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09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit25)

2009-08-04 19:32  自考365论坛 【 】【我要纠错

  Text A American Men Don't Cry

  Ⅰ.New words

  1.带有前缀的单词:

  disapprove v. 不赞成(of)

  disapproval n.

  discourage vt. 1.使泄气,使沮丧;2.阻拦

  encourage v. 鼓舞,鼓励

  unable a. 不能的,不会的(to + v.)

  incapacity n. 无能力的,不能

  inability n. 无能,无能为力

  unnecessary adj. 不必要的, 多余的

  disequilibrate vt. 打破…的平衡

  restore vt. 使恢复,(使)回复

  2.带有后缀的单词:

  weakness n. 软弱;缺点 ←→ advantage/merit 优点,优势

  childishness n. 幼稚

  dependence n. 依靠

  permit v. 准许,允许

  permission n. 允许

  permissive a. 准许的,允许的

  stable a. 稳定的

  stability n. 稳定性,稳定;坚定,恒心

  intend v. 准备,打算

  intention n. 打算,计划

  confuse v. 混淆,混乱

  confusion n. 混乱,慌乱;混淆

  necessity n. 需要,必要性;必需品

  necessary a. 需要的

  interference n. 干涉,干预;妨碍

  maintenance n. 维持,保持;维修;坚持,维护

  animated a. 栩栩如生的;生气勃勃的

  lessen vt. 减轻,减少;缩小,贬低

  vi. 变少

  核心词汇:

  1.childlike 孩子般的,天真无邪

  eg: It is difficult for us to have the childlike enjoyment now. 现在对于我们来说,想要享受孩子般的欢乐实在是太难了。

  childish 幼稚的,傻里傻气的

  eg: Don't be so childish. 不要再这么孩子气了。

  2.disapprove of 不赞成…(但不一定表示反对)

  Eg: She wants to be an actress, but her parents disapprove of her intentions.

  The father disapproved of his daughter's marriage to the poor fellow.

  3.discourage 使泄气,使沮丧;

  阻拦 discourage …。 from…。

  Eg: Tom was discouraged with life when the beautiful girl refused his love.

  Parents should discourage their children from smoking.

  4.restore 使恢复,使回复

  ① 将(失物)归还原主

  Eg: Police restored the stolen jewels to the owner.

  ② 使某人/某物回复到原处或原位

  Eg: He restored his dictionary to the shelf.

  ③ 使某人/某物恢复原先的状况

  Eg:After the operation, he restored his sight. (视力)

  interfere in sth. 在某件事上打扰

  interfere with sb. 打扰了某人

  interference(n.)in/with sth.

  eg: Don't interfere in matters that don't concern you. 不要干预与你无关的事情。

  We can't understand his interference in/with the other's domestic (家庭的) matters.

  6.damage n.

  do /cause damage to 对某人或某物造成部分性的损伤。

  eg: The accident did/caused a lot of damage to the car.

  7.lessen v.

  eg: We should gradually lessen the difference between the city and the countryside.

  8.defect /fault /error /mistake 都可以表示没有做对事情或事情做得不妥。

  1)Mistake在四个词中表意最笼统,可以用在日常的各种情况当中

  Eg: Your essay is full of mistakes.

  It was a mistake to go there on holiday.

  2)Error比mistake更书面化,通常用于书面语或比较正规的情况下。

  Eg: It is a technical error.

  3)Fault侧重于造成错误的个人责任。

  Eg: The child broke the window, but it was his parents' fault for letting him playing indoors.

  He has many faults, but laziness is not one of them.

  4)Defect指严重的缺陷

  The new car has to be withdrawn from the market because of a mechanical defect.

  9.intend to do = plan to do 打算做某事

  intention n.

  Eg: If I've hurt your feelings it was quite without intention. 如果我伤害了你的感情,完全是出于无意。

  10.confusion n.

  confuse v.

