23.Other countries have also been known to put pressure on foreign companies to make donations to party funds.——（Other countries have also tried to make foreign companies offer political parties financial support.）其他国家也有对外国公司施加压力使其为党派基金捐款的情况。
1）be known to do sth.：知其做……，又如：The company is known to have secret dealings with smugglers.人们都知道这家公司与走分子有秘密来往。
He was known to have worked for the Japanese invaders，so he was unpopular among his neighbours.众所周知，他曾为日本入侵者干过事，所以邻居们都讨厌他。
2）put pressure on sb：to force or try to persuade sb.to do向某人施加压力
The international community is putting pressure on both sides to stop fighting.国际社会向双方施加压力使他们停火。
3）make donations to：向……捐款。
24.The second category covers payments made to obtain quicker official approval of some project，to speed up the wheels of bureaucracy.（链接2）第二类包含为了使官方更快批准某个项目以及为了加快官僚机构运作所支付的款项。
1）speed up（sth.）：increase or make sth.increase speed加速；使加速。
又如：They decided to take steps to speed up the reform of the SOEs （state-owned enterprises）。
As he got excited，he noticed that his breathing had speeded up.
2）the wheels of bureaucracy，etc：that which enables bureaucracy，etc.to function 能使……运作起来的关键。
25.Finally，he hit upon the answer.最后终于想出了办法。
hit upon：think of a good idea，etc.suddenly or by chance 突然或偶然想出（好主意等）。
又如：He hit upon a way of making a living.
He hit upon a perfect name for his grandson.
26.Discovering that the minister was a bibliophile，he bought a rare edition of a book，slipped $ 20，000 within its pages，then presented it to the minister.了解到那位部长是个藏书家，他买了一本书的珍稀版本，在书里夹了两万美元，然后把书献给了部长。
2）present sth.to sb./sb.with sth.：（尤其指正式场合中）将……献或颁发给某人。
又如：The children presented the guests with flowers.
Celebrities have been invited to present the awards to the winners.
27.This man examined its contents，then said：“I understand there is a two-volume edition of this book.”此人查看了书中所含，然后说：“据我所知，此书有两卷本的版本。”
contents：the things contained in sth.（房间、盒子和瓶子等里）所放的东西；（书籍的）目录。这里contents是双关，表面上是指书的内容（目录），实际指书里夹的钱（即他计算了书里共夹有多少钱）。
28.The sales manager，who was quick-witted，replied：“My company cannot afford a two-volume edition，sir，but we could offer you a copy with an appendix！”—— （This is an indirect way of saying，“My company cannot afford to double the amount/another $ 20，000，but we could make an extra payment.”）机智的销售经理回答说：“先生，两卷本超越了敝公司之财力，不过我们能为您提供一部带有附录的版本。”不久之后，这桩交易获得批准。 注意双方都以暗示的方式，相当明确地表达了各自的要求或承诺，部长暗示对方再加两万美元，经理暗示公司不愿追加如此大的数目，但可以再少加一笔钱。
29.The third category involves payments made in countries where it is traditional to pay people to facilitate the passage of a business deal.—（In many countries it is common to pay someone to ease the passage of a business deal/to make it possible or easier for a business deal to be concluded.Payments of this type belongs to/go with the third category of bribery.）第三类是指在一些需要疏通有关人员生意才能顺利进行的国家里（外国公司）所支付的款子。
1）此句从made直到结尾是个分词短语，修饰payments；定语从句where it is traditional……a business deal修饰countries；在此定语从句中，to pay people……a business deal是定语从句的主语，it是形式主语，而to facilitate……deal是目的状语，修饰to pay people.
2）facilitate：（formal）to make an action or a process possible or easier疏通
The new airport will facilitate tourism.
30.The payment may be made by a foreign company to ensure that a tender is put on a selective contract list or the company may pay so that an import licence for essential equipment is approved.—（A foreign company may make such payments to get a tender included on a selective contract list so that the company will gin an advantage over some of its competitors.Or perhaps the company offers money so as to get permission to import important equipment for a project.）为了确保其投标项目能够被列入经过筛选的合同名单，或者是为了使其重要设备的进口得以顺利批准，外国公司可能要为此而支付一笔钱。
1）ensure that：make sure that确保……成功；保证。
2）tender：a formal statement of the price you would charge for doing a job or providing goods or services报价单
3）a selective contract list：a list of companies chosen from among all those that have been entered the bidding