31.Sometimes an expensive gift may be necessary to soften up a government official.——（Sometimes in order to please a government official so that he will do what you ask him to you've got to give him an expensive gift.）有时为了使一位政府官员手软，需要向他馈赠一份昂贵的礼物。（即俗话所说：“拿人家的手软。”）
soften sb.up：（informal）to put sb.in good mood before asking them go do sth.；make sb.unable or less able to resist being persuaded（口语）使……的态度软化。
They treated you well，but it was just to soften you up.
32.A common type in this category is the“facilitating payment”usually a smaller sum of money-made to certain customs officials to clear cargoes.—（Also included in the third category is what is known as“facilitating payment”。 Usually it involves a smaller sum of money given to customs officials to get the goods that have been delivered cleared through customs.）“疏通费”是这类贿赂中常见的一种形式，一般数额不太大，是为了让货物顺利通过海关，向海关官员支付的钱。
1）分词短语 made to customs officials to clear cargoes作定语，修饰the“facilitating payment”“疏通费”是这类贿赂中常见的一种形式，一般数额不太大，是为了让货物顺利通过海关，向海关官员支付的钱。
Usually a smaller sum of money是插入语，补充说明the“facilitating payment”
2）clear：to give official permission for a person，a ship，a plane or goods to leave or enter a place to clear goods through customs货物通过海关而允许入境或出境
33.One businessman has told the story of a delivery of 10，000 bottles of sterile penicillin at the airport of a Far Eastern country.一位商人讲了关于一万瓶无菌青霉素运至某个远东国家机场的情况。
1）a delivery of：运送
34.It was apparently customary to pay customs officials about $250 upon arrival of each shipment to“get them out of the sun.”（链接）此地很明显的惯例是每一批货到港后，为了让海关官员不找麻烦要付给他们250美元。
get sb.out of the sun：不找某人麻烦。 不定式to pay……to“get them out of the sun”是句子的主语，其中upon arrival of each shipment表示pay的时间，to“get them out of the sun”是状语，说明pay的目的。
35.In this case，the company was not prepared to make such a payment，so no money changed hands.（链接） （It seemed to be a common practice to pay $ 250 to a customs official for each load imported goods.）But for this delivery，the company was not willing to pay，so the customs official received no“facilitating payment”。这回，这家公司不愿意花这种钱，因此没有送钱。change hands：to pass to a different owner（房产等）转手，易主，又如：The hotel has changed hands three times in ten years.这家饭店10年内是，三次变换主人。
get sb.out of the sun：不找某人麻烦。不定式to pay……to “get them out of the sun”是句子的主语，其中upon arrival of each shipment表示pay的时间，to“get them out of the sun”是状语，说明pay的目的。
36.The Minister of Health of that nation then ordered （链接）that each phial be opened for inspection，thereby destroying the whole shipment.其后该国卫生部长下令每一小瓶（青霉素）都要打开检查，从而毁了整批药品。
order：（命令）后面的宾语从句的谓语动词要求用虚拟语气，其形式与动词原形一致，其模式为：order that sth.be done/sb.do sth.，又如：The doctor ordered that the wounded soldiers be moved to safety at once.医生下令伤员立即撤往安全处。分词短语thereby destroying the whole shipment作状语，修饰open，表示伴随open所发生的事或产生的情况。Thereby：by that means or action（正式）借以。
37.Is it possible to formulate a code of rules for companies which would outlaw bribery in all its forms？——（Is it possible to make rules for companies to follow that would ban all forms of bribery？）为公司制定经营条例从而使各种形式的行贿活动成为非法，这可行吗？定语从句which would outlaw……all its forms修饰a code of rules for companies.
1）formulate：to create or prepare sth.carefully，paying particular attention to the details制定 formulate a rule/policy制定规则、政策
a code of rules：a set of rules which are accepted as general principles；a set of written rules which state how people in a particular organization or country should behave准则
a code of conduct：行为准则
2）outlaw：to make it illegal and unacceptable宣布……非法 The European Convention of Human Rights outlaws discrimination between the sexes.欧洲人权组织宣布性别歧视违法。
The outlawed political group went underground.那个非法的政治团体转入了地下活动。
38.The International Chambers of Commerce（ICC） favours a code of conduct which would ban the giving and seeking of bribes.国际商会主张制定禁止受贿、索贿的经营法规。
又如：Certain countries favour sending UN observers rather than peace-keeping troops to that area.
Not all Confucian ideas are favoured today，especially among the young.
They favour a traditional wedding.