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自考综合英语(二)下册详解第十三课下

2006-12-12 13:28   【 】【我要纠错

  21.The responsibility of keeping the water right and of running the engine, and the danger of my making a mistake and blowing the whole factory to pieces, caused too great a strain, and I ofter awoke and found myself sitting up in bed through the nignt, trying the steam-gauges.—— I was told to look after the steam engine, that is, to make sure that there was the right amount of water in the boiler and that the engine was running normally to drive the machines. If I made amistake, the boiler might explode and the force of the explosion would destroy the factory. The responsibility was oo great. I couldn't sleep properly at night and would often sit up in my sleep trying the steam-gauges. 我要使锅炉内的水位保持正常,还要看管发动机,责任重大;我要是出点差错,整个工厂就有被爆飞的危险;这两件事给我的压力太大了。我经常夜间从睡梦中醒来,发现自己坐在床上做调试蒸汽压力表的动作。(作者由于精神紧张,夜里常常做噩梦,在梦里调试蒸汽压力表,经常突然醒来,从床上坐起来。)这也是个长句,有49个词,由两个并列句组成,第一个并列句的主语是两个并列的名词短语:1) the responsibility of……,2) the danger of……,第二个并列句有两个并列的谓语动词(词组):1) awoke,2) found……,其中分词短语sitting……是宾语myself的补语,trying……是状语,修饰sitting up in bed through the night.

  responsibility of……的责任

  eg:The responsibility of supporting a large family kept him working from day to night.

  养家糊口的责任使他从白到晚地忙碌着。

  eg:The responsibility of protecting the benefits of the people makes the police always maitaining sharp vigilance.

  保护人民利益的责任使警察总是保持高度警惕。

  strain: a severe demand on mental or physical strength, resources, abilities,etc. 压力

  eg:the stresses and strains of modern life

  现代生活的压力

  eg:under great strain

  在很大压力之下

  sit up:stay up熬夜,不睡觉

  eg:He often sits up late to play computer games.

  他经常熬夜打游戏。

  22. No, no! Evetything must be bright to them. 只能让他们知道好的一面。 I never told my family about the strain I had. I only wanted them to know that everything was all right.

  Bright美好的,光明的

  eg:We have a bright future.

  我们都有着美好的未来。

  23. This was a point of honor, for every member of the family was working hard, and we were telling each other only the bright things. 这是我应该做的事,因为家里每个人都在拼命干活,我们相互都是报喜不报忧。

  a point/ matter / question of honor: something you feel you must do because of your moral principles原则问题

  eg:It was a point of honour with the washwoman to return the wash to its rightful owner.

  对那位洗衣妇来说把所洗的衣物归还给原主是个信誉问题。

  24.Besides, no man would complainand give up-

  he would die first. 并且家里每个成员宁愿死也不会去抱怨,去放弃。 Every member of the family would rather die than complain and give up.

  complain(of, about) 抱怨

  The people in that country are always complaining about high prices.

  he would die first 虚拟语气,省略了条件句if he complained and gave up

  25 And could I complain? 这是个修辞性疑问句,意思是:“我当然不能怨天尤人。”

  This is a rhetorical(修辞性)

  question meaning: Surely I couldn't complain.

  A rhetorical question is one you ask as a way of making a statement, without expecting an answer.

  Aren't the flowers beautiful?这些花多漂亮!

  26. My kind employer soonrelieved me of the strain, for he needed someone tomake outbills and keep his accounts, and finding that I could write a plain schoolboy handand could add uphe made me his only clerk. Soon my boss found that I could write well enough to make out bills and keep his acounts. As he needed someone to do this, he kindly made me the only clerk in the factory. This freed me from the terrible strain of running the steam engine. 我那好心的老板很快就解除了我的压力,他需要有个人开帐单、记帐,他看我还能写出小学生水平的字,还会做加法,就叫我当了他惟一的职员。

  relieve sb. of: 免除某人的……(负担、职位等)

  eg:The medicine will relieve you of the pain.

  这药会减轻你的疼痛。

  eg:Let me relieve you of this heavy box.

  让我来帮你拿这个沉重的盒子。

  eg:The university assigned a part-time secretary to relieve Professor Smith's assistant of some of his work.

  学校分派一个兼职秘书,来减轻史密斯教授助手的工作。

  make out: to write a cheque, bill, etc.开(支票、帐单等)。

  eg:The old man made out a cheque for ten thousand pounds as a wedding present for Hughie and Laura.

  那老人开出了一万英镑的支票作为送给休吉和劳拉的结婚礼物。

  schoolboy hand: the clear rounded writing that was taught in school (old use) writing

  add (sth.) up: 把……加起来

  eg:Add all the items up and see how much we have to pay.

