1.It is a great pleasure to tell how I served my apprenticeship as a businessman. 我很高兴谈谈我是怎样见习办实业的。
这里apprenticeship是比喻义。卡耐基在本文中所讲的并不是他怎样学习经商，而是记叙了他不满13岁时开始在棉纺厂当小工的情况。但他把他少年时期这段经历看成是他一生成功创业（包括创建慈善事业）的“学徒期”（他在第六段中把这段时间称为“我以后办实业见决期的前奏”，即my preparation of the subsequent apprentice as a businessman），因为这段艰苦生活的磨难使他终身受益。
serve： spend a period of time learning a trade/ in a post/in prison
eg： He has served in the army for three years.
eg： Franklin Roosevelt served 4 terms as U.S. President.
eg： The man is serving a three-year sentence for bribery.
eg： After serving a three-year apprenticeship in a garment factory， the young man was employed as a tailor.
2. But there seems to be a questionpreceding his： Why did I become a businessman？
precede： （formal） to come or go before sb. /sth. in time，order， position， etc； to happen before sth.
eg： A loud roar preceded the earthquake.
eg： In the preceding lecture we dealt with the development of nuclear technology.
3. I am sure that I should never have selected a business career if I had been permitted to choose. 我相信要是我有选择的余地，我不会选择经商的生涯。
if I had （此句包含一虚拟条件句）
eg：If I had been admitted by Peking University， I should have found a better major.
4. The eldestson of parents who were themselves poor， I had， fortunately， to begin to perform some useful work in the world while still very young in order to earn an living and therefore came to understand even early boyhood that my duty was to asistmy parents and become， as soon as possible， a breadwinner in the family.作为穷人家里的长子，我有幸为了谋生不得不很小就出外干活，因而在孩童时期就懂得了我的责任是协助父母养家，尽快成为家里挣钱的人。 这是个包含60个词、三个从句、结构复杂的句子。句子的主干是主语 + 由and连接的两个并列谓语：1）had to begin to perform some useful work……，2）came to understand……。 the eldest son of parents是主语的补足语；who were themselves poor是定语从句，修饰parents；fortunately（副词），in the world（介词短语），while still very young（ = while I was still very young省略形式的时间从句），in order to earn a living（不定式短语）都是状语是，修饰第一个谓语动词had to begin to perform.在第二个谓语动词之后，in early boyhood是它的时间状语，以下是一个系表结构的宾语从句，其中my duty是主语，表语是两个并列的不定式短语to assist my parents和（to）become a breadwinner， as soon as possible和in the family都是become a breadwinner的状语。 注意fortunately一词前后各有一个逗号插入had to begin 之间，使其醒目，作者强调小小出外干活其实是件“幸运”的事。
earn a living： make a living谋生
eg： He began to earn a living by himself when he was over ten years old.
eg： This academic year， Xiao Li is assisting Professor Chen in Modern British History.
eg： Xiao Li helped Professor Chen to carry those books to his office.
eg：He is the only breadwinner of the five-people family.
5.What I could get to do， not what I desired， was the question. I was not in a position to choose a job； I had to accept any job I could find. 问题是，我能找到什么活干，而不是我想干什么活。（意思是因为人小，不易找到工作，不是人选工作，而是有什么就干什么。）
更常用的形式是：The question is = The problem is，问题是……，
eg：The problem is how to find a way through out the forest.
eg：The question is whether he is competent for the job not whether he will accept the job.
eg：The question is whether he would like me to assist him， not whether I'm ready to so.
6. He owned no fewer than four handlooms and employed apprentices. 他有四台之多的手工织布机，还雇了几个学徒。
no fewer than：不少于（表示在当时的情况下，这个数目是大的）
eg：That cool summer， they sold no fewer than 70 airconditioners.
eg：At the first class of this term， there were no fewer than 20 students in his class.
7. When the steam engine came， handloom weaving naturally declined蒸汽机的出现，自然使得手工机织业衰退。 卡耐基生于工业革命（18世纪中叶-19世纪中叶）后期，此前英国人瓦特（1736——1819）发明了高效蒸汽机（1769）， 使得纺织工业的生产率大大提高 ，从而挤垮了手工纺织业。
decling： to becomesmaller， weaker or fewer下降， 削弱， 衰退，谢绝
eg：Her influence declinde greatly after she lost the election.
eg：He declined my invitation politely.
eg：a declinging birth-rate
his declinging years （i.e. those towards the end of his life）暮年
eg：a decline in population/prices/popularity 人口、价格/受欢迎的程度下降
eg：Manufacturing output is in decline. 产量在下降。
eg：The stock market is on the decline.
eg：The industry fell/went into a decline soon after the war.
eg：The number of robberies in the area is on the decline.
8. I resolved then that the wolf of poverty should be driven from our door some day.I made up my mind then that some day we would have enough money to buy food and other necessities. 我当时下定决心总有一天我们要解决温饱问题。（也可直译为：……总有一天我们要把穷困这只恶狼从家门口轰走。）
resolve （on/upon/against sth.）： to decide firmly决心
eg：I resolve never to give up.
eg：He resolved on/against （making）an early start.
eg：She resolved that she would never see him again.
此句由习语keep the wolf from the door： to have enough money to avoid hunger and need（免于穷困或挨饿）演变而来，
eg： In those days， no matter how hard the family worked， they could hardly keep the wolf from the door.
9.The question of starting for the United States was discussed from day to day in the family council.—— Every day my family discussed whether we should move to the United States.
from day to day/day by day： happening every day
eg：Things change from day to day.
