Text A American Men Don't Cry
disapprove v. 不赞成（of）
discourage vt. 1.使泄气，使沮丧；2.阻拦
encourage v. 鼓舞，鼓励
unable a. 不能的，不会的（to + v.）
incapacity n. 无能力的，不能
inability n. 无能，无能为力
unnecessary adj. 不必要的， 多余的
disequilibrate vt. 打破…的平衡
restore vt. 使恢复，（使）回复
weakness n. 软弱；缺点 ←→ advantage/merit 优点，优势
childishness n. 幼稚
dependence n. 依靠
permit v. 准许，允许
permission n. 允许
permissive a. 准许的，允许的
stable a. 稳定的
stability n. 稳定性，稳定；坚定，恒心
intend v. 准备，打算
intention n. 打算，计划
confuse v. 混淆，混乱
confusion n. 混乱，慌乱；混淆
necessity n. 需要，必要性；必需品
necessary a. 需要的
interference n. 干涉，干预；妨碍
maintenance n. 维持，保持；维修；坚持，维护
animated a. 栩栩如生的；生气勃勃的
lessen vt. 减轻，减少；缩小，贬低
eg： It is difficult for us to have the childlike enjoyment now. 现在对于我们来说，想要享受孩子般的欢乐实在是太难了。
eg： Don't be so childish. 不要再这么孩子气了。
2.disapprove of 不赞成…（但不一定表示反对）
Eg： She wants to be an actress， but her parents disapprove of her intentions.
The father disapproved of his daughter's marriage to the poor fellow.
阻拦 discourage …。 from…。
Eg： Tom was discouraged with life when the beautiful girl refused his love.
Parents should discourage their children from smoking.
Eg： Police restored the stolen jewels to the owner.
Eg： He restored his dictionary to the shelf.
Eg：After the operation， he restored his sight. （视力）
interfere in sth. 在某件事上打扰
interfere with sb. 打扰了某人
eg： Don't interfere in matters that don't concern you. 不要干预与你无关的事情。
We can't understand his interference in/with the other's domestic （家庭的） matters.
do /cause damage to 对某人或某物造成部分性的损伤。
eg： The accident did/caused a lot of damage to the car.
eg： We should gradually lessen the difference between the city and the countryside.
8.defect /fault /error /mistake 都可以表示没有做对事情或事情做得不妥。
Eg： Your essay is full of mistakes.
It was a mistake to go there on holiday.
Eg： It is a technical error.
Eg： The child broke the window， but it was his parents' fault for letting him playing indoors.
He has many faults， but laziness is not one of them.
The new car has to be withdrawn from the market because of a mechanical defect.
9.intend to do = plan to do 打算做某事
Eg： If I've hurt your feelings it was quite without intention. 如果我伤害了你的感情，完全是出于无意。
Eg： Her unexpected arrival threw us into total confusion. 她来得很突然，使我们完全不知所措。
They confused me by asking so many questions.
Eg： Necessity is the mother of invention. 需要是发明之母。
Food， clothing and shelter are all basic necessities of life. 衣、食、住是生活的基本必需品。
1.in the least 一点，丝毫（不）（用于否定句）
Eg： They are not in the least interested in skiing.
2.to disapprove （of） 不同意
3.with regard to关于…，对于… = in regard to = in regard of
Eg： With regard to price， we think it is too high.
4.feel like sth./ doing sth. 想做某事，愿意做某事
Eg： I feeling like （having） a drink.
5.not that …… but that … 不是因为…而是因为
Eg： I can not attend your birthday party not that I'm unwilling to but that I have no time.
6.（in）capacity to do （没）有…能力做
7.as a whole 作为一个整体；总的来说
Eg： As a whole， the climate here is very nice.
8.（in-） ability to （没）有…的能力（这里to不是介词是不定式）
Eg： He has the ability to do the work.
9.among other things 除了其它方面，此外
Eg： Mr. Smith returned to his hometown among other things， to see his old mother.
10. clear …of … 把…从…中清除
Eg： People are clearing the streets of snow.
American Men Don't Cry
American men don't cry because it is considered not characteristic of men to do so.
1.A is characteristic of B A是B的特征
eg. Honesty is characteristic of children.
Only women cry.Cry is a “weakness” characteristic of the female， and no American male wants to be identified with anything in the least weak or feminine.
2.be identified with 认为…等同于
Eg： He identifies her happiness with his own. （这里用的是主动形式identify with）
You can't identify money with happiness.
Smoking is identified with committing suicide.
In the least 一点
Crying， in our culture， is identified with childishness， with weakness and dependence. No one likes a crybaby， and we disapprove of crying even in children， discouraging it in them as early as possible. In a land so devoted to the pursuit of happiness as ours， crying really is rather un-American.