  你把所有的项目都加起来,看我们要付多少钱。

  eg:It turned out that the old man couldn't add up.

  原来那位老人不会算加法。

  made me his only clerk:让我成为他惟一的职员。

  27. You know how peoplegrumble aboutpoverty as a great evil, and it seems to be accepted that if people had only plenty ofmoney and were rich, they would be happy and more useful, and get more out oflife.—— Many people consider poverty as something bad and complain about it. People seem to believe that money could make them happy and more useful and able to enjoy life more. 大家都知道人们总是把贫困说成是一大罪恶,好像觉得谁要是许多钱,谁要是富有,谁就会更幸福、更有作为,谁就能享受更多的生活乐趣。注意第二个并列句的结构:it是形式上的主语,代表主语从句。that if people……get more out of life.only修饰had plenty of money and rich.

  grumble about: to keep complaining about

  eg:They have been grumbling about their teacher for giving them so much homework.

  他们老是抱怨老师给他们留的作业太多。

  plenty of许多

  get sth. out of sth.:从……中得到(乐趣、满足等)

  eg:She got a lot out of reading.

  读书使她学到不少东西。

  eg:I don't understand what you've got out of this trash.

  我真不从那些乱七八糟的作品中能得到什么。

  eg:He seems to have got a lot out of the course.

  他好像从那门课学到不少东西。

  注意对卡耐基的这句话我们要以进行分析。我们一方面不认为有钱就幸福,但贫困不是件好事。

  28.As a rule ,there is more genuine satisfaction from life in the humble cottages of the poor than in the palaces of the rich.—— Generally speaking, the poor are genuinely happier than the rich. 一般说来,穷人简陋小屋里的生活比富人豪华宅邸里的生活更温馨。

  as a rule:通常

  eg:As a rule, there is much more rainfall in the south than in the north.

  通常南方的降雨量比北方大许多。

  eg:As a rule, children wear new clothes during the Spring Festivals.

  通常孩子们在过春节要穿新衣服。

  eg:As a rule, northerners are taller than southerners.

  一般说来,北方人要比南方人高大。

  eg:As a rule, the new academic year begins on September 1.

  新学年通常9月1日开始。

  29.I always pity the sons and daughters of rich men, who are attended by servants, and have a governesseven at a later age.—— They do not know what they have missed. I always feel sorry for children of the rich who have servants to look after them, and have a governess even when they are teenagers. They do not realize that they have missed what children need most-their parents' loving care. 我总是可怜那些有仆人伺候、很大了还有家庭教师的富人子女。

  governess指住在主人家而负责照看主人幼小子女并教他们一些基本知识的女子。

  30.For the poor boy who hasin his fatherhis constant companion, tutor, and model, and in his mother his nurse, teacher, guardian angel, saint, all in one,has a richer, more precious fortune in life than any rich man's son, and compared with which all other fortunes count for little. 因为对于穷人的孩子来说,父亲无时无刻都是他的伙伴、导师和榜样,母亲则集护士、老师、保护神、他所信奉的圣人于一身;这样,比起富人的孩子,他拥有生活中一笔更大、更宝贵的财富;与这一财富之相比,其他任何财富就是微不足道的了。这个长句有51个词,结构比较复杂。全句由连接词for引出,解释上句。句子的主语和宾语各跟一定语从句。在修饰主语the poor boy的定语从句who has……all in one中,动词has有两长串宾语,动词与宾语之间插入了两个介词短语in his father和in his mother.全句的谓语动词是has,其宾语是a richer, more precious fortune in life than any rich man's son.在修饰它的定语从句compared with which all other fortunes count for little中,主语是all other fortunes,谓语是count for little,分词短语compared with which作状语,关系代词which代表a rich, more precious fortune.

  in sb.: 用来表示某人的特征

  eg:We've all found a good friend in Xiao Liu.

  我们都觉得小刘对人很友好。

  eg:We have a good center forward in Xiao Wang.

  小王是我们很棒的中锋。

  all in one:多位一体,联合体,合为一体

  eg:To me, he is brother, friend and guardian all in one.

  对我来说,他集兄长、朋友和监护人于一身。

  eg:In those days ,that cave dwelling served as a study, a clinic and conference room all in one.

  在那个年代,这个窑洞既当书房,又当医务室,又当会议室。

  compared with

  eg:Compared with Shanghai, Beijing has a larger size of landarea but a less population.

  与上海相比,北京土地面积稍大,而人口较少。

  count for much / little: of much / little value or importance重要/不重要

  eg:Empty promises count for little.

  空洞的承诺一文不值。

  eg:Do diplomas count for anything on the job market?

  文凭对找工作重要吗?