  Eg: Her unexpected arrival threw us into total confusion. 她来得很突然,使我们完全不知所措。

  They confused me by asking so many questions.

  11.necessity n.

  Eg: Necessity is the mother of invention. 需要是发明之母。

  Food, clothing and shelter are all basic necessities of life. 衣、食、住是生活的基本必需品。

  Phrase:

  1.in the least 一点,丝毫(不)(用于否定句)

  Eg: They are not in the least interested in skiing.

  2.to disapprove (of) 不同意

  3.with regard to关于…,对于… = in regard to = in regard of

  Eg: With regard to price, we think it is too high.

  4.feel like sth./ doing sth. 想做某事,愿意做某事

  Eg: I feeling like (having) a drink.

  5.not that …… but that … 不是因为…而是因为

  Eg: I can not attend your birthday party not that I'm unwilling to but that I have no time.

  6.(in)capacity to do (没)有…能力做

  7.as a whole 作为一个整体;总的来说

  Eg: As a whole, the climate here is very nice.

  8.(in-) ability to (没)有…的能力(这里to不是介词是不定式)

  Eg: He has the ability to do the work.

  9.among other things 除了其它方面,此外

  Eg: Mr. Smith returned to his hometown among other things, to see his old mother.

  10. clear …of … 把…从…中清除

  Eg: People are clearing the streets of snow.

  Ⅱ.Text A

  American Men Don't Cry

  译:美国男子汉一般不会哭

  American men don't cry because it is considered not characteristic of men to do so.

  译:美国的男子汉一般都不会哭。因为男子汉要哭了,那就被认为这个人不具备男子汉的特征。

  1.A is characteristic of B A是B的特征

  eg. Honesty is characteristic of children.

  Only women cry.Cry is a “weakness” characteristic of the female, and no American male wants to be identified with anything in the least weak or feminine.

  译:只有妇女才哭。哭是女性软弱的表现。不论做什么事,没有任何一个美国男人想要让人家认为有丝毫懦弱或者像个女人似的。

  2.be identified with 认为…等同于

  Eg: He identifies her happiness with his own. (这里用的是主动形式identify with)

  You can't identify money with happiness.

  Smoking is identified with committing suicide.

  In the least 一点

  Crying, in our culture, is identified with childishness, with weakness and dependence. No one likes a crybaby, and we disapprove of crying even in children, discouraging it in them as early as possible. In a land so devoted to the pursuit of happiness as ours, crying really is rather un-American.

  译:在我们的思想文化观念当中,哭哭啼啼总是跟孩子气、懦弱、不能自立联系在一起的。没有任何人会喜欢一个哭闹的孩子,所以即使对儿童来说,我们也不赞成他们哭,尽可能从很小的时候起,越早越好,鼓励孩子们不要哭。在像我们这样一个热衷于追求幸福快乐的国家里,哭哭啼啼实在不太合乎美国人的风度。

  Adults must learn not to cry in situations in which it is permissible for a child to cry. Women being the “weaker” and “dependent” sex, it is only natural that they should cry in certain emotional situations. In women, crying is excusable. But in men, crying is a mark of weakness. So goes the American belief with regard to crying.

  译:成年人都必须知道,凡在允许小孩子哭的情况下,成年人都不应该哭。因为女性是一种“软弱的”、“依赖男人的”性别,女性在特定的环境下引起感情波动,若是哭一通也是很自然的。对妇女们来说,哭是可以原谅的。可是对男人来说,哭就会给人留下软弱无能的印象。于是美国人对于哭泣的看法就这样产生了。

  mark n.标志;品牌

  go 表示进行,起作用

  eg. The meeting went better than we have expected.

  “A little man,” we impress on our male children, “never cries. Only girls and crybabies do.” And so we condition males in America not to cry whenever they feel like doing so.

