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2009-08-04 18:42  自考365论坛 【 】【我要纠错

  Text A The Importance of Being Kind and Polite

  “Frankly, I think you're boring.” Why do we seldom hear people speak so honestly?


  seldom 很少,几乎不

  Unless you want to end a relationship, you don't tell another person what you think of her or him like this.


  unless (conj.)除非;如果不

  For example: I shall go there unless it rains. 如果不下雨,我将去那里。

  You will fail unless you work harder. 你若不更加努力,你就会失败。

  end (finish)结束

  Failing to be impressed by a friend's collection of stamps, yawning when a golfer tells you about that great shot he made on the 14th hole, or falling asleep when friends show pictures from their last trip to Sault Ste. Marie are all things that educated people try not to do.


  三个并列的动名次短语做句子的主语failing to be impressed…, yawning…, falling asleep…

  failing to be impressed 没有记住…

  yawning 打哈欠

  falling asleep 睡觉

  This is what manners are about: acting in a civilized way to avoid misunderstanding, friction, and conflict.


  manners 行为方式

  in … way 以某种方式

  There are no laws enforcing respect.


  Yet we cannot interact with others without some rules of behavior, rules that are set by some form of social consensus.

  本句翻译: 可是,如果没有一定的道德行为的准则,人们互相间就无法交往了。这些准则是以社会上一致赞成的公德的形式确定下来的。

  interact with others 彼此交流,彼此交往

  without some rules… 相当于一个条件状语从句的否定式

  These guidelines represent what a majority of people consider acceptable and what they consider unacceptable.

  本句翻译: 这些道德行为准则代表着大多数人所能接受的和他们认为所不能接受的做法。

  Rude people are those whose behavior shows little respect for the rules that the majority follow.


  Show respect for 对…表示出尊重

  follow 遵守,遵循

  For instance, because they talk at home while the television is on, many people think they can talk at movies as well.


  for instance: for example 例如

  on: go on 进行

  They are not even aware that this habit will bother the other members of the audience.


  be aware that:意识到

  members of the audience 观众

  member 成员

  Restaurants have smoking and non-smoking sections, and most smokers are polite enough to ask, “Do you mind if I smoke?” before lighting up.


  non- 没有,无

  before lighting up 点燃

  Restaurants should also have cellular-phone and no-cellular-phone sections.


  A new class of rude people has been born: the look-at-me phone users whose boring conversations are just as dangerous to our mental health as smoke is to our lungs.


  class 阶层,群体

  look-at-me 看看我

  Sometimes, it is better to remain unknown than to make people hate you.


  There are many children and adolescents whose behavior is generally unacceptable.


  They swear no matter who is around them, they listen to their Walkmans while the teacher is talking to them.


  no matter不管/不论(后可跟who, when, where, how 等疑问代词或疑问副词引导的从句)

  For example: No matter who you are, you should follow the guideline. 不管你是谁,你都应当遵守这个规则。

  I am bound to work out the problem no matter how difficult it is. 不管这个问题有多难,我一定要把它解决掉。

  Indifferent parents who refuse to discipline their children are not helping them.


  discipline: punish 惩罚

  Kids who have no idea what being polite means will pay the price sooner or later.


  kid 小孩子

  have no idea: don't know 不知道

  For example: He has no idea what his future will be. 他不知道自己的未来是个什么样子。

  pay the price 付出代价

  For example: You will pay the price for what you have done. 你要为你所做的事情付出代价。

  sooner or later 迟早

  For example: If you drive like that, you will have an accident sooner or later. 你如果那样开车,迟早会出事的。

  When they join the work force, their employers and associates alike will soon realize that the behavior of these rude young people is closer to that of animals than civilized individuals.


  associate: colleague 同事

  close (to) (adv.)接近于,靠近

  When they lose a few contracts because they talk with their mouth full, or when they say “Bob” to someone who should be “Mr.Johnson,” these grown-up kids, because of their ignorance, will never understand why others are getting ahead and they are not.