  31. It is because I know how sweet and happy and pure the home of honest poverty is, how free it is from perplexing care, from social envy and emulations, how loving and how united its members may be in the common interest ofsupporting the family that I sympathize with the rich man's boy and congratulate the poor man's boy.我亲身体验过正直贫困家庭里的那种温馨、美满和纯真,这样的家庭无暇为聊的事而操心,不受他人的嫉妒,不与他人争斗,为了养家糊口这个共同目标,家里的人互相爱护,团结一致。正是由于这个原因我对富人家的孩子深表同情,而对穷人家的孩子表示祝贺。

  此句用it is…… that……强调原因,整个原因状语从句是强调部分;句子的主要部分是I sympathize……the poor man's boy.

  eg:It is because he didn't turn off the stove that caused the fire.

  正是因为他没关煤气炉子导致了这场火灾。

  eg:It is because of his ignorance that led him to prison.

  正是因为他的无知使他走上了犯罪。

  free from:无……的,摆脱了……的

  eg:Some handicapped are free from taxation.

  一些残疾人免征税。

  eg:He wants to live in a small town free from noise pollution.

  他想住在一个没有噪音污染的小镇。

  eg:Now that he's retired he's free from all responsibilities.

  他现在已经退休了,无官一身轻。

  in the interest of: in order to achieve the result or maintain a situation

  eg:All the people should work together in the interest of world peace.

  大家都应为世界和平努力工作。

  sympathize with (sb. / sth.):同情;支持

  eg:I must tell you how much we sympathize with you on your loss.

  我要告诉你对于你的损失我们对你深表同情。

  eg:We always sympathize with just causes.

  我们一贯支持正义的事业。

  32 .it is for these reasonsthat fromhe ranks of the poor so many strong, eminent, self-reliant men have always sprungand always must spring.—— ……that is why poor families have produced and will continue to prodece so many outstanding people. 正是由于这些原因,穷人的队伍中已经不断涌现出,而且一定还会不断涌现出众多坚强、出众,依赖自己能力的杰出人才。

  此句用it is……that的形式强调for these reasons.

  spring from:出人意料地从……出现

  eg:Where did your sister spring from? I thought she was in Europe.

  你妹妹是从哪里蹦出来的?我还以为她在欧洲呢。

  33 .responsibility of read the list of the immortals who “were not born to die,” and I ofter awoke and found myself were born to the precious heritage of poverty

  如果你愿意看看那些流芳百世之人的名单,你就会发现他们当中大部分人出生于贫困这个

  宝贵的环境中。

  If you will如果你愿意

  eg:If you will listen to me, I'll give you some advice.

  如果你愿意听, 我就给 你一些建议。

  who “were not born to die”:那些不朽的人物,指那些为人类作出巨大贡献的人物。to die表示结果。

  be born to / into /of:出于……(环境、家庭等)。

  eg:He was born into a poor family.

  他出身于一个贫穷家庭。

  34.It seems nowadays, amatter of universal desire that povety should be abolished. Nowadays it seems to be a common desire to wipe out poverty. 今天人们好像普遍希望消除贫困。

  that从句是desire的同位语,具体说明其内容。

  nowadays:当前(与过去相对照)

  35.but to abolish honest, industrious self-denying poverty would be destroy the soil upon which mankind produces the virtues which enable our race to reach a still higher civilization than it now possesses. 但是消除正直、勤劳、忘我的贫困就会破坏人类产生诸多美德的土壤,而正是这引起美德能使我们人类达到比现在更高的文明程度。此句是系表结构,主语与表语都是不定式短语;主语to abolish……poverty中隐含着一个虚拟条件句(if we abolished……poverty),would be……是虚拟语气;表语to destroy……中包含两个定语从句:1) upon which mankind produces the virtues 修饰soil,2) which……it now possesses修饰virtues, than引出比较从句it now possesses,修饰higher.

  still + 比较级形容词或副词表示更加……

  eg:He has been working still harder since he went to college.

  自他上大学后,他学习更加努力了。

  eg:The began to believe him still more after then.

  自那以后,他们更加信任他了。

  在课文的最后一部分卡耐基强调贫困能激发人们上进,人物都出身贫寒,这是事实。但是我们不能反过来说越穷越革命,越穷越高尚。也有不少的杰出人物出富裕家庭,对此不可形而上学地看问题。人类毁要消除贫困,也要保持正直、勤劳等诸多美德。贫困是个很复杂的问题,有人说过贫困在诗歌里、在格言里。在牧师的讲道中是美好的,但在家里、在实际生活中却是非常糟糕的。还有人说贫困受到不再贫困的人们过分的赞美。我们不想在这里深入全面分析贫困。我们想说明的是,一个人尤其是年轻时经历一段贫困的生活不完全是一件坏事。

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