  3.impress on/upon 牢记,铭记;给…以极深的印象

  eg: We impress on the young people that pride goes before a fall. 我们让青年人牢记骄者必败

  condition

  n.情况,境况   v.使适应,使习惯

  in the condition of 在…情况下

  at the condition 处于…情况下

  译:我们让我们的男性儿童铭记在心:“一个小男子汉永远也不会哭的,只有女孩子和刚刚生下来的小娃娃才会哭。”所以每当美国的男性想要哭的时候,我们就训练他们憋住别哭。

  It is not that American males are unable to cry because of some biological time clock within them which causes them to run down in that capacity as they grow older, but that they are trained not to cry.

  Run down 用尽,耗尽;变弱

  Eg. If you leave your head lights on, you will soon run down your battery.

  译:这并不是因为他们随着年龄的增长,体内某个生物钟上的哭的能力已经消耗殆尽,而是因为他们被训练得不许哭。

  And so the “little man” controls his desire to cry and goes on doing so until he is unable to cry even when he wants to.

  译:于是这“小男子汉”想哭的时候,也老是憋着不哭,一直憋到甚至当他想哭的时候也不会哭了。

  Thus do we produce a trained incapacity in the American male to cry. And this is bad.

  thus放在句首句子要倒装

  译:这样,我们就致使美国男性被训练成不会哭的人了。这很不好。

  Why is it bad? Because crying is a natural function of the human organism which is designed to restore the emotionally disequilibrated person to a state of equilibrium.

  译:为什么不好呢?因为哭是人的有机体中的一种很自然的功能,有这一功能就是为了让那些感情上失去了平衡的人,能恢复到感情上平衡的状态。

  The return of the disequilibrated organ systems of the body to steady states or dynamic stability is known as homeostasis. Crying serves a homeostatic function for the organism as a whole. Any interference with homeostasis is likely to be damaging to the organism. And there is good reason to believe that the American male's trained incapacity to cry is seriously damaging to him.

  译:把人体失去了平衡的器官体系恢复到稳定状态或恢复到正常运作状态下的稳定状态,被称为体内平衡。哭对于整个生物体的体内平衡起作用。对体内平衡的任何干扰都有可能损害人的有机体。所以,我们有充分的理由相信,把美国男性训练得不会哭,这会对美国男性造成严重的损害。

  It is unnecessary to cry whenever one wants to cry, but one should be able to cry when one ought to cry - when one needs to cry. For to cry under certain emotionally disequilibrating conditions is necessary for the maintenance of health.

  for :引导原因状语从句

  译:一个人不论任何时候想哭就哭,这实在是没有必要;但是当一个人应该哭的时候——也就是一个人需要哭的时候,应该能够哭出来。因为哭上一通在内心感情失衡的情况下,对保持身体健康是必要的。

  To be human is to weep. The human species is the only one in the whole of animated nature that sheds tears. The trained inability of any human being to weep is lessening of his capacity to be human - a defect which usually goes deeper than the mere inability to cry.

  go 进行,起作用

  译:只要是人就会落泪。在整个动物世界里,人类这个物种是唯一的会流泪的物种。把一个人训练成不会落泪的人,这就减少了他作为一个人所应有的能力。减少一个人所应有的能力,这一缺陷比仅仅是不会哭泣在意义上要深远得多。

  And this, among other things, is what American parents - with the best intentions in the world - have achieved for the American male. It is very sad. If we feel like it, let us all have a good cry - and clear our minds of those cobwebs of confusion which have for so long prevented us from understanding the natural necessity of crying.

  译:而这一点,尤其是这一点,正是那些怀着人间最美好的用心的美国父母们给美国男性养成的。简直是太可悲了。如果我们想哭的话,那就让我们好好地哭上一通吧,把那些很长时间以来使我们不能理解哭这种天性的需要、像蜘蛛网一样束缚人思想的种种糊涂想法,从我们的脑海中清除得干干净净吧。

  Ⅲ.Vocabulary Exercises

  For each sentence, fill in the blank with the proper form of the words given at the beginning. Please pay attention to the part of speech of each word.