  they talk with 该句型结构为:with +(n.)+(a.)构成的独立主格结构,在句中作状语,表示伴随。(名词后除可用形容词外,还可用分词<现在分词和过去分词>、介词短语和副词。)

  For example: He likes sleeping with his eyes open. 他喜欢睁着眼睛睡觉。

  I won't be able to study abroad with my mother’s being ill. 在我母亲生病的情况下我不能出国留学。

  He worked with the radio opened all the afternoon. 他一下午都听着收音机工作。

  He was looking on with his hands in his pockets. 他把手插在口袋里在一旁观看。即:袖手旁观。

  He was lying on the bed with all his clothes on. 他穿着所有的衣服躺在床上。即:和衣而卧。

  because of (介词短语)= because (连词)

  For example: The football match was cancelled because of rain. 由于下雨足球比赛被取消了。

  →The football match was cancelled because it rained.

  get ahead 有进展;有进步;取得成功

  For example: I'm happy to hear that you are getting ahead with your new work. 听说你的新工作取得进展,我很高兴。

  grown-up 长大了的孩子

  Every little bit of kindness helps.


  little bit of 一点点

  With manners, the best rule is the one that works.


  work (v.)起作用,产生影响,行得通

  For example: The medicine worked. 药物奏效了。

  It is easier to look and sound attractive when we are nice to other people.


  be nice to sb. : be kind to sb.

  Being polite and showing respect can give us an edge.


  give sb. an/the edge 比…略胜一筹,领先

  For example: He has the edge on the other students because he studies harder. 他比别的学生强,因为他学习更努力。

  Why do we need an edge? Success in life often starts with a job we like, and since getting a job is usually based on making the right impression, it is always a good idea to be kind and polite.


  edge: advantage 优势

  start with: begin with 由…开始

  since 由于…

  be base of 以…为基础

  make a impression 留下印象

  makes the right impression (right 好的,正常的)

  Vocabulary Exercises

  Ⅰ。For each sentence, fill in the blank with the proper form or the words given at the beginning. Please pay attention to the part of speech of each word.

  1. honest (诚实的) honesty(诚实) honestly(诚实地)

  a. (Honesty) is the best policy.


  b. I didn't tell anyone, (honestly), I didn’t.


  c. To be (honest) with you, he often speaks evil of you behind your back.


  2. understand (<v.>理解,明白) misunderstand(<v.>误解)   misunderstanding(<n.>误解)

  a. I cannot (understand) why he shows no respect for the rules the majority follows.


  b. We should do everything possible to clear up the many (misunderstandings) between us.


  c. He is not happy because his wife always (misunderstands) him.


  3. accept(<v.>接受) acceptable(能接受的) unacceptable(不能接受的)

  a. She received a gift from him, but she didn't (accept) it.


  b. He is angry with her because her words are totally (unacceptable)。


  c. If you think the plan is (acceptable), you should do it according to the plan right now.


  right now 立刻,马上

  4. different (不同的) difference(<n.>不同) indifferent(冷漠的,不关心的)

  a. I'm (indifferent) to whether you go or stay. To be honest with you, I don’t care.


  care 在意,在乎

  b. There are big (differences) between the two languages.


  c. She is wearing a (different) dress every time I see her.


  every time 每一次

  5. employ (<v.>雇佣) employer(<n.>雇主) employment(<n.>职业,工作) employee(<n.>雇员)

  a. The factory is going to (employ) 20 more workers.


  b. He left his hometown to look for (employment) in a big city.


  c. She has been working for the same (employer) for 20 years.


  d. The total number of office (employees) almost doubled.


  Ⅱ。 Fill in the following blanks with the words listed below in their proper forms.

