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自考《外贸函电》第五课至第九课复习重点

2006-09-19 15:24   【 】【我要纠错

  询价和报盘:

  1.description of an article/name of commodity

  意思是商品名称。在商业书信中,我们常常可以看到许多表示商品或货物的词汇,如:commodity, goods, article, merchandise, cargo, material, item, product, supply, order 等。

  下面简单介绍一下这些词汇的用法:

  commodity是比较正式的用语,通常指较大范围的商品,尤其指一个国家的主要商品。Commodity是可数名词。

  goods不是指一件商品,而是统指货物。Goods永远是复数形式,不能与数词连用。

  Merchandise 也是泛指商品,不特指某一商品,但没有复数形式,前面也不可加不定冠词。

  article 作商品解时,常常指一种商品,而不是指一类商品,同一种商品而有不同规格,商品编货号,常用此词,如在课文中。

  Cargo = goods carried in a ship.即船上所载的货物。如:The steamer sailed with full cargo.该轮满载起航。 注意这里不能用goods 代替cargo.说与装运有关的货物时也可以用cargo, 但不如goods普通。如:We expect to ship the goods (可用cargo) in a few days. 如果不是在船上的货物,又跟装运没有关系的货物,不能用cargo, 如:As soon as the goods (不能用cargo) are available, we will call you.

  material 一般指作原料用的商品。

  item 名词item本义是“项目”,但在商业函件中常用来代表前面提到的货物,如:We note your are interested in walnut meat but regret to advise that this item is not available at present. 尤其在介绍目录中的商品项目时常用此词,如:You can buy these items through the catalogue. 你能从目录中买到这些项目。product 指产品。supply 和order的用法,在第二课精讲中讲过。

  2.支付

  terms of payment 支付条件。

  外贸中常用的支付方式有3种:

  (1) Remittance: Mail Transfer (M/T), Telegraphic Transfer (T/T),Demand Draft (D/D)

  (2) Documentary Collection: a. Documents against payment (D/P):         Documents against payment at sight (D/P sight),                   Documents against payment after sight (D/P after sight) b.               Documents against acceptance (D/A)

  (3) L/C: 信用证是可数普通名词,单数为(a)letter of credit, 复数为 letters of credit; 但在商业书信中常作大写,单数为(a)Letter of Credit, 复数为 Letters of Credit;且常用大写缩写,单数为(an)L/C,复数为Ls/C.此外,商业书信有时也用credit一个词表示信用证,复数为credits. 开立信用证,最普通的是open an L/C,比较正式的说法是establish an L/C,从银行的角度可以说issue an L/C.改证是 amend an L/C.展证是extend an L/C.

  关于信用证的常用词组:

  即期信用证:letter of credit available by draft at sight, letter of credit payable against draft at sight, letter of credit available by sight draft, letter of credit payable against sight draft, sight L/C (在商业书信中常用);

  远期信用证: usance L/C, time L/C, term L/C. 注意: 见票后多少天支付的说法很多, 常见的有: L/C available by draft at 30 days after sight 见票后30天付款; usance L/C at 30 days after sight 见票后30天付款; time L/C at 30 days after sight 见票后30天付款; term L/C at 30 days after sight 见票后30天付款; usance L/C at 30 days 见票后30天付款; time L/C at 30 days 见票后30天付款; term L/C at 30 days 见票后30天付款。

  其他: confirmed L/C 保兑信用证,irrevocable L/C 不可撤消信用证,documentary L/C 跟单信用证,transferable and divisible L/C 可转让与可分割信用证,revolving L/C 循环信用证,back to back L/C 背对背信用证,reciprocal L/C 对开信用证。

  另外,当数量条款定有溢短装条款时,付款条件中也应有所反映:

  Payment: By confirmed, irrevocable L/C payable by draft at sight. The L/C should include a clause 5% more or less for both the quantity and the amount allowed.保兑的、不可撤销的信用证付款。信用证必须包括装货数量和总值都有5%溢短的条款。

  Payment: By confirmed, irrevocable L/C, allowing 5% more or less both in amount and in quantity.保兑的、不可撤销的信用证, 数量和总值均允许5%溢短。

  此外,付款条件的替代用法很多:

  Payment: By confirmed, irrevocable L/C payable at sight against presentation of shipping documents in China. 保兑的、不可撤销的信用证, 凭装运单据在中国即期支付。

  Payment (payment has to be made by) : By confirmed, irrevocable L/C payable by draft at sight which should reach us at least one month before the shipping date, and should remain valid for negotiation in China until the 15th day after the date of shipment. 保兑的、不可撤销的信用证, 至迟应在装运期前一个月开达我方,在中国支付,信用证有效期至装运期后15天止。

  For payment, please arrange for an irrevocable letter of credit, valid until June 30, to be opened in our favour with the ABC Bank.关于付款,请安排由ABC银行开立以我方为受益人,有效期至6月30日截止的不可撤销的信用证。

  Payment should be made under an irrevocable letter of credit which is to be opened in our favour within a week after the date of your order.付款条件,在你方定货后一个星期内开立以我方为受益人的,不可撤销的信用证。

  3. 价格

  合同中的价格条款包括单价(price)和总值(amount)。表示单价用介词at.

