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09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit24)

2009-08-04 19:28  自考365论坛 【 】【我要纠错

  Text A Saving the Rainforests for Future Generations

  Ⅰ.New words:

  带有前缀的单词:

  deforestation: v.& n. 开伐森林

  ecosystem: n. 生态系统

  ecospecies: 生态种

  overpopulate: v. 使人口过密

  population: n. 人口

  international: 国际的

  nation: n. 国家,民族

  inter- 表示“在一起, 交互”之义

  export: n. & vt. 输出,出口

  port: 港口

  import: 进口

  recycle: vt. 使再循环,使再生;n.再循环,再生

  economy n. 经济

  economic a. 经济(上)的

  economics n. 经济学

  economical a. 节约的

  consequence: n. 结果,后果

  consequent: a. 作为结果的

  massive: a. 大量的;大而重的,魁伟的

  mass: n. 群众,大量

  regional: a. 地区的

  region: n. 地区

  globe: n. 地球

  global: a. 全球的

  contribute: v. 贡献,捐献

  contribution: n. 贡献,捐献,投稿

  contributor: n. 捐助者,贡献者

  senseless: a. 无知觉的;无意义的,愚蠢的

  living: n. 生活,生计

  make one's living 谋生

  newly: ad. 新近,最近;重新,以新的方法

  合成词:

  rainforest: n. 热带雨林

  rainfall: n. (降)雨量;一场雨

  greenhouse: n. 温室

  forestland: n. 林地

  make-up: n. 组成,化妆

  课文中出现的重点单词:

  1.upset v. 弄翻,打翻;使苦恼

  过去式、过去分词:(upset-upset-upset )

  a. 不安的;不适的;不舒服的

  E.g.: The large wave upset the boat.

  He is upset because of the generation gap.

  2.contribute (vi./vt)

  E.g.: The Nobel Prize winner contributed much to the research in this field.

  contribute to: 有助于;捐献;起作用

  His carelessness contributed to the accident.

  3.derive v. 由…。得到(from);起源,由……派生(from)

  E.g.: He derived his love for table tennis from his father.

  Many English words derived from French.

  4.cancel v. 取消;删除

  E.g.: The decision of the court cancelled the contract.

  5.owe : vt. 欠(债等),应该向(某人)付出;应该把…归功于(to)

  E.g.: I owe a great deal to my family and my friends for their support.

  His success does not owe to luck but hard work.

  Phrases:

  1.speed up (使)加速

  E.g.: The heart speeds up.

  We should make double efforts to speed up socialist construction.

  2.threaten with 用…威胁,恐吓

  E.g.: The boss threatens the employees with dismissal.

  老板以开除来威胁员工。

  3.at the rate of 以…速度或比率

  He drives at the rate of 40 kilometers per hour.

  The population in this country is increasing at the rate of 1%.

  4.in the face of 在…面前,当着…的面;不顾

  face: n. 脸;正面 v. 面对

  E.g.: He was brave in the face of danger.

  5.stop…。from… 阻止…做…

  I can hardly stop myself from shouting at him.

  Having no money cannot stop them from falling in love.

  6.pay off 偿还;没有白费

  He plans to pay off the loan (贷款) in five years.

  7.solution to 解决…的方法

  8.last but not least 最后的但并非最不重要的

  Last but not least, we must find a peaceful solution to the problem.

  Ⅱ.Text A

  Saving the Rainforests for Future Generations: 拯救热带雨林,造福子孙万代

  Para1:

  Rainforests are being cut and burned from Brazil to Indonesia at such a rate that they could well disappear from the earth's surface before the year 2050.

  译:从巴西到印尼,热带雨林正在被砍伐,被烧毁,其速度非常之快,以致于到不了2050年,热带雨林就会被砍光烧光而从地球表面上彻底消失。

  They are being cleared for valuable timber and other resources to speed up the economic growth of the nations in which they are located.

  are being cleared: 现在进行时的被动语态

  译:为了获取贵重木材和其它资源,加速热带雨林地区的国家的经济发展,热带雨林正在逐渐被砍伐得干干净净。

  The most recent figures show that the area of rainforest destroyed last year alone was bigger than the size of Great Britain and Ireland.