  1.disapprove approve approval disapproval

  a.She wants to be a nurse but her parents disapprove of her intention.

  b.When the girl picked her nose at the dinner table, her father looked at her with disapproval.

  c.We have obtained the authorities' approval in our involvement in the program.

  d.If my project isn't approved of by the headmaster all my work will have been wasted.

  2.discourage encourage courage encouraging(a.) courageous

  a.The young explorer feels greatly discouraged by the difficulties he has encountered.

  encount: 遇到,遭遇

  b.When his opinion is different from that of the majority, the doesn't have the courage to say what he thinks right.

  c.The speaker felt fairly confident when he got a encouraging smile from the audience.

  d.The Association for Wildlife Preservation encourages members to protect the environment.

  e.The young man was courageous enough to break away from traditional ideas.

  3.permisssible permit permission

  a.Lies are not permissible evidence in court.

  b.Nobody can enter the air base without special permission.

  c.Smoking is not permitted in public places of recreation.

  4.organism organ organic

  a.The organ of political power should serve the people.

  b.Cities are more complex organism than self–sufficient villages.

  c.In a well-written article, all the paraphs should be written into an organic whole .

  Text B Stop Worrying Now!

  Ⅰ.New words

  take it easy :don't worry

  1.含有前缀的单词:

  immobilize v. 使固定,使不动

  →mobile a. 易于快速移动的

  2.含有后缀的单词:

  virtually ad. 实际地,实质地,事实上

  obsessive a. 缠人的,强迫性的;过分的

  justify vt. 证明…是正当的;为…辩护

  error n. 错误

  erroneous a. 错误的,不正确的

  sensible a. 感觉得到的

  sensibly ad. 感觉得到地;明智地,明白事理地

  sense n. 感觉

  minimize vt.将……减到最少

  minimum n.最小值, 最少量

  maximize v. 增加到最大量

  maximum n. 最大量

  absurd a. 荒谬的

  absurdity n. 荒谬

  compulsively ad. 强迫地

  enjoyment n. 享受

  troublesome a. 令人烦恼的,讨厌的;麻烦的,难处理的

  3.合成词:

  payoff n. 发工资;付清,偿还;

  backache n. 背痛,腰痛

  4.特殊记忆:

  dividend n. 红利,利息;回报,效益

  fulfill vt. 履行;完成

  resolve vt.使分解,解析;解决,消除

  solve vt. 解决,解答

  重要词汇:

  1.distress 常用于被动语态

  n. 痛苦,苦恼

  v. 使痛苦,使苦恼

  Eg: I was most distressed to hear the sad news of your father's death .听到令尊去世的消息,我十分难过。

  2.justify v. 证明……是正当的;为…辩护

  Eg: You shouldn't attempt to justify yourself.

  3.fulfill vt. 履行(promise, duty等); 完成(task等)

  Eg: He fulfilled his promise after graduation he returned to his hometown .

  4.resolve vt. 使分解,解析;解决,消除

  Eg: Her arrival did little to resolve the situation.

  Phrases:

  1.in the first place 首先

  in the second place 其次

  Eg: I would not advise you to read that book, in the first place, it is written in English and in the second place it is very difficult.

  2.hang on to (prep)

  hung hung 悬挂

  hang

  hanged hanged 绞死

  Eg: The boy hung on to his mother's apron, and would not let go. 男孩抓着他妈妈的围裙,不让她走

  The police have only one fingerprint to hang on to. 警察只有一个指纹印可作线索。

  3.use up v.用完, 耗尽

  同义词:run down 消耗,用尽

  Eg: He used up the money he had.

  和up相关的短语:

  use up / wash up 洗净/ dry up 干得一滴水都没有了

  4.give up 放弃;让出

  give in 屈服,投降

  eg: All hope of finding the missing plane was given up.

  He doesn't give in to his fate. 他不屈服于命运

  5.back down 放弃(要求等);让步

  Eg: He said he could swim, but he backed down when we got to the lake.

