11. While you learn a little bit about many subjects，make sure you learn a great deal about one or two.——On the one hand，you should have a wide scope of knowledge；on the other hand，you should learn one or two subjects thoroughly.
make sure：to do sth. in order to be sure that sth. else happens
eg：We'll do our best to make sure that everything is ready before the sportsmeet.
12.It hardly matters what the subject is，as long as it deeply interest you，and you place it in its broader human context.
It hardly matters what：句型“it +否定词 + matter（s） + wh-”eg：
It doesn't matter how you do it as long as you finish it on time.你如何做并不重要，但只要按时完成。
as long as：so long as：（表示条件）只要
You will succeed as long as you work hard.
We will be able to understand why this event happened if we see it in its historical context.
13.But don't get trapped by the first subject that interest you，or the first thing you find yourself good at.——But you shouldn't limit your study to anything that attracts you immediately or anything you first find yourself good at.
Be/get trapped：to be in a bad situation someone from escaping from dangerous place陷于，被困于
More than 50 miners got trapped in the pit following yesterday's explosion.
get trapped：（fig.）to get so deeply involved that one finds it hard to be interested in anything else
They got trapped when they were doing the experiment
14. The answers can be a gateway to real insights.
a gateway to——通向——途径；获得——手段
A good education can be a gateway to success.良好的教育是获得成功的手段。
The Suez Canal is a gateway to Europe from East Asia.苏伊士运河是从亚洲通向欧洲的通道。
15. And don't confine your learning to schoolwork.不要把自己局限于课堂
They managed to confine Sars to a definite area.他们设法将“非典”控制在一定的范围。
16. It's much braver to ask questions even when there's a prospect of ridicule than to suppress your questions and become deadened to the world around you.
prospect ：something that you expect or know is going to happen预料会发生的事
He doesn't like the prospect of having to live alone.他将不得不独居，这事他可不喜欢
become deadened to sth.对——变得麻木
He has become deadened to failures，for he has experienced so many.
Deaden sb. to sth.使——对——麻木
17. Many conversations are a kind of competition that rarely leads to discovery on either side.——Often，when people talk they show off：they try to show they are smarter，or that they know more than the person they are talking to；this kind of conversation gives you nu useful information or understanding.
Lead to：to result in；to bring about通向；导致
All roads lead to Rome.
Hard work can lead to success.
18.try to understand………what you can learn from or about them
——try to learn something from what they say，or try to find out the kind of person they are.
19.The only embarrassment is in not learning from your mistakes.
Be in：lie in/exist in 在于；存在于
The cause of the accident was（lay/existed） in the drinking of the driver.事故的原因在于驾驶员喝酒了
20……often for some short-term advantage when the long term implications are unknown.——often for some quick profit now，when you don't know possible harm or danger might arise in the future.
The citizens of any country should have at least something to say about the direction in which we are doing.——All people in the world have the right at least to express their views on the future of our planet.
Have sth. to say：have a say，have a right to make a decision about sth.