  译:最近的统计数字表明,仅去年一年被毁掉的热带雨林的面积就比英国和爱尔兰两国的面积加起来还大。

  be+ being +V(p.p)

  clear v. 清除,扫除

  speed: 加快

  locate: v. (使)坐落于,位于

  Para.2

  If the present rate of deforestation is allowed to continue, the consequences for the earth will be great.

  译:如果听任目前采伐森林的速度继续发展下去,那么给整个地球所带来的后果将是十分严重的。

  We shall see a massive upsetting of ecosystems, very large increases in soil erosion, increases in flooding and in drought, changes in rainfall patterns and regional, quite possibly global, changes in climate. We shall also probably lose many rare plant and animal species.

  译:我们将会看到:生态系统失衡;土壤侵蚀现象大规模增加;水灾、旱灾大规模出现;降雨方式改变;地区气候改变,甚至可能导致全球气候的改变。我们也许会永远失去很多种珍稀的植物和动物。

  in: 在……方面

  contribute to : 促成,导致

  Para.3

  According to many scientists, the burning of rainforests is also directly contributing to the so-called greenhouse effect. This effect, they say, is raising average temperatures and sea levels as the polar ice caps recede.

  译:根据许多科学家报告,烧毁热带雨林也直接导致了所谓的温室效应。科学家们都说,这种温室效应正在使全球平均气温升高,正在使南极和北极地区的冰冠融化,随之而来的也正在使全球海洋的水平面上升。

  contribute to(to 介词): 有助于

  raise vt.

  rise vi.

  Para.4

  The rainforest is essential in other areas also. It is a medicine chest of unlimited potential. The US National Cancer Institute has identified 2,000 rainforest plants which could be beneficial in fighting cancer. In today's pharmaceutical market, 15 of the 125 drugs derived from plants were discovered in the rainforest.

  chest: 胸膛;箱。

  译:从其它方面来看,热带雨林对人类也是必不可缺的。热带雨林是一个有着无限潜力的医药资源宝库。美国国家癌症研究院已经证实了有2000种热带雨林中的植物对预防和治疗癌症有奇效。在今天的药品市场上,125种单味药中,就有15种是从热带雨林发现的植物中提取出来的。

  Plant species are not the only forms of life threatened with extinction in the rainforest. Rare birds and animals that cannot be found anywhere else in the world have been disappearing at the rate of one a year since the turn of the century.

  译:各种植物在热带雨林中并不是受到灭种威胁的唯一生物。世界上除了热带雨林以外,在其它任何地方都找不到的珍稀鸟类和珍稀动物,在这世纪之交正在以每年消失一种的速度逐渐灭绝。

  the turn of the century 世纪之交

  In the face of all these facts, it seems senseless for countries to continue destroying their rainforests.

  译:面对着这些事实,这些国家还在继续毁灭他们的热带雨林,简直令人觉得他们太麻木不仁了。

  Destroy v. 消灭,摧毁/damage v./n. 损害,伤害/ruin v./n. 毁灭

  However, the problem is not so simple. The countries in which the rainforests are located are all quite poor and overpopulated. One of them, Brazil, has a population of 140 million, about half of whom are living in absolute poverty.

  译:但是,这个问题并不简单。拥有热带雨林的那些国家都相当贫穷而且人口过剩。热带雨林国家之一,巴西,有一亿四千万人。其中约有半数人生活在绝对贫困当中。

  The governments in these countries are usually also too weak to stop large companies and powerful individuals from destroying the rainforests. They have no money, so when the poor whom they cannot feed find work cutting down trees or burning forestland, the governments often have no choice but to turn a blind eye.

  the +a.:表示一类人

  have no choice but to do: 没有办法,只能…

  译:这些国家的政府通常也都十分软弱,以致不能阻止一些大公司或有权有势的人毁坏热带雨林。那些国家的政府都没有钱,所以当政府养活不起的那些穷人,找到了砍树或在森林里烧树开荒的工作时,政府别无选择,只好睁一只眼闭一只眼。

  Moreover, for many of these countries, the valuable timber and other resources found in the rainforests are also a very important source of foreign exchange, which they badly need to pay off their foreign debts and purchase foreign equipment and other goods.

  foreign exchange: 外汇

  译:况且,对于这些国家中的有些国家来说,热带雨林中的珍贵木材和其它资源也是他们换取外汇的重要资源,以便用来偿还外债和购买外国设备以及其它物资。

  The only solution to the problem, then, seems to be for the richer countries of the world to help the countries where the rainforests are located. One way they could help would be by cancelling the international debts that countries like Brazil owe, while also working together with these countries to solve their other economic problems.