Adults must learn not to cry in situations in which it is permissible for a child to cry. Women being the “weaker” and “dependent” sex， it is only natural that they should cry in certain emotional situations. In women， crying is excusable. But in men， crying is a mark of weakness. So goes the American belief with regard to crying.
eg. The meeting went better than we have expected.
“A little man，” we impress on our male children， “never cries. Only girls and crybabies do.” And so we condition males in America not to cry whenever they feel like doing so.
3.impress on/upon 牢记，铭记；给…以极深的印象
eg： We impress on the young people that pride goes before a fall. 我们让青年人牢记骄者必败
in the condition of 在…情况下
at the condition 处于…情况下
It is not that American males are unable to cry because of some biological time clock within them which causes them to run down in that capacity as they grow older， but that they are trained not to cry.
Run down 用尽，耗尽；变弱
Eg. If you leave your head lights on， you will soon run down your battery.
And so the “little man” controls his desire to cry and goes on doing so until he is unable to cry even when he wants to.
Thus do we produce a trained incapacity in the American male to cry. And this is bad.
Why is it bad？ Because crying is a natural function of the human organism which is designed to restore the emotionally disequilibrated person to a state of equilibrium.
The return of the disequilibrated organ systems of the body to steady states or dynamic stability is known as homeostasis. Crying serves a homeostatic function for the organism as a whole. Any interference with homeostasis is likely to be damaging to the organism. And there is good reason to believe that the American male's trained incapacity to cry is seriously damaging to him.
It is unnecessary to cry whenever one wants to cry， but one should be able to cry when one ought to cry - when one needs to cry. For to cry under certain emotionally disequilibrating conditions is necessary for the maintenance of health.
To be human is to weep. The human species is the only one in the whole of animated nature that sheds tears. The trained inability of any human being to weep is lessening of his capacity to be human - a defect which usually goes deeper than the mere inability to cry.
And this， among other things， is what American parents - with the best intentions in the world - have achieved for the American male. It is very sad. If we feel like it， let us all have a good cry - and clear our minds of those cobwebs of confusion which have for so long prevented us from understanding the natural necessity of crying.
For each sentence， fill in the blank with the proper form of the words given at the beginning. Please pay attention to the part of speech of each word.
1.disapprove approve approval disapproval
a.She wants to be a nurse but her parents disapprove of her intention.
b.When the girl picked her nose at the dinner table， her father looked at her with disapproval.
c.We have obtained the authorities' approval in our involvement in the program.
d.If my project isn't approved of by the headmaster all my work will have been wasted.
2.discourage encourage courage encouraging（a.） courageous
a.The young explorer feels greatly discouraged by the difficulties he has encountered.
b.When his opinion is different from that of the majority， the doesn't have the courage to say what he thinks right.
c.The speaker felt fairly confident when he got a encouraging smile from the audience.
d.The Association for Wildlife Preservation encourages members to protect the environment.
e.The young man was courageous enough to break away from traditional ideas.
3.permisssible permit permission
a.Lies are not permissible evidence in court.
b.Nobody can enter the air base without special permission.
c.Smoking is not permitted in public places of recreation.
4.organism organ organic
a.The organ of political power should serve the people.
b.Cities are more complex organism than self–sufficient villages.
c.In a well-written article， all the paraphs should be written into an organic whole .
Text B Stop Worrying Now！
take it easy ：don't worry
immobilize v. 使固定，使不动
→mobile a. 易于快速移动的
virtually ad. 实际地，实质地，事实上
obsessive a. 缠人的，强迫性的；过分的
justify vt. 证明…是正当的；为…辩护
error n. 错误
erroneous a. 错误的，不正确的
sensible a. 感觉得到的
sensibly ad. 感觉得到地；明智地，明白事理地
sense n. 感觉
minimum n.最小值， 最少量
maximize v. 增加到最大量
maximum n. 最大量
absurd a. 荒谬的
absurdity n. 荒谬
compulsively ad. 强迫地
enjoyment n. 享受
troublesome a. 令人烦恼的，讨厌的；麻烦的，难处理的
payoff n. 发工资；付清，偿还；
backache n. 背痛，腰痛
dividend n. 红利，利息；回报，效益
fulfill vt. 履行；完成
solve vt. 解决，解答
Eg： I was most distressed to hear the sad news of your father's death .听到令尊去世的消息，我十分难过。
2.justify v. 证明……是正当的；为…辩护
Eg： You shouldn't attempt to justify yourself.
3.fulfill vt. 履行（promise， duty等）； 完成（task等）
Eg： He fulfilled his promise after graduation he returned to his hometown .
