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2006-12-12 13:35   【 】【我要纠错

  20. Was ready to finance efforts to overthrow the Marxist government of Chile whose President was Salvadore Allende. 愿意资助推翻以萨尔瓦多?阿连德为总统的智利马克思主义政府的种种尝试。

  1) ready to do sth.: willing and eager to do sth.愿意并很迫切做……。

  又如: They're always ready to lend a helping hand.


  Laura loved him and he was ready to kiss her shoestrings.


  2) Salvadore Allende:萨尔瓦多·阿连德(1908-1973),智利社会党创建人和领袖,1970-1973年任智利总统,1973年9月在军事政变中殉职。他执政期间做了不少有利于人民的事情。西方反动势力惯于把推行诸如土地改革、注重人民卫生健康等政策的左派政府称为马克思主义政府。 此处不定式to overthrow……Salvadore Allende作定语,修饰efforts.

  21. In this category, we may also include large payments made to ruling families or their close advisers in order to secure arms or major petrochemical and construction contracts.——(One type/form of bribery in the second category includes large payments made to important and influential people such as ruling families or their close advisers in order to get contracts involving large amounts of money.)

  ruling family: the family that has control over a country, e.g., a king in a kingdom, Sheik in some Arab countries统治/执政家族

  22. In a court case involving an arms deal with Iran, a witness claimed that £ 1 million had been paid by a British company to a “go-between” who helped clinch a deal for supply of tanks to that country.——(In a court case, a witness said that in selling weapons to Iran, a British company paid £ 1 million to someone who helped it make the sale of tanks to that country.) 在涉及与伊朗进行武器交易的案件中,一位证人声称一家英国公司向助其达成供应伊朗坦克的买卖的“中间人”支付了100万英镑。

  1) to make/conclude/finalize a deal with sb. 与某人做成一笔交易 此处分词短语involving an arms deal with Iran作定语,修饰a court case.

  2) claim that:(未经证实或证明)声称,断言,又如: Some scientist claims that he has found an effective cure for AIDS. 某位科学家声称他已经找到了治疗艾滋病的有效办法。

  3) 这里“go-between”一词用了引号表示并不是真正的中间人,而是统治该国的家庭的成员或是他们的高参(即本段开始提到的ruling families or their close advisers)。

  4) clinch a deal: to conclude a deal successfully:(口语)达成交易。 deal: an agreement, esp. in business, on certain terms for buying or doing交易

  23. Other countries have also been known to put pressure on foreign companies to make donations to party funds.——(Other countries have also tried to make foreign companies offer political parties financial support.) 其他国家也有对外国公司施加压力使其为党派基金捐款的情况。

  1) be known to do sth.: 知其做……,又如: The company is known to have secret dealings with smugglers. 人们都知道这家公司与走分子有秘密来往。 He was known to have worked for the Japanese invaders, so he was unpopular among his neighbours. 众所周知,他曾为日本入侵者干过事,所以邻居们都讨厌他。

  2) put pressure on sb.: to force or try to persuade sb. to do向某人施加压力 The international community is putting pressure on both sides to stop fighting. 国际社会向双方施加压力使他们停火。

  3)make donations to: 向……捐款。

  24.The second category covers payments made to obtain quicker official approval of some project, to speed up the wheels of bureaucracy. (链接2) 第二类包含为了使官方更快批准某个项目以及为了加快官僚机构运作所支付的款项。

  1) speed up(sth.): increase or make sth. increase speed加速;使加速。

  又如: They decided to take steps to speed up the reform of the SOEs (state-owned enterprises)。


  As he got excited, he noticed that his breathing had speeded up.


  2) the wheels of bureaucracy, etc: that which enables bureaucracy, etc. to function 能使……运作起来的关键。

  25. Finally, he hit upon the answer.最后终于想出了办法。

  hit upon: think of a good idea, etc. suddenly or by chance 突然或偶然想出(好主意等)。

  又如: He hit upon a way of making a living.


  He hit upon a perfect name for his grandson.


