Book 1 lesson 4
1 I could keep them all covered
2 But in the way they all glared I could see how they’d come to hate my guts.
3 very soon now I’d doze off， and instant that happened they’d jump on the little water that was left.
4 I’d have given the rest of my life for a single gulp of water.
5 once the water was gone we’d have nothing to look forward to but death.
6 Well， there was nothing more I could do about it.
7 I stared at the canteen as if it were a mirage.
1 hour after hour 说话者已经感到厌烦，或是坚持不住了 day after day
2 keep sb covered： （用枪）一直瞄准某人
3 at/from close quarters/range： 很近
These boys love to watch the aircraft take off and land at close quarters.
The birds were photographed at closed range.
4 hate sb’s guts
5 hold out （在危险或宽难的情况下）抵抗，坚持
The city held out until the last man.
The refugees held out against the severe cold that winter.
6 the instant/moment（that） 一……。就………（起连词作用，引出时间状语从句）
The instant he sensed danger he dashed out of the house.
The children rushed out of the classroom the moment the teacher said， “class is over”。
7 count 同第三课
8 keep sb/sth away from
9 with ………-ed/adj/adv 是一种表示主语所处的某种状况时常用的结构，在句中做状语。 With all the windows open， the room is very cool.
With so many people watching me， how can I concentrate on my work？
10 （to the）east/west/north/south of ：
He works in Beijing， and lives in a small town some 40 kilometers south of the city.
11 live for sth/sb：为………而活
12 give in to sth./sb
Parents often give in to their children’s demands.
13 the nine of them 他们九人（一共有九人），nine of them 他们当中的九人。
14 a pack of （狼群）一群，（坏人）一伙
15 envy sb sth.
16 every now and then
17 quit（doing sth）： Can’t you quit smoking？
Jim has decided to quit. He doesn’t like his job.
18 beyond all reasoning
19 cracked with yin 因………疯狂 crack-brained （人）疯狂，（思想，观点）愚蠢
he’s failed tow exams and can’t afford to fail another.
22 all the more/better
After a thorough cleaning， the room looked all the more comfortable.
After the accident， his sight began to go.
He can’t remember where he had met the man before： his memory is going.
24 take over（sth）
He took over the company after his father died.
I’ve been driving for two hours； would you take over for a while？
The new president will take over from Mr. Johnson next week.
25 face down/ facedown
26 pick sb up
27 hold off
3 interpretation1 Hearing that the firm I work for was going to be taken over by an oil company， I was greatly shocked. 2 The miners had been trapped in the collapsed gallery for over one week before they were picked up. 3 Mother has never given in to the difficulties encountered in the course of my growing up.
4 This country can not afford to have another civil war. Its people long for lasting peace. 5 His sincere self-criticism made us respect him all the more.
6 No force can keep the Chinese people back from reuniting their own country.
Book 1 lesson 5
1 While traveling for various speaking engagements， I frequently stay overnight in the home of a family and am assigned to one of the children’s bedrooms.
2 I’m not complaining， only making a point.
3 I think that in far too many families， not only do children come to take their parents’ generosity for granted， but also the effects of this can actually be somewhat harmful to children.
4 ………along with those things the parents yearned for but didn’t get.
5 …。requests for toys for fear that their children will feel……。
6 Overindulgence of a child also happens when parents are unable to stand up to their children’s unreasonable demands. Such parents vacillate between saying no and giving in-but neither response seems satisfactory to them.
7 But overindulging children with material things does little to lessen parental guilt（since parents never feel that they’ve given enough）， nor does it make children feel more loved.
8 Children may， to some degree， become greedy， self-centered， ungrateful and insensitive to the needs and feelings of others， beginning with their parents.
9 Parents who are fortunate enough not to have a problem with feelings of guilt don’t need to respond crossly to their children when denying a specific request which is thought to be unreasonable. They can explain， cheerfully， that it’s too expensive-except perhaps as a birthday or holiday gift-or that the child will have to contribute to its purchase from an allowance or from the earnings of an outside job.
