aeneid 阿尼德
39、The pantheon was built in 27 B.C.
The world‘s first vast interior space.世界上第一所最大的室内场所
40、The Colosseum（大理石像） it‘s an enormous.露天的环形影剧院
42、The representation form of Greek Democracy is citizen-assembly.古希腊民主的表现形式
43、The embodiment of Greek democracy is citizen-assembly. 古希腊民主的具体形式
一、What is the limitation of “Democracy” in ancient Greece？（名解简答）
（How do you understand “Democracy” in ancient Greece？ What is the difference between “Democracy” in ancient Greece and modern democracy？）
① Democracy means “exercise of power by the whole people”， but in Greece by “the whole people” the Greeks meant only the adult male citizens.
② Women， children， foreigners and slaves were excluded from Democracy.
二、How did the Greek Culture originate and develop？
① Probably around 1200 B.C.， a war was fought between Greece and troy. This is the war that Homer refers to in his epics.
② Greek culture reached a high point of development in the 5th century B.C.
A. The successful repulse of the Persian invasion （入侵） early in the 5th century.
B. The establishment of democracy.
C. The flourishing （蒸蒸日上的） of science， philosophy， literature， art and historical writing in Athens.
③ The 5th century closed with civil war between Athens and Sparta.
④ In the second half of the 4th century B.C.， Greece was conquered by Alexander， king of Macedon. Whenever he went and conquered， whenever Greek culture was found.
⑤ Melting between Greek culture and Roman culture in 146 B.C.， the Romans conquered Greece.
三、How did the Ancient Greek philosophy develop？
① All things were numbers.
② Scientific mathematics.
③ Theory of proportion.比例的理论
① Fire is the primary（主要的） elements of the universe.火是万物之源
② The theory of the mingling of opposites produced harmony.矛盾的对立统一
① the atomic theory.第一个原子理论开拓者
①He hadn‘t works. We can know him from Plato’s dialogues.
②The dialectical method was established by Socrates.
①The Academy is the first school in the world， it was established by Plato.
②He has four works. Dialogues， Apology， Symposium and Republic.
①The Lyceum is the second school in the world， it was established by Aristotle.
②Aristotle is a humanist.
（2）、Five contending schools
①Under the leadership of Protagoras.
②The representative of work is On the God.诸神论
③His doctrine教义 is “man is the measure of all things”。人是衡量一切的标准
①Under the leadership of Diogenes.
②The word “cynic” means “dog” in English.
③He proclaimed宣扬 his brotherhood. And he had no patience with the rich and powerful.权利
①Under the leadership of Pyrrhon.
②His thought is not all knowledge was attainable可获得的， and doubting the truth of what others accepted as true.
①Under the leadership of Epicurus. 选择：根据领导者的名字直接命名
②Pleasure to be the highest good in life but not sensual肉欲 enjoyment.享乐
Pleasure could be attained by the practice of virtue.通过实行道德获得
Epicurus was a materialist. He believed that the world consisted of atoms.原子
①Under the leadership of Zeno.
②His thought is duty is the most important thing in life.
One should endure忍受 hardship艰难 and misfortune不幸 with courage.勇气
Developed into Stoics‘ duty.
He was also a materialist.
四、What philosophy system did Plato established？
（Why do we say Plato‘s philosophy system was idealistic？ Do you think Plato built up a comprehensive综合的 system of philosophy？ ）
1、It dealt with， among other things， the problem of how， in the complex， ever—changing world， men were to attain获得 knowledge.
2、The first case and physical自然 world should take the secondary case.
3、Idealistic of philosophy.
4、Many of Plato‘s ideas were later absorbed into Christian thought. （吸收到基督教的思想中）
五、What‘s the difference between Plato and Aristotle in terms of their philosophical ideas（system）？
1、For one thing， Aristotle emphasized（强调） direct observation of nature and insisted that theory should follow fact.（理论联系实际）This is different from Plato‘s reliance（依赖） on subjective thinking.（万物依赖主观思维）
2、For another， he thought that “form” and matter together made up concrete（具体的） individual（个别的） realities. （物质与意识共同构成的客观事实）Here， too， he differed from Plato who held that ideas had a higher reality than the physical world（意识高于物质）
3、Aristotle thought happiness was men‘s aim in life. But not happiness in the vulgar庸俗的 sense， but something that could only be achieved by leading a life of reason， goodness and contemplation.（善良和期待）
What should be man‘s aim in life？
Aristotle‘s answer was： happiness.
六、What is the great significance of Greek Culture on the later-on cultural development？
（What positive influence did the Greek Culture exert运用 on the world civilization文化？）
There has been an enduring excitement兴奋 about classical经典的 Greek culture in Europe and elsewhere别处。Rediscovery of Greek culture played a vital有生命力的 part in the Renaissance in Italy and other European countries.
1、Spirit of innovation创新精神
The Greek people invented mathematics and science and philosophy； They first wrote history as opposed反对 to mere纯粹的 annals历史记载； They speculated思索 freely about the nature of the world and the ends of life生命的轮回， without being bound in the fetters束缚 of any inherited orthodoxy.继承的习俗
The Greeks achieved supreme achievements in nearly all fields of human endeavour努力： Philosophy， science， epic poetry， comedy， historical writing， architecture， etc.
①Countless无数的 writers have quoted举例， borrowed from and otherwise used Homer‘s epics， the tragedies of Aeschylus and Sophocles and Euripides， Aristophanes’s comedies， Plato‘s Dialogues，ect.
②In the early part of the 19th century， in England alone， three young Romantic poets expressed their admiration of Greek culture in works which have themselves become classics经典之作： Byron‘s Isles of Greece， Shelley’s Hellas and Prometheus Unbound and Keats‘s Ode on a Grecian Urn.
③In the 20th century， there are Homeric parallels与…平行 in the Irishman爱尔兰 James Joyce‘s modernist masterpiece代表作 Ulysses.
七、What is the similarity and difference between Greek culture and Roman culture？
① Both peoples had traditions rooted in the idea of the citizen-assembly.
② Their religions were alike enough for most of their deities（神） to be readily（容易的） identified （一致）， and their myths （崇拜的神） to be fused.（融合）
③ Their languages worked in similar ways， both being members of the Indo-European language family.
① The Romans built up a vast （巨大的） empire； the Greeks didn‘t， except for the brief （短暂的） moment of Alexander’s conquests， which soon disintegrated.（瓦解）
② The Romans were confident（自信的） in their own organizational power， their military and administrative capabilities.（管理国家的能力）
八、What is the Rome historical background？
1、The history of Rome divided into two periods： Before the year 27 B.C.， Rome had been a republic； from the year 27 B.C.， Octavius took supreme （最大的） power as emperor with the title of Augustus and Roman Empire began.
2、Two centuries later， the Roman Empire reached its climax， marked by land area‘s extension： Encircling （环绕） the Mediterranean.（地中海）
3、Strong military power： the famous Roman legions.
4、In the Roman history ，there came two hundred years of peaceful time， which was guaranteed（保证） by the Roman legions， it was known as Pax Romana.
5、Another important contribution made by the Romans to European culture was Roman Law.
6、The empire began to decline in the 3rd century.选择
① In the 4th century the emperor Constantine moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium. Renamed it Constantinople （modern Istanbul）。
② After 395 （分裂时间）， the empire was divided into East （The Byzantine Empire） and West
③ In 476 the last emperor of the West was deposed by Goths and this marked the end of the West Roman Empire.
④ The East Roman Empire collapsed （崩溃） when Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453. （英法百年战争结束）