  Ⅱ.Text B

  Stop Worrying Now!

  马上停止不必要的担心!

  Worry is one of the most common forms of emotional distress in our culture. Almost everyone spends a considerable amount of present moments worrying about the future. And virtually all of it is for nothing. Obsessive worry will never make things any better. In fact, such worry will very likely help you to be less effective in dealing with the present.

  1.spend ………+doing

  +in/on sth.

  eg. I spend much time in books.

  I spend much money on books.

  2.Considerable a. 相当多的

  have sb. to do 让某人…。

  the +adj. 一类…

  译:在我们的日常生活中,担心是情绪上苦恼的最为普遍的形式之一。几乎每个人都会花费相当数量的大好时光用在为未来而担心。可是这一切的担心都是毫无用处的。过分的担心永远也不会使情况变得有丝毫改善。事实上,这种担心会使你处理现在的事务的工作效率变得更低。

  In order to reduce worry, it is necessary to understand the subconscious psychological “payoffs” for choosing to worry in the first place.

  it 为形式主语, to +…为真正主语

  译:为了减少担心,首先,要从心理学上弄明白,事事都担心起来,会产生什么意想不到的后果。

  “I can't do a thing. I'm too worried about …” This is a common lament, and one with a payoff that keeps you standing still and avoiding the risk of action. Clearly, it is easier, if less rewarding, to worry than to be an active, involved person.

  译:“我什么事都没心思干,我总是非常担心……常听到有人这样哀叹,而这种哀叹的后果就是你呆呆地站在那里,根本不采取任何冒险性的行动。很明显,和积极采取行动比较起来,只是担心是比较容易做到的,只不过于事无补罢了。”

  By worrying about someone else, you can label yourself as a caring person. Worry proves that you are a good parent or spouse (“I can't help worrying - it's because I love you.”)。 A handsome dividend, although lacking in logical, healthy thinking.

  3.can't help doing 情不自禁地

  handsome a. 相当的

  译:替别人担心,你可以标傍自己是个关心他人的人。你担心了,这就可以证明你是位好家长或者好配偶。(我不能不担心——只是因为我爱你。)这话让人听了可真好哇,尽管这类想法缺乏逻辑性,也站不住脚。

  If you weigh too much, you may eat more when you worry; hence, you have a good reason for hanging on to the worry behavior.

  译:如果你身体肥胖,那么你心情不好的时候,你可能吃得更多;所以,你有充足的理由多吃,因为你老是心情不好嘛!

  Similarly, you may find yourself smoking more in troublesome situations, and can use the worry to avoid giving up smoking.

  4.Avoid + doing 逃避

  译:同样道理,在你心情不好的情况下,你很可能不知不觉地发现你的烟抽得更多了,你用心情不好作籍口,不去戒烟。

  The same neurotic reward system also applies to health. It may be easier for you to worry about chest pains than to risk finding out the truth, and then having to deal directly with yourself.

  译:这种从心理上找个籍口的办法也适用于人的健康状况。如果你胸痛,你只是担心有病,这要比冒险去检查出真实情况到底有病没病,然后直接去医院处置胸痛,要容易得多。

  Worry can bring a lot of diseases such as tension headaches and backaches. While these may not seem to be payoffs, they do result in considerable attention from others and justify much self-pity as well. And some people would rather be pitied than fulfilled.

  译:忧心忡忡可导致很多疾病,例如,情绪紧张性头痛或脊背痛。尽管人们可能觉得这些病症并不是“担心”所造成的后果,但是有了这些病确实能引起他人的关注,也能为自我怜悯找到理由。而有些人宁肯被人怜悯也不愿振作起来去充分发挥自己的才能。

  5.would rather …than …。 宁愿…也不愿意…

  Now that you understand the psychological support system for neurotic worry, you can begin to devise some measures for reducing the number of troublesome worry bugs that breed in this erroneous zone.