  合同中的单价条款包括4个部分:计价货币、计量单位、贸易术语、单位价格金额。报价时,这4个部分一定要完整,缺一不可。

  凡价格中不包括佣金或折扣的,即是净价。有时为了明确说明成交的价格是净价,在价格术语后可加注“净价”(NET)字样。例如:US$ 35 per dozen F.O.B net Shanghai 每打F.O.B.净价上海35美元。

  4. Subject to:

  subject to……视……而定,以……为条件。如:

  This offer is subject to your reply being received by September 1.本盘9月1日前复到有效。

  This offer is subject to prior sale.本盘以先卖为准。

  This offer is subject to the goods being unsold.本盘以货物未售出为准。

  5. To be in a position to

  to be in a position to 表示能够,是外贸书信中常用的成语,与can和to be able to是同义词。

  6. To be desirous

  to be desirous表示渴望。可以接不定式短语:We are desirous to establish… ;也可以加of接动名词:We are desirous of establishing trade relations with you.

  7. By return

  by return表示立即,收信后立即回信,是书信中常见的成语,只是这成语有点陈旧。

  还盘:

  1. usual terms

  usual terms 表示按惯常条款。

  除了课文中的用法“offering us 50 long tons of the captioned goods at Stg. 235 per long ton CFR Shanghai, usual terms按惯常条款给我方50长吨标题货物报盘”。

  也可以用terms as usual 代替usual terms, 用on, according to, under 代替逗号。

  如: ……, offering us 50 long tons of the captioned goods at Stg. 235 per long ton CFR Shanghai on (according to, under ) usual terms (terms as usual)。 ……, 按惯常条款给我方50长吨标题货物报盘。

  2. 因价格高而不能接受报盘

  ……our end-users here find your price too high and out of line with the prevailing market level.……我方用户认为你方价格过高,与现行市场行情不一致。

  在谈到价格高低时,可以用price, 也可以用quotation.如:We find your quotation too high to be acceptable.

  Prevailing的意思是“流行的”,level的本义是水平,常常被引申为价格(水平)。

  如:Business is hopeful if your reduce your level. 如果你方能够降低价格,成交有望。

  又比如:to sell something at your level. 按你方价格出售某物。

  或to sell something at our level. 按我方价格出售某物。

  prevailing market level 是指现行行市。

  out of line with……表示“与……不相符合”。

  out of line with the prevailing market level是指与现行行市不相符合。

  类似用法:

  Your counteroffer is not up to the present market level.你方的还价不符合现行的市场水平。

  Your price is not on a level with the current market.你方价格与当前的市场水平不相吻合。

  Your counteroffer is not at all in keeping with the current rate.你方还价不符合现行的价格水平。

  注意,与……不相符合是out of line with ………,而要说与………相符合则是 in line with ……

  如: While our price is in line with the prevailing international market rate, we are not in a position to consider any concession in our price, much to our regret.我们所报的价格完全符合当前国际市场行情,歉难在价格上作任何折让。

  另一种常见的表达法为in compliance with…………。

  如:Our quotation is in compliance with the present level. 我们所报价格符合当前市场水平。

  3. reply 和answer:

  reply 和answer这两个词都是既可以作名词,又可以作动词。

  在商业函电中,常用reply,不常用answer.

  作为名词 answer和 reply 都接介词to,如:an answer to a letter, a reply to a letter.

  作为动词,answer既可以用作及物动词,又可以用作不及物动词。因此,to answer a letter 和 to answer to a letter都可以说,当然前者比较普遍。

  Reply用作“答复”解释时,只可以作为不及物动词用。因此,可以说to reply to a letter, 不可以说reply a letter.

  谢绝还盘:

  1. On the high side

  谈论价格高到什么程度:

  Your price is a bit high. 你方价格有点高。

  Your price is on the high side. 你方价格偏高。

  Your price is excessive. 你方价格过高。

  Your price is rather high. 你方价格相当高。

  Your price is too high. 你方价格太高。

  Your price is prohibitive. 你方价格高得令人望而却步。

  Your price is high. 你方价格高。

  这是说价格高,而价格低可以说:

  Your price is low. 你方价格低。

  Your price is on the low side. 你方价格偏低。

  Your price is too low. 你方价格太低。

  我们还常说:

  Your price is competitive. 你方价格有竞争力。

  Your price is acceptable. 你方价格可接受。Your price is reasonable. 你方价格是合理的。

  Your price is attractive. 你方价格有吸引力。

  Your price is unreasonable. 你方价格不合理。

  Your price is unworkable. 你方价格做不开。

  Your price is impracticable. 你方价格不可行。

  Your price is infeasible. 你方价格行不通。

  Your price is realistic. 你方价格不现实。

  在这种情况下,既可以指价格高,又可以价格低,需要视情况而定。一般说,出自买方之口指高,卖方之口指低。

  2. To the extent: to the extent表示到达这样的程度。

  3. For your information: for your information=for your reference 是供你方参考的意思。但如果遇到严肃的事,就不宜用这一短语。

  4. See our way clear: see our way clear 是设法的意思,clear在这里可以用,也可以省略。

  5. keep us posted (informed, advised) of developments at your end: 意思是:请随时告知你处情况的发展(变化)。除了用at the end, 还可以用:类似用法还有:in your place; in your region; in your area; on your side; in your market;   in your city; 等等。

  确认定货与谢绝定货:

  1. reduce & reduction: reduce 是动词,reduction 是名词,后面接介词in,意思是减低、减少。减价还可以用cut.如:In order to close this deal we shall further reduce (cut) our price. We have made 8% reduction in our price. 另外,减到某一程度用bring down to,如:We bring down our price to the level you indicated in your letter of August 5. 略减用shade,如:We shade our price.

  2. Referring to: referring to =with reference to 意思是关于,是商业书信中常用的短语,尤其在一封信的开首句里。

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