  26. Discovering that the minister was a bibliophile, he bought a rare edition of a book, slipped $ 20,000 within its pages, then presented it to the minister. 了解到那位部长是个藏书家,他买了一本书的珍稀版本,在书里夹了两万美元,然后把书献给了部长。

  1)discovering that……分词短语作时间状语,修饰谓语动词bought.

  2)present sth. to sb./sb. with sth.:(尤其指正式场合中)将……献或颁发给某人。

  又如: The children presented the guests with flowers.


  Celebrities have been invited to present the awards to the winners.


  27. This man examined its contents, then said: “I understand there is a two-volume edition of this book.” 此人查看了书中所含,然后说:“据我所知,此书有两卷本的版本。”

  contents: the things contained in sth.(房间、盒子和瓶子等里)所放的东西;(书籍的)目录。 这里contents是双关,表面上是指书的内容(目录),实际指书里夹的钱(即他计算了书里共夹有多少钱)。

  28. The sales manager, who was quick-witted, replied: “My company cannot afford a two-volume edition, sir, but we could offer you a copy with an appendix!”—— (This is an indirect way of saying, “My company cannot afford to double the amount/another $ 20,000, but we could make an extra payment.”)机智的销售经理回答说:“先生,两卷本超越了敝公司之财力,不过我们能为您提供一部带有附录的版本。”不久之后,这桩交易获得批准。 注意双方都以暗示的方式,相当明确地表达了各自的要求或承诺,部长暗示对方再加两万美元,经理暗示公司不愿追加如此大的数目,但可以再少加一笔钱。

  quick-witted 机智的,反应机敏的

  29. The third category involves payments made in countries where it is traditional to pay people to facilitate the passage of a business deal.——(In many countries it is common to pay someone to ease the passage of a business deal/to make it possible or easier for a business deal to be concluded. Payments of this type belongs to/go with the third category of bribery.) 第三类是指在一些需要疏通有关人员生意才能顺利进行的国家里(外国公司)所支付的款子。

  1) 此句从made直到结尾是个分词短语,修饰payments;定语从句where it is traditional……a business deal修饰countries;在此定语从句中,to pay people……a business deal是定语从句的主语,it是形式主语,而to facilitate……deal是目的状语,修饰to pay people.

  2)facilitate: (formal) to make an action or a process possible or easier疏通

  The new airport will facilitate tourism.


  30. The payment may be made by a foreign company to ensure that a tender is put on a selective contract list or the company may pay so that an import licence for essential equipment is approved.——(A foreign company may make such payments to get a tender included on a selective contract list so that the company will gin an advantage over some of its competitors. Or perhaps the company offers money so as to get permission to import important equipment for a project.) 为了确保其投标项目能够被列入经过筛选的合同名单,或者是为了使其重要设备的进口得以顺利批准,外国公司可能要为此而支付一笔钱。

  1) ensure that: make sure that确保……成功;保证。

  2) tender: a formal statement of the price you would charge for doing a job or providing goods or services报价单

  3) a selective contract list: a list of companies chosen from among all those that have been entered the bidding

  4) so that……为目的状语从句,修饰pay.

  31. Sometimes an expensive gift may be necessary to soften up a government official.——(Sometimes in order to please a government official so that he will do what you ask him to you've got to give him an expensive gift.) 有时为了使一位政府官员手软,需要向他馈赠一份昂贵的礼物。(即俗话所说:“拿人家的手软。”)

  soften sb. up: (informal) to put sb. in good mood before asking them go do sth. ; make sb. unable or less able to resist being persuaded(口语)使……的态度软化。

  They treated you well, but it was just to soften you up.