  6.now that 既然 = since

  译:现在既然你从心理学理论体系上已经明白了,“担心”具有神经过敏的性质,那么你就可以开始采取一些措施去减少在“担心”这个误区中产生的令人烦恼的“担心虫”的数量了。

  Begin to view your present moments as times to live, rather than times to worry about the future. When you catch yourself worrying, ask yourself, “What am I avoiding now by using up this moment with worry?” Then begin to attack whatever it is you're avoiding.

  7.view …as = see ……as 把……看作

  use up:用尽

  8.attack : resolve 解决

  译:马上开始吧!把你现在的时刻看成是应该好好地生活的时间,而不要看成是用来为了未来而忧心忡忡担心不已的时间。每当你突然发现你又在忧心忡忡起来,你不妨扪心自问:“我把这一时光耗费在不必要的担心上面,我在回避什么?”那么就开始动手去解决你所回避的问题吧。

  A friend of mine spent a week on an island off the Connecticut coast. She enjoys taking long walks, but soon discovered that there were a number of dogs on the island which were allowed to run free.

  译:我的一位朋友,离开了康涅狄格海岸去一个岛上度过了一周。她喜欢长时间在外面散步,不过不久她就发现那岛上有为数很多的狗,人们让这些狗到处乱跑。

  She decided to fight her worry that they might attack her. She carried a rock in her hand and resolved to show no fear as the dogs came running toward her. Seeing someone who refused to back down, they turned and ran away.

  resolve to do = decide to do 决定干…。

  = determine to do 决心…

  译:她决心战胜担心那些狗有可能袭击她的这种恐惧心理。她手里攥着一块石头,决心表示出,如果这群狗朝着她跑来她根本不害怕。这群狗因为见到了这位不后退不让步的人,就掉转头跑掉了。

  While I am not encouraging dangerous behavior, I do believe that a sensibly effective challenge to worry is the most productive way to minimize its role in your life.

  “to minimize its role in your life” 作 “way” 的后置定语

  译:尽管我并不鼓励冒险的行为,但我确信,采用切合实际的有效的方法来向“担心的心态”挑战,这是在你的生活当中,减少“担心的心态”所起的作用的最有效的办法。

  Ask yourself over and over, “Will the future change as a result of my worrying about it?” Try to remember how many of the things you once worried about never become real at all.

  over and over: again and again adv.再三地, 反复地

  as a result of 作为…的结果

  “my worrying about it” 是有逻辑主语的动名词

  有关动名词逻辑主语的例子:Do you mind my smoking here?

  never … at all : no/not … at all 根本不…。

  译:请你反复地扪心自问:“我的担心会使未来有所改变吗?”切记:你过去曾经一度为之担心的好多情况,根本没有真的发生过。

  Also ask yourself: “What's the worst thing that could happen to me (or them), and what is the likelihood of it occurring?” You'll discover the absurdity of most worries in this way.

  译:再问问你自己:“我能发生什么最坏的事情?这种最坏的事情发生的可能性大小如何?”这样,你就会发现绝大多数不必要的担心都是荒唐可笑的。

  Act in direct conflict with your usual areas of worry. If you compulsively save for the future, use some money for your own enjoyment today. Enjoy life; don't waste the present with immobilizing thoughts about the future.

  immobilizing : 固定不动的

  译:行动起来吧!直接去抵制,不再去担心你通常所担心的问题。如果你强迫自己为未来存钱,那就把一部分钱拿出来今天享用吧!享受生活吧!不要浪费现有的一切去顽固地为未来着想吧。

  These are some techniques for minimizing worry in your life. But the most effective weapon you have is your own determination to drive this neurotic behavior away from your life.

  to drive this neurotic behavior away from your life:为“determination”的后置定语

  译:这一切就是把你生活中的担心降低到最小程度的办法。但是你所拥有的最有效的武器就是把这种神经过敏的担心从你的生活中赶出去的决心。

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本文转载链接:09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit25)

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