  译:那么,这个问题唯一的解决办法似乎就是世界上较富裕国家应该援助那些地处热带雨林地区的国家。援助的方法之一就是放弃或取消像巴西这类国家所欠他们的国际债务,同时还要同这些国家一起协作去解决他们的一些经济问题。

  At the same time, they could support programmes to teach the local people to regard the rainforests as gardens to be harvested, and not merely as places where the only way for them to make a living is by senselessly cutting down trees and burning.

  译:与此同时,他们还应该举办各种培训班,教会当地居民把热带雨林看成是获得大丰收的花园、果园、菜园、动植物园,而不要只把热带雨林看成是只能用愚昧无知的砍树烧树办法来谋生的地方。

  regard …as …:把…当成

  see …as

  Such programmes could teach the local people how to select trees worth exporting and to cut only those trees down while leaving the rest, so that the basic make-up of the forest would not be disturbed.

  be worth doing sth.: 值得…。

  译:这类培训班还可以教会当地居民如何精选出值得出口的树木,只把有出口价值的树木砍掉,而把其余的树都保留下来,以保证森林中基本的生态平衡不被破坏。

  This would also mean that the environment needed for the survival of the many rare species of animals and plants, as well as of the Indian tribes that live in the rainforest, could be preserved.

  preserve:保护,存留

  译:这样做,也将意味着会把许多珍稀植物和动物赖以生存的环境以及热带雨林中的印地安各部落赖以生存的环境保存下来。

  The local people could also be taught to earn more money by cutting the selected trees and making them into furniture on the spot.

  select v. 选择 a.精选的

  selection n. 选择

  selective: a. 选择的,选择性的

  In addition, they could learn how to harvest other valuable natural materials that are now being wasted, and sell them overseas to earn foreign exchange for their countries.

  还可以教会当地居民通过采伐精选的树木并用这些树木在当地加工成家具的办法去赚到更多的钱。此外,当地居民在培训班还可以学会怎样去采集现在被浪费掉的其它珍贵天然材料,然后把这些材料卖到国外去,以便为他们的祖国赚回外汇。

  Last but not least, people in the richer countries of the world could also help save the rainforests by using wood-derived products such as paper more carefully and by recycling used paper products to help reduce the demand for newly cut wood.

  译:最后,同样重要的是,世界上较富裕国家的人民,要更加注意节约使用以木材为原料的纸张之类的产品,回收利用纸制产品,以帮助减少新的砍伐树木的需求量,从而帮助拯救热带雨林。

  Ⅲ.Vocabulary Exercises :

  ⅰ.Choose the proper words given at the beginning.

  1.economy economic economical

  a.The war is a fatal blow to the economy of both countries.

  b.It is important to bring about a new economic order in the world.

  c.The newly invented machine is economical of time and energy.

  2.consequence consequent consequently

  a.The farmers suffered a drought and there was a consequent shortage of food in the market.

  b.If you behave so foolishly, you must be ready to take the consequence.

  c.She was a bright and eager student and, consequently, did well in school.

  3.contribute contribution contributor

  a.His involvement contributed effectively to the solution of the dispute.

  b.All contributors to the church will have a meeting today.

  c.The young policeman made a remarkable contribution to public safety.

  4.overpopulate population populate

  a.If we didn't carry out family planning, our country would be much more overpopulated.

  b. The centre of the city is a densely populated area.

  c. The country is adopting radical measures to control the growth of its population.

  ⅱ.Fill in the following blanks with the words listed below in their proper forms.

  local massive upset senseless recede threaten export recycle select pay off

  1.Empty bottles are recycled in order for the glass to be used.

  2.The news that he failed the final exam upset him emotionally.

  3.Tea, grain and sugar are among the most important exports.

  4.The doctors made massive efforts to save the dying patient.

  5.Columbus' idea of going east by sailing west was thought to be senseless by the Spanish nobles.

  6.The coast was receding / receded slowly as our ship sailed out to sea.

  7.Many rare species of animals are being threatened with extinction.