1 stay overnight
2 be assigned to sth： 向（某人）提供…， 把…分派给（某人）
Xiao Zhang has been assigned to Class five.
The best worker was assigned to the most difficult job.
be assigned to do sth： （某人）被指派做某事。
I’ve been assigned to do it.
3 there’s （no） room for
4 toilet kit， shaving kit， sewing kit， first-aid kit， repair kit
5 be packed with
The boy’s desk is often packed with photos of his sports icons.
The restaurant is always packed with celebrities.
This magazine is packed with useful information.
6 an overabundance of， far too many， be overindulged with
7 take sth for granted/take for granted sth/ take （it）for granted that：把……看成是理所当然的事
Don’t take their help for granted. None of them are well.
We took it for granted that he would agree， so we didn’t ask first.
8 afford sth/to do sth： 常与can 或be able to 连用，买得起，有钱做某事。
We can’t afford anything more expensive than a bicycle-an ordinary one.
I can’t afford to go to that concert. It would wipe out half my monthly allowance.
9 hold down a job
10 feel guilty about， guilty of
11 shower sb with sth/ shower sth on sb：给某人大量的………
The little girl rushed to her parents and showered them with kisses.
On her 100th birthday， the city showered her with gifts and good wishes.
12 along with sth/sb： 除此之外；同样；一起
They got financial aid， along with encouragement.
Alcohol is forbidden on campus， along with tobacco.
The veteran soldiers， along with their families， were invited to the party.
13 yearn for
14 say on to sb/sth：拒绝做…。
15 for fear that…/of doing sth：为了避免…发生；惟恐…发生
They tiptoed upstairs for fear of waking their parents.
16 stand up to后面一般跟sb，表示顶住某人要求等
If you stand up to them， they will stop making unreasonable demands.
If you don’t’ stand up to bullies， they will continue to have their way.
stand up to sth：（物质或物品）耐磨，耐用
In 1998， the dam stood up to the severest flood in history.
Are these houses going to stand up to strong earthquakes？
17 vacillate between
She vacillated between her two admirers.
18 sour 使…。恶化
What he said has soured the relations between the two sides.
19 rob sb of 使…失去；（非法）剥夺
The disease robbed the man of much of his hearing.
20 do little
21 insensitive to
22 force sb into doing/ to do sth 一般用force to do sth更自然
23 be challenged to be……… 受到激发而…。
Children of boarding schools are more challenged to be independent than those at day schools.
24 have experience in doing sth
He has a lot of experience in dealing with rejects.
25 on demand： as soon as they ask for， on arrival， on graduation
26 （or） rather adv： （用来修正或补充正文）并非那样，而是…。，更确切的说
H seemed pleased to hear the criticism. Or rather， he pretended to be pleased.
The President’s secretary， or rather， his daughter， arranged all his engagements.
27 impress sth on/upon sb 使某人对…明确无误，使铭记…。
The manager impressed upon the salesmen the importance of creating new markets.
28 make a / one’s point 发表看法
29 by and large
30 abide by
Is this something that foreign residents should also abide by？
We have always abided by all the agreements we have signed.
31 push sb to/into doing sth 催促，鼓励或逼迫某人做某事
The boy is a diligent student. His parents never have to push him to do his homework.
She thanked her teacher for pushing her into sending her essays to a magazine.
32 keep at it
The experiment may take a few days to finish， but it’s worth keeping at it.
I was about to give up when my classmates shouted， “Keep at it！”
33 be bound to do sth： be certain to do sth
The weather is bound to improve in a couple of days.
He’s bound to get the scholarship. No other applicant is better qualified.
34 be satisfied with
35 keep on doing sth
His children kept on pestering him while he was working hard on a report.
36 work （on sb/sth）
The folk remedy works. My headache’s gone.