  1. He told me he didn't like that (boring) job.


  2. We'll need a few (guidelines) before we start this project.


  3. It is a great (kindness) for you to see me while I am sick.


  → It is greatly kind of you to see me while I am sick.

  for sb. to do 对于某人来说做某事

  4. Don't (bother) you father, he is busy at working .


  5. The old man told her how to get there although she wasn't very (polite) to him.

  be polite to sb. 对某人彬彬有礼


  6. (Frankly) speaking, I don't think the plan will work.


  7. His speech left a deep (impression) on us.

  Leave/make an impression on sb. 给某人留下印象


  8. I (swear) that I will tell you everything some day.


  9. Everyone praises the children's good (behavior)。


  10. It's (rude) to point at people when you are talking with them.

  point at sb. 指着…


  Text B Why We Walk in Circles

  in 以什么样的方式

  “Pin the Tail on the Donkey” is always fun when you're watching rather than pinning.


  pin (v.)用图钉钉

  rather than 而不是…

  donkey 驴

  as stubborn as donkey

  It is somewhat surprising to see how the blindfolded performers act.


  somewhat 有一点儿

  1. It is +(a.)+(for sb.)<有时可省略掉> to do

  For example: It is difficult to have a good job if you don't study hard to create opportunities.如果你不努力学习创造机会的话,有一份好的工作是很难的。

  Instead of going straight, they always wander off to one side or the other. The greater the distance to the donkey, the farther they go astray.


  2. instead of /instead

  wander off 徘徊,游离

  Have you ever wondered why they are unable to walk straight ahead?


  wonder 迷惑,疑惑

  It is a well-known fact that a person will move in a circle when he cannot use his eyes to control his direction.


  Dark nights, dense fogs, blinding snowstorms, thick forests - all these can keep a traveler from seeing where he is going.


  thick forests 茂密的森林

  3. keep … from … 阻止,防止,阻碍

  protect from

  prevent from


  (1)keep sb from sth/doing使某人不能做某事

  (2)keep oneself from doing克制自己不要去做某事

  For example: The church bells keep me from sleeping. 教堂的钟声吵得我睡不着觉。

  She could hardly keep (herself) from laughing. 她忍不住大笑起来。

  Then he is unable to move in any fixed direction, but walks in circles.


  4. in…direction 朝…方向

  Animals act the same way.



  You have probably heard the saying “running around like a chicken with its head cut off.”


  with +(n.)+V的过去分词构成的独立结构,在句中作状语。

  Well, a chicken with its head cut off actually does run around in circles. Blind birds fly in circles. And a blindfolded dog will swim in circles.


  A Norwegian biologist, F.O.Guldberg, decided that this problem of circular movement was worth investigating. He collected many true stories on the subject.


  worth 值得

  be worth doing 值得做某事

  For example: The textbook is worth reading again and again. 课本值得一读再读。

  On the subject :on关于

  5. be worth + v.ing

  One of his stories is about people rowing on a lake during a fog on a dark night.


  during 在一段时间里

  One group of rowers who tried to cross three miles of water in foggy weather never succeeded in reaching their goal.


  cross 横穿

  6. succeed in 成功做了一件事情→(反义)fail to do

  Without knowing it, they rowed in two large circles. When they finally got to the shore, they discovered that they were at the spot they had started from.


  without knowing 不知不觉地

  shore 河岸,海岸线

  After studying many stories such as this, Professor Guldberg wrote an article in which he discussed “Circular Motion is the Basic Motion of Animals.”


  study 研究

  A simple example will help you to understand his explanation of why we walk in circles.


  Have you ever wound up a toy automobile and started it off across the floor?


  7. wind up给…上发条

  Then you know that it will rarely travel in a straight path. It will travel, instead, in some kind of arc, or curve.


  If it is to travel in a straight line, the wheels on both sides have to be of exactly equal size.


  equal 相等

  If they are not, the little automobile turns toward the side with the smaller wheels.