  32. A common type in this category is the “facilitating payment”-usually a smaller sum of money-made to certain customs officials to clear cargoes.——(Also included in the third category is what is known as “facilitating payment”。 Usually it involves a smaller sum of money given to customs officials to get the goods that have been delivered cleared through customs.) “疏通费”是这类贿赂中常见的一种形式,一般数额不太大,是为了让货物顺利通过海关,向海关官员支付的钱。

  1)分词短语 made to customs officials to clear cargoes作定语,修饰the “facilitating payment” “疏通费”是这类贿赂中常见的一种形式,一般数额不太大,是为了让货物顺利通过海关,向海关官员支付的钱。 Usually a smaller sum of money是插入语,补充说明the “facilitating payment”

  2)clear: to give official permission for a person, a ship, a plane or goods to leave or enter a place to clear goods through customs货物通过海关而允许入境或出境

  33. One businessman has told the story of a delivery of 10,000 bottles of sterile penicillin at the airport of a Far Eastern country. 一位商人讲了关于一万瓶无菌青霉素运至某个远东国家机场的情况。

  1)a delivery of: 运送

  2)sterile penicillin: 无菌青霉素

  34.It was apparently customary to pay customs officials about $250 upon arrival of each shipment to “get them out of the sun.” (链接)此地很明显的惯例是每一批货到港后,为了让海关官员不找麻烦要付给他们250美元。

  get sb. out of the sun: 不找某人麻烦。 不定式to pay……to “get them out of the sun”是句子的主语,其中upon arrival of each shipment表示pay的时间,to “get them out of the sun”是状语,说明pay的目的。

  35. In this case, the company was not prepared to make such a payment, so no money changed hands. (链接) (It seemed to be a common practice to pay $ 250 to a customs official for each load imported goods.) But for this delivery, the company was not willing to pay, so the customs official received no “facilitating payment”。 这回,这家公司不愿意花这种钱,因此没有送钱。 change hands: to pass to a different owner(房产等)转手,易主,又如: The hotel has changed hands three times in ten years. 这家饭店10年内是,三次变换主人。

  get sb. out of the sun: 不找某人麻烦。 不定式to pay……to “get them out of the sun”是句子的主语,其中upon arrival of each shipment表示pay的时间,to “get them out of the sun”是状语,说明pay的目的。

  36. The Minister of Health of that nation then ordered (链接)that each phial be opened for inspection, thereby destroying the whole shipment.其后该国卫生部长下令每一小瓶(青霉素)都要打开检查,从而毁了整批药品。

  order:(命令)后面的宾语从句的谓语动词要求用虚拟语气,其形式与动词原形一致,其模式为:order that sth. be done/sb. do sth.,又如: The doctor ordered that the wounded soldiers be moved to safety at once. 医生下令伤员立即撤往安全处。 分词短语thereby destroying the whole shipment作状语,修饰open,表示伴随open所发生的事或产生的情况。Thereby: by that means or action(正式)借以。

  37. Is it possible to formulate a code of rules for companies which would outlaw bribery in all its forms?——(Is it possible to make rules for companies to follow that would ban all forms of bribery?) 为公司制定经营条例从而使各种形式的行贿活动成为非法,这可行吗?定语从句which would outlaw……all its forms修饰a code of rules for companies.

  1)formulate: to create or prepare sth. carefully, paying particular attention to the details制定 formulate a rule/policy制定规则、政策

  a code of rules: a set of rules which are accepted as general principles; a set of written rules which state how people in a particular organization or country should behave准则

  a code of conduct:行为准则

  2)outlaw: to make it illegal and unacceptable宣布……非法 The European Convention of Human Rights outlaws discrimination between the sexes. 欧洲人权组织宣布性别歧视违法。 The outlawed political group went underground. 那个非法的政治团体转入了地下活动。

  38. The International Chambers of Commerce(ICC) favours a code of conduct which would ban the giving and seeking of bribes. 国际商会主张制定禁止受贿、索贿的经营法规。

  favour: support sb./sth. 支持,赞成……,主张;更喜欢。

  又如: Certain countries favour sending UN observers rather than peace-keeping troops to that area.


  Not all Confucian ideas are favoured today, especially among the young.


  They favour a traditional wedding.