  8.It's almost certain that our plan will pay off; it is a wonderful idea.

  9.“When in Rome, do as the Romans do” means that one should behave according to the local customs.

  10.Why didn't you select a better topic for your conversation?

  Text B Life on the Tundra

  Ⅰ.New words:

  1.含有前缀的单词:

  subsoil n. 下层土,底土

  2.含有后缀的单词:

  marshy a.沼泽般的,湿软的

  →marsh n.沼泽

  →表示地形的单词:maintain/sea /desert /plain /plateau

  continous a. 连续不断的,不停歇的,表示动作或物体不间断地进行下去

  eg: They chattered continuously for an hour. 他们不间断地聊了一个小时。

  continual a. 连续的,频繁的,表示多次重复的动作(有可能有间断)

  eg: Please stop your continual questions. 请不要再接二连三的提问题了。

  permanently ad. 长久地,永久地

  →permanent (a.) 反义词:temporary a. 暂时的

  lifeless a. 1.无生命的,死的;2.没有生气的,单调的

  disturbance n. 1.骚动,动乱;2.打扰,干扰

  deep a. 深的

  depth n. 1.深度2.深处[常pl.] 3.深奥,深刻

  seemingly ad. 1.表面地 2.近乎真实地

  shortage n. 不足,缺少

  explorer n. 探索者,考察者

  3.合成词:

  daylight : 1.日光 2.日间

  pipeline : 管道,管线

  4.特殊记忆:

  minor 比较小的;少数的 ←→ major 比较大的;多数的

  1)这两个词本身就有比较意味,用比较级时不需要变形加er

  2)在用比较级的句子中,不用比较连词than,而用介词to

  bay海湾 / port 海港 / coast 海岸,海滨/ gulf 海湾

  5.本单元课文中出现的单词:

  1.horizon n. 1.地平线;2.(喻)眼界,见识

  E.g.: the horizon 地平线

  Travel broadens one's horizons. 旅游可以开阔人的眼界。

  2.continuous & continual

  E.g.: They chattered continuously for an hour. 他们足足聊了1个小时。

  Please stop your continual questions. 请不要再接二连三地提问题了。

  3.hunt vt. 1.追猎,猎取;2.追赶,搜索

  vi.(for)1.打猎;2.猎食;3.搜寻

  n.打猎

  E.g.: go hunting 去打猎

  He's been hunting for a lost book. 他一直在找那本丢失的书。

  Phrases:

  1.be known as 以…而闻名,通常名叫

  E.g.: Mark Twain was known as a great novelist. 马克· 吐温作为一个伟大的小说家被人们熟知。

  →be known for 因为…而出名

  2.in search of 寻找…,寻求…

  Eg: Scientists are in search of a cure for the disease. 科学家正在想治疗这种疾病的方法。

  3.to …degree 达到…程度

  to some degree 达到一定的程度

  to what degree 达到什么程度

  to a high/low degree 达到很高/低的程度

  to such an degree 达到如此…的程度

  to a certain degree 达到一定的程度

  E.g. He is vain to a high degree. 他非常爱虚荣。

  4.to some extent 在某种程度上

  E.g.: To some extent you are correct . 从某种程度上说你是正确的。

  I agree with you to a certain extent. 我在一定程度上同意你的意见。

  5.prevent … from 防止,阻止

  E.g.: Put on more clothes to prevent yourself from getting a cold. 多穿点衣服,以免感冒。

  6.in turn 1.依次,轮流;2.反过来

  by turns 轮流,交替

  1)please speak in turn. 请依次发言。

  2)Theory is based on practice and in turn serves practice. 理论以实践为基础,反过来又为实践服务。

  3)The couple wash dishes by turns. 夫妻俩轮流洗碗

  7.result in = bring about 导致,产生

  E.g.: Our efforts resulted in success. 我们的努力终于导致了成功

  →result from 因为…。发生,产生

  E.g.: His injury resulted from a fall. 他因摔倒而受伤。

  Ⅱ.Text B

  Life on the Tundra

  冻土带上的生活情景

  Tundra is the name given to the low, marshy plains of Europe, Siberia, and North America that border on the Arctic Ocean.

  译:欧洲、西伯利亚和北美洲接近北冰洋的低洼沼泽平原称为冻土带。

  1.border on 与…相邻

  In Alaska, the vast, cold region known as the “Northern Slope” is part of the tundra. Nature sets harsh terms for survival in this land. Only those plants and animals that are adapted to the hostile environment can survive in it.