  Circular movement in walking is caused in much the same way.


  cause 导致

  in … way 以什么样的方式

  7. much the same 不完全相同,差不多一样,几乎一样

  For example: He is living condition is much the same as that five years ago.他现在生活状况和五年前差不多没有什么变化。

  Usually a man walking will “watch his step” and “look where he is going.”


  watch his step (口语化的说法)注意脚下

  look where he is going 看着前方

  a man walking


  For example: He often helps his working wife at home. 他在家中经常帮助他工作的妻子。

  Who is the lady standing by the door? 站在门口的那位女士是谁?


  For example: Atomic energy is the greatest source of energy existing. 原子能是现存的最大的能源。

  They decided to change the material used. 他们决定改变所用的材料。

  He needs his senses, especially his eyes, to get to the point he intends to reach.


  8. intend to do 想要/打算/计划做某事

  For example: What do you intend to do today? I intend to go out for a walk. 你打算今天做什么?我今天打算出去散步。

  When he cannot use his eyes to guide his steps, he will walk straight only if he takes a step of the same length with each foot.


  In most people, however, muscle development is not the same in both legs, so that it is probable that the steps will be uneven.


  so that 因此…引导是结果状语从句

  The difference may be so small that no one is aware of it. But small as it is, it can cause circular movement.


  9. as / as though

  small as it is “是as/as though 引导的让步状语从句,此时从句应倒装(部分倒装),其结构为”形容词/名词/动词)+as (though)+主+谓

  (a.)(n.)(v.)+as/as though + s + v

  For example: Pretty as she is, she is not clever.她虽然很漂亮但是不聪明。

  Child as he is, he has to make a living.虽然他是一个孩子,但是他必须去谋生。

  Try as he would, he might fail again.尽管还有可能再试着去做,但是他还是有可能失败。


  Let us suppose that a man's left foot takes a step 20 inches long and that his right foot takes a step 30 inches long.


  Now suppose he takes ten step - five with his left foot and five with his right.


  His left foot will travel 100 inches. His right foot will travel 150 inches.


  travel 运行,前行

  This sounds impossible. One foot cannot remain 50 inches behind the other.


  What really happens?


  At each step the man turns a little bit to the left.


  Sooner or later he makes a complete circle.


  The tracks of his feet, however, make two circles, one inside the other.


  track 足迹,脚印

  His left foot makes the smaller circle because it is taking larger steps.


  This is why a person may walk in an arc when he sets out in a straight line.


  The muscles of a man's arms are no more identical than the muscles of his legs.


  10. no more(…)than…仅仅;不过/和…一样都不

  For example: He is no more than an employee. 他仅仅是一名员工。

  He is no more able to operate computer than I am. 他和我一样都不会用计算机。

  This explains why the rowers who set out to cross the lake at night rowed in a circle.


  By the same rule, a bird's wings do not develop evenly, and so it will fly in circles when blinded.


  by the same rule 同理

  Thus, dear readers, our circular mystery has a very straight answer.


  circular 圆圈的

  straight 直线的;直接的

  On one hand, from the word itself, we can see that one is “circular”, the other is “straight”, the two words are in contrast with each other; on the other hand, the circular mystery has been thought for a long time and tested again and again; however, the answer is absolutely certain. So, both of the two words are used in double senses, creating a special effect.


  Vocabulary Exercises

  Ⅰ。Supply a word that you have learned in Text B. The first letter is given.

  1. The full moon has a (circular) form.


  2. If there were no friction, an object in (motion) would never come to a rest.


  come to a rest 停下来

  3. The road is not straight. You should drive slowly when you come to a (curve)。


  curve 弯曲,转弯处

  4. The economic development in the country is (uneven): some areas are highly developed; while some other areas are rather underdeveloped.


  5. The fingerprints of no two persons are (identical)。


  identical 同样的,一样的

  6. When the tree fell in the snowstorm, it (pined) him to the ground.


  7. It is(well-known)that money serves a variety of functions.


  8. The engineers are thoroughly (investigating) the causes of the gas explosion.


  9. The flower show was (intended) primarily for commercial purpose.


  10. I've made a mistake, though I didn’t (intend) to.





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