1. The facilities and skills of the teachers were probably well above average for the United States at that time. —— The facilities and skills of the teachers were perhaps much better than those in most schools in………学校的设施、教师的水平在当时的美国要远远高于平均水平。
The work is well done. 这件工作干得很好。
It's well past midnight，I think it's more time you went home.早过了午夜，我想你该回家了。
2. ………how much I don't yet know. ——how much I don't know up till now.我至今依然不了解的东西太多。
yet：at this point in time
3.Sometimes I think how grateful I would be today if I had learned more back then about what really matters.——I would be grateful today if I had learned more at high school about things that are really important.
I would be ………if I had learned 虚拟语气，主句表示现在，从句表示过去
I would not be so sleepy if I had slept well last night.
back then：back in my high school days
what really matters：what is important matter is used as a verb——
eg：Does it matter much whether he will not pass the exams？ 他能否通过考试是否很重要？
4.in some respects……；the only thing I ever heard in school about Napoleon was that the U.S made the Louisiana Purchase from him.
In some respects在某些方面；in respect of就某方面
5.On a planet where some 95% of the inhabitants are not Americans，the only history that was thought worth teaching was American history.——The population of the US accounts for only about 5% of that of the world. But in my high school days taught American history only because it was thought that the history of other countries was not important for Americans to learn.
worth teaching——be worth doing值得做
6.Perhaps all the deficiencies have since been rectified.——Perhaps schools have overcome all the shortcomings and improved greatly since I left school.
This disease is caused by Vitamin D deficiency.
He left home in 1980 and has not been heard of since.他于1980年离家，此后便音信全无。
7. ……often more a matter of attitude and perception than the simple memorization of facts………——Students should not merely be taught facts to memorize，but they should also be taught to cultivate their ability to judge what is happening around them and take the right attitude towards this.
For me，music is more a way of life than an interest.
a matter of principle原则问题
a matter of time时间问题
a matter of opinion看法问题
a matter of life and death生死攸关问题
8.That's one of the few things that we do better than the other species on our planet. In most things man's fellow creatures on earth are better，but in learning man does better.
9. Every student should regularly experience the “Aha！”when something you never understood，or something you never knew was a mystery，becomes clear.——Students should be constantly learning new things so that they can experience the joy of learning and of discovering things they didn't know or understand before.
Aha：Ah，I see！/Now I understand！
10. The Greek philosopher Socrates said this was one of the greatest of human joys，and it is.
of the greatest of human joys：“the+ 形容词最高级+名词”的用法：
the most beautiful of the places最美的地方
the greatest of scientists最伟大的科学家
the best of my friends我最要好的朋友
and it is：learning is still one of the greatest of human joys today