  2.be know as

  terms 条件(如果去掉s则没有条件的意思,表示“学期;术语”)

  3.adapt to 适应…

  译:美国阿拉斯加州,那块广阔寒冷通称为“北边坡地”的地区就是冻土带的一部分。大自然为这片土地设置的生存条件十分恶劣。只有那些能适应在逆境中生存的植物和动物才能在这种环境中生存下来。

  Long periods of darkness and bitter cold are the major threats to life on the tundra. At the Arctic Circle, the sun cannot be seen above the horizon in December. North of the Circle, the darkness lasts even longer. Over the northern reaches of the tundra, no sunlight can be seen at all for several months of the year.

  bitter 在这里表示“刺骨的”

  4.over : beyond在…以外

  5.no … at all: not … at all 一点也不,根本不

  eg. You don't look old at all. 你看起来一点也不老。

  译:长期的黑暗和刺骨的严寒是在冻土带上生活的两大最主要的威胁。北极圈在12月份,地平线上是看不到太阳的。从北极圈往北黑暗的时间通常会持续得更长些。在冻土带北部边缘以外的地方,一年中有好几个月根本见不到阳光。

  The darkness is balanced, to some degree, by continuous daylight during the summer months.

  译:持续的黑暗,从某种意义上来说,同夏季几个月连续不断的白昼达到了平衡。

  6.Balance n. 平衡

  v. 使…平衡,使…均衡

  But even in the warmest month, the temperature only averages about 50 degree F (10 degrees C)。

  F(fahrenheit) C(centigrade)

  Boiling point 212° 100°

  Freezing point 32° 0°

  Absolute-zero -459.67° -273.15°

  换算公式:

  摄氏度数=(华氏度度数-32)×5/9

  华氏度数=摄氏度度数×9/5 +32

  译:但即使是在最暖和的月份里,平均温度刚刚能达到华氏50度(10摄氏度)。

  During the dark winter months the average temperature falls to -16 degrees F ( -27 degrees C), and sometimes to -40 degrees (C and F) and below.

  译:在冬季那几个黑暗的月份里,平均气温降到华氏负16度,有时达零下40度甚至更低。

  Because of the intense cold, the subsoil of the tundra remains permanently frozen to a great depth. During the brief summer, a few feet (about a meter) of soil thaw at the surface. It is this thin layer of active soil that supports all living things on the tundra.

  译:由于酷寒,冻土带的下层土都冻得很深。在短暂的夏季仅三英尺的表层土壤能解冻。正是这被太阳晒暖的苏醒过来的薄薄的一层土壤养活着冻土带上的一切生物。

  For nine months of the year, the tundra is a dark, seemingly lifeless wild land. Then in June, as if by magic, a never-setting summer sun gives birth to hundreds of species of arctic plants to cover the ground.

  7.give birth to (prep.) 产生…,生产出…

  译:每年长达9个月,冻土带都是一块看上去毫无生机的荒凉的土地。然后到6月份,好像是施了魔法一样,一轮永不落的夏天的太阳生出了数百种北极的植物覆盖着大地。

  A plant that grows more than three feet (about a meter) is unusual on the tundra. There are no tall trees. The frozen subsoil prevents roots from growing deep enough to support them. By the end of August the breath of winter returns, and by mid-September the tundra is white again.

  译:一种植物若能长得超过了三英尺,这在冻土带上就是很不平常的了。冻土带上根本就不会有高大的树木。深层的永冻土使植物的根不能深深地扎下去来支撑高大的树木。到8月底,冬天的气息又返回来了, 9月中旬这冻土带又是冬天了。

  The animal life on the tundra is unusually rich for an environment that seems so harsh. Herds of arctic deer move from place to place in search of food. Bands of wolves follow them and hunt for the weak or sick ones.

  rich adj.富的, 有钱的, 富有的, 富饶的, 肥沃的, 充足的, 丰富的

  表示数量的词:

  herds of deer 一群群的鹿

  bands of wolves 一群群的狼

  a group/crowd of people 一群人

  a herd of cattle 一群牛

  a flock of birds 一群鸟

  a nest of ants 一群蚂蚁

  译:在这种非常恶劣的环境中,冻土带上动物的生活却非常充实。一群一群的北极鹿到处迁徙以便寻找食物。一帮一帮的北极狼跟踪着北极鹿群以便猎吃鹿群中的老弱病残者。

  Few birds actually live on the tundra. However, a variety of birds migrate to nest and feed during the summer. The wet, marshy land produces a large number of insects that provide food for the smaller birds that, in turn, provide food for the arctic fox and the wolf.