4.resolve vt. 使分解，解析；解决，消除
Eg： Her arrival did little to resolve the situation.
1.in the first place 首先
in the second place 其次
Eg： I would not advise you to read that book， in the first place， it is written in English and in the second place it is very difficult.
2.hang on to （prep）
hung hung 悬挂
hanged hanged 绞死
Eg： The boy hung on to his mother's apron， and would not let go. 男孩抓着他妈妈的围裙，不让她走
The police have only one fingerprint to hang on to. 警察只有一个指纹印可作线索。
3.use up v.用完， 耗尽
同义词：run down 消耗，用尽
Eg： He used up the money he had.
use up / wash up 洗净/ dry up 干得一滴水都没有了
4.give up 放弃；让出
give in 屈服，投降
eg： All hope of finding the missing plane was given up.
He doesn't give in to his fate. 他不屈服于命运
5.back down 放弃（要求等）；让步
Eg： He said he could swim， but he backed down when we got to the lake.
Stop Worrying Now！
Worry is one of the most common forms of emotional distress in our culture. Almost everyone spends a considerable amount of present moments worrying about the future. And virtually all of it is for nothing. Obsessive worry will never make things any better. In fact， such worry will very likely help you to be less effective in dealing with the present.
eg. I spend much time in books.
I spend much money on books.
2.Considerable a. 相当多的
have sb. to do 让某人…。
the +adj. 一类…
In order to reduce worry， it is necessary to understand the subconscious psychological “payoffs” for choosing to worry in the first place.
it 为形式主语， to +…为真正主语
“I can't do a thing. I'm too worried about …” This is a common lament， and one with a payoff that keeps you standing still and avoiding the risk of action. Clearly， it is easier， if less rewarding， to worry than to be an active， involved person.
By worrying about someone else， you can label yourself as a caring person. Worry proves that you are a good parent or spouse （“I can't help worrying - it's because I love you.”）。 A handsome dividend， although lacking in logical， healthy thinking.
3.can't help doing 情不自禁地
handsome a. 相当的
If you weigh too much， you may eat more when you worry； hence， you have a good reason for hanging on to the worry behavior.
Similarly， you may find yourself smoking more in troublesome situations， and can use the worry to avoid giving up smoking.
4.Avoid + doing 逃避
The same neurotic reward system also applies to health. It may be easier for you to worry about chest pains than to risk finding out the truth， and then having to deal directly with yourself.
Worry can bring a lot of diseases such as tension headaches and backaches. While these may not seem to be payoffs， they do result in considerable attention from others and justify much self-pity as well. And some people would rather be pitied than fulfilled.
5.would rather …than …。 宁愿…也不愿意…
Now that you understand the psychological support system for neurotic worry， you can begin to devise some measures for reducing the number of troublesome worry bugs that breed in this erroneous zone.
6.now that 既然 = since
Begin to view your present moments as times to live， rather than times to worry about the future. When you catch yourself worrying， ask yourself， “What am I avoiding now by using up this moment with worry？” Then begin to attack whatever it is you're avoiding.
7.view …as = see ……as 把……看作
8.attack ： resolve 解决
A friend of mine spent a week on an island off the Connecticut coast. She enjoys taking long walks， but soon discovered that there were a number of dogs on the island which were allowed to run free.
She decided to fight her worry that they might attack her. She carried a rock in her hand and resolved to show no fear as the dogs came running toward her. Seeing someone who refused to back down， they turned and ran away.
resolve to do = decide to do 决定干…。
= determine to do 决心…
While I am not encouraging dangerous behavior， I do believe that a sensibly effective challenge to worry is the most productive way to minimize its role in your life.
“to minimize its role in your life” 作 “way” 的后置定语
Ask yourself over and over， “Will the future change as a result of my worrying about it？” Try to remember how many of the things you once worried about never become real at all.
over and over： again and again adv.再三地， 反复地
as a result of 作为…的结果
“my worrying about it” 是有逻辑主语的动名词
有关动名词逻辑主语的例子：Do you mind my smoking here？
never … at all ： no/not … at all 根本不…。
Also ask yourself： “What's the worst thing that could happen to me （or them）， and what is the likelihood of it occurring？” You'll discover the absurdity of most worries in this way.
Act in direct conflict with your usual areas of worry. If you compulsively save for the future， use some money for your own enjoyment today. Enjoy life； don't waste the present with immobilizing thoughts about the future.
immobilizing ： 固定不动的
These are some techniques for minimizing worry in your life. But the most effective weapon you have is your own determination to drive this neurotic behavior away from your life.
to drive this neurotic behavior away from your life：为“determination”的后置定语