Do you think the plan will work？
1 With the labor market being increasingly competitive， many people do not take their present jobs for granted.
2 After the brutal long-drawn-out tribal war， the common people living in the area all yearning for peace and security.
3 Standing up to the great pressure from the doctor and relatives， my mother insisted on teaching me reading and writing.
4 Since neither side gave in to the other， the war had been going on for more than a decade.
Book 1 lesson 6
1 Culture shock might be called an occupational disease of people who have been suddenly transplanted abroad.
2 These cues， which may be words， gestures， facial expressions， customs， or norms， are acquired by all of us in the course of growing up and are as much a part of our culture as the language we speak or the beliefs we accept.
3 All of us depend for our peace of mind and our efficiency on hundreds of these cues， often without our conscious awareness.
4 When foreigners in a strange land get together to grumble about the host country and its people， you can be sure they are suffering from culture shock. Another symptom of culture shock is regression. The home environment suddenly takes on a tremendous importance.
5 It usually takes a trip home to bring one back to reality.
6 However， those who have seen people go through culture shock and on to a satisfactory adjustment can see steps in the process.
7 If you are a real tourist， you probably do not stay long enough for this phase to wear off but go on to the next new location or experience.
8 When you stay in a new environment for a while， you move to stage two-the crisis stage-in which the shine wears off and day-to-day realities sink in.
9 However， if you stick with the experience and try to deal with it realistically， you will probably move to the third phase of culture shock： recovery.
10 In recovery， you learn the systems， procedures， language， or nonverbal behaviors of the new environment so that you can cope with it on the basis of some mastery， competence， and comfort.
11 You no longer need to make mental conversions of the country’s money； you know where services are located and how to use them；
12 I began to feel familiar with traveling by “tube”。
13 using some phrases that are unique to English people.
2 result from
The disease results from Vitamin C deficiency.
Result in ：
The Evening Messenger has decided to offer the above reward to any person who gives information which results in the arrest of William Strickland.
3 a thousand and one
I have got a thousand and one things to do this morning.
4 depend on / for sth
5 in much the same way， in much the same， The two boys are much the same age.
The wounded soldier is much the same toady.
6 grumble（to sb） about/at/over sb/sth： complain（to sb.）
about sb/sth in a bad-tempered way
A lot of students grumble about heavy reading assignments.
grumble + that
The immigrants grumbled that they were treated as second-class citizens.
7 take on
Now that it is remodeled， the house has taken on a new look.
After the invention of the radio， the word “broadcast” took on a new meaning.
8 it takes/took………to do sth.
It takes great courage to do the job
It takes patience to work under a man like by boss.
9 bring sb back to reality
10 be/get/become accustomed to sth： be/get/become familiar with sth.
Soon we all got accustomed to Prof. Wang’s way of teaching.
Have you become accustomed to life abroad？
11 wear（sth） off
The child’s interest in the game soon wore off.
12 try out sth（on sb）： test or use sb.sth，
They tried out the new medicine on dogs.
13 the shine
14 day-to-day realities
15 sink in： be fully understood or realized
I said hello in quite a few yards before the message sand in that this wasn’t the thing to do.
16 barriers to （doing） sth
17 beyond： apart from
18 stick with sb/sth
I’ll stick with my idea no matter what you say.
19 on the basis of： because of a particular fact or situation
He’s recently been made public relations manager on the basis of his performance.
20 the other way round
21 become adapted to sth./adapt（oneself） to sth： become adjusted to new conditions，
The old lady quickly adapted herself to life in the city.
1 Since China adopted the reform and opening-up to the outside world policy， this city has taken on an entirely new look.
2 The foreigners who are suffering from culture shock often cut themselves off from the rest of the world.
3 For the first few months， many freshmen are hardly adapted themselves to the college life.
4 Biologists decided to try out that set of expensive equipment.
5 I noticed that she had greatly improved her behaviors since she returned from abroad.
6 More and more Chinese people begin to concern themselves with environmental protection.