  8.a variety of : various of : 多种多样的

  译:实际上几乎没有鸟类生活在冻土带上。但是各种各样的候鸟到了夏季会到这里来筑巢繁衍生息。这湿润的沼泽地能生出大量的昆虫,这就给小鸟提供了食物。接下来这些小鸟又充作了北极狐和北极狼的食物。

  The balance of nature is so delicate on the tundra that even minor disturbances may produce major changes in the environment.

  译:自然界的平衡在冻土带上是非常灵敏的,只要稍微有一点破坏平衡的现象出现就可能产生环境上的一些重大变化。

  Any increase or decrease in the population of one species may affect all other species on the tundra. For example, if the number of wolves and foxes decrease, the food chain is upset.

  译译:任何一个物种在数量上的增加或减少都会影响到冻土带上所有的其它物种。例如,如果北极狼和北极狐的数量减少,那食物链就会遭到破坏,就会脱节。

  Without wolves, the number of grazing animals - like the deer - would increase. This increase would result in a food shortage, which would cause death to many smaller animals. A decrease in the number of these smaller animals would in turn decrease the food supply for the arctic fox and the wolf. In this way, the entire food chain might be affected by a change in the number of a single species.

  译:倘若没有了北极狼,那些食草兽——像驯鹿之类——就会增加,这一增加就会导致食物短缺,很多小动物就会死亡。倘若这些小动物数量减少了,接下来就会减少了供应给北极狐和北极狼的食物。这样下来,由于某一物种的数量的改变,就有可能影响到整个食物链的脱节。

  Until recently, the changing seasons on the tundra were seen only by a few Eskimo hunters and explorers. What would draw men and women to live in such a hostile land? The answer is oil.

  译:不久前,只有极少数的爱斯基摩的猎手和探险家才能深究到冻土带上的寒来暑往,冬去春来。那么,是什么东西把男男女女都吸引到这块环境十分恶劣的土地上来的呢?答案就是:石油。

  9.draw (v.): attract 吸引

  In 1968, oil was discovered beneath the frozen soil on Alaska's Northern Slope. Now an 800-mile (about 1300 kilometers) pipeline has been built from Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic Ocean to Valdes, a port on the south coast of Alaska.

  译:1968年在阿拉斯加北边坡地的冻土下面发现了石油。现在已经把一条800英里长的输油管从北冰洋上的普拉德霍湾架设到了阿拉斯加南岸的港口城市瓦尔迪兹。

  The pipeline carries the oil from the Northern Slope, across the tundra, to the port. From there, it is shipped to the rest of the United States.

  译:这条输油管把石油从北部坡地,越过冻土带,输送到瓦尔迪兹港口,又从那里把石油装船运送到美国其它地方。

  10.ship (v.) 运送,输送

  Thousands of men and women were needed to build and maintain the pipeline. For the first time, large numbers of people were brought into contact with the tundra.

  译:为了修建和维护这条输油管,成千上万的男女需要参与工作。这是破天荒第一次,把一大批又一大批的人送到这里来与冻土带打交道。

  Their presence and the presence of the pipeline they built represented a major change in the environment. How will the life cycles of the tundra be affected?

  译:这些人的到来以及他们所修建的输油管的出现标志着冻土带的环境的重大改变。那么,冻土带的生活周期会受到什么影响呢?

  The survival of the United States depends on the ability to find new sources of energy. Oil from beneath the tundra is very important to the nations' development. But the survival of the tundra depends on how carefully people maintain the delicate balance of nature in this environment.

  译:美国能否继续生存下去,依赖于是否有能力找到新的能源。来自冻土带下面的石油对美国的发展至关重要。但是,这块冻土带上的一切是否能继续维持下去,依赖于人们是否能细心地维护这种环境下大自然里各个物种之间的平衡。

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本文转载链接:09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit24)

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