  39. This code would try to distinguish between commissions paid for real services and padded fees. A council has been proposed to administer the code.此法规要分清何为正当服务所付之佣金而何为超高佣金。有人建议成立一个执行机构。

  1)distinguish between A and B/A from B: show the difference between A and B划分……和……的区别;区分。

  又如: The law distinguishes between manslaughter and murder.


  I think he's old enough to distinguish the right from the wrong.

  他不小了,该能够辨别是非了。 Heroes and heroines are distinguished from ordinary men and woman by uncommon courage, achievements, and self-sacrifice.



  2)be proposed to: 建议

  40. The British members, led by Lord Shawcross, would like the system to have enough legal teeth to make companies behave themselves. “It's no use having a dog without teeth,” they argue.——(“Laws without legal effective enforcement are useless,” they argue.)以肖克罗斯勋爵为首的英国会员们认为这个法规应有足够的法律约束力,让各公司规规矩矩地办事,他们认为“养一条没有牙齿的狗毫无用处。”

  1)legal teeth: legal effective force(英,口语)法律约束力。

  behave oneself: 检点自己的行为。(一般指个人的行为举止,这里指在经营中不要搞行贿等不正当的活动。)

  2)It's no use having a dog without teeth, Laws without legal effective enforcement are useless,没有法律强制力的法律是没用的

  41. However, the French delegates think it is the businessof governments to make and impose law; the job of a business community like the ICC is to say what is right and wrong, but not to impose anything.——(The French delegates think that an international business organization like the ICC can only give guidelines to companies (it cannot control or reduce bribery by its own efforts)。 It is up to governments in those countries where bribery is common to stamp out this practice by bringing in laws against corruption and making sure these are enforced.)然而,法国代表认为制定和实施法规是各国政府的职责;像国际商会这样的商业组织的任务则是确定是与非的界限,而不是推行任何法规。

  1)business: sth. that concerns a particular person or organization权利,事务

  You had no business reading my private letters. 你无权看我的私人信件。

  Mind you own business. 关心你自己的事吧! (不要干预他人的事。)

  It's none of your business. 这不关你的事。

  2)impose: to force the acceptance of (usually sth. difficult or unwanted)强加,强适

  Parents often impose their own moral values on their children.


  Very high taxes have recently been imposed on cigarettes.


  42.In a well-known British newspaper, a writer argued recently that “industry is caught in a web of bribery” and that everyone is “on the take ” (链接3)。——(Bribery is widespread and is difficult for a businessman to avoid.) 在一家英国著名的报纸上,最近一位撰稿人指出“实业界已经陷入贿赂的网络”,人人都“受贿”。

  1) argue that:(正式)认为;提出理由极力证明。 作者用be caught in a web of bribery表明贿赂非常普遍,商人很难避免。

  2) be caught in: be stuck in陷入。 a web of sth.: a close-related set of things that can be very complicated一系列(相关、复杂的事物),圈套;网络,又如: (create) a web of companies(创建)一系列的公司 (weave) a web of lies(编造)一系列的谎言

  3) on the take: receiving bribes; regularly taking bribes(俚语)索取不正当的钱财,索贿,收贿。

  43. However, today's businessman, selling in overseas markets, will frequently meet situations where it is difficult to square his business with his moral conscience.——(……today's businessman ……will often find it hard to settle the conflict between his business interests and his moral principles.) (Often he has to choose between the two, and is compelled either to sacrifice his business interests for his moral principles, or stick to/stand by his moral principles at the cost/expense of his business interest.) 然而,今天的商人在海外市场进行销售时,在许多情况下很难做到既维护自己的商业利益又符合自己的道德准则。

  square sth. with sth.:to make two ideas,facts,or situations agree or combine well with each other;(口语)(使)……与……一致。

  又如: His deeds don't square with his words. 他的言行不一。

  You've got to square your dream with reality if you want to succeed.


  We should square our personal interests with those of our country.


  分词短语selling in overseas markets 作状语,修饰meet;定语从句where it is……moral conscience修饰situations.


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