10.I well remember that both father and mother thought the decision was a great sacrifice for them， nut that “it would be better for the two boys”。 我记得很清楚父亲和母亲都觉得这个决定对他们来说是很大的牺牲，但是“对两个孩子来说更为有利”。
eg：He well forgot about the afternoon meeting.
11 ……and that was how I began my preparation for subsequent apprenticeship as a businessman.—— ……working in the cotton factory as a “bobbin-boy”started me off learninghow to do business. 就这样我开始了为后来实业家见习期的前期准备工作。 that is / was how / why / what， etc.：这就是……怎样/为什么/什么等……的。 That's why I'd left my mum and dad in the North， and came to London. 这就是我告别留在北方的爸爸妈妈而只身来到伦敦的原因。
12. I cannot tell you how proud I was when I received my first week's earnings——one dollar and twenty cents. 我简直不知道怎么形容我拿到第一个星期挣的1美元20美分时的自豪劲儿。
I cannot/ can't tell you how / what， etc.： 用来表示无法表达的感情
eg：I just can't tell you how I felt when I heard the news.
eg：I can't tell you what a despicable man he was.
13.It was given to me because I had been of some use to the world. And I became a contributing member of my family！ 这钱给了我是因为我对社会有了点用处；还有，我已经能为家里作出点贡献了。（说明作者自豪的原因。）
be of use： be useful
be of + n = adj
eg：The meeting is of great importance.
eg：The painting is of great value.
14. I think this makes a man out of a boy sooner than almost anything else. 我觉得没有别的事情能使一个少年更快地成长为一个男子汉了。 The day I got my first week's earnings， I suddenly found myself grown up. I felt I was no longer a mere boy， but quite a man. I came to belicre tghat hardships can help a boy mature quickly./This perhaps is the best way to enable a boy to recognize his responsibility for his family.
makes ……out of用……制造出，造就出
eg：Ten years of hard work made an old woman out of a young girl.
15 It iseverything to feel that you are useful.—— You feel great when you are useful to your family and to society./To find yourself useful to the family and society gives yor the greatest satisfaction you can ever feel. 感到自己是个有用的人那才叫棒。
everything： the most important thing最重要的事。
eg：What he said is not everything.
eg：Money isn't everything.
16Millions of dollars have since passed through my hands. But the genuine satisfaction I hadfrim that one dollar and twenty cents outweighs any subsequent pleasure in money making.—— The satisfaction I got from the one dollar and twenty cents was far greater than any pleasure I felt in making money later on. 从那以后有成百万的美元经过我的手，可是以后赚的任何一笔钱给我带来的欢欣，都远远比不上那1美元20美分使我体验到的满足感。
since adv.： since I received that one dollar and twenty cents.
outweigh： be greater or more important than更大，更重要，又如：
eg：Many people believe that the benefits of TV far outweigh the harm it might do to children.
注：Outwin胜出， outscore 得分超过， outmatch战胜
17 itrepresented a week of very hard work——so hard that it might have been described asslavery if it hadn't been for its aim and end.这1美元20美分代表一个星期十分艰苦的劳动，要不是因为干活的目的是挣钱帮父母养家，那活真可以称为奴隶般的劳动。
eg： She will represent our class to go to the English Speech Contest.
describe sth./ sb. as：称……为……
eg：The place is described as a paradise.
eg：I wouldn't describe the meeting as successful.
aim and end：目的。这里aim与end的意思相近。英语有些约定俗成的短语由两上意思很近的词组成
eg：fair and square（公平合理）
eg： the stresses and strains紧张压力。
18. It was a terrible task for a lad of twelve to rise every morning， except Sunday， go to the factory while it was still dark， and not be released until after darkness came again in the evening， forty minutes' break only being allowed at noon.—— Working in the factory was a terrible experience for a child of twelve. I was kept there from early in the morning to late in the eveningj ，with a lunch break of only forty minutes. （In American history， child labour wasunscrupulously explited by the industrial capitalists in the early 1900's.） 除星期日之外，每天天不亮就要起床去工厂，直到晚上天黑下来才让离开，中午只给40分钟的时间休息，这对一个12岁的孩子来说，担子真是太重了。这个由45个词组成的句子主要是主语长而复杂。句子的主语是三个并列的不定式短语：1） to rise…… Sunday；2） （to）go to the factory；3） not （to） be released.两个时间从句中：1） while it was still dark修饰go to the factory；2） until after darkness came again in the evening修饰not be released.for引出三个不定式的逻辑主语a lad of twelve.It是全句的形式主语。 until after作连接词，after可有可无。 Forty minutes' break only being allowed at noon是独立主格分词结构，作状语修饰三个不定式短语，说明从早到晚只有40分钟的休息。注意作者用be released（释放出来）形容他的一天在工厂里干活，到收工时感觉就像从监狱或笼子里放出来一样。
release：to allow a person or an animal to come out of a place； to set them free释放出来
eg：He was just released from prison.
eg：He was released from hospital yesterday.
19.something within always told me that this aware last. 我的内心有一种力量时时激励我：这种情况不会，也不可能，更不应该持续下去。
eg：I firmly believe that racial discrimination should be eliminated. It can be and will be.
20 But here for a time it was even worse than in the cotton factory， because I was set to firethe boiler in the cellar and run the small steam engine which drove the machinery. 可是在这里，有一段时间情况比棉纺厂更糟，因为我既要烧地下室的锅炉，还要看管那台驱动机器的小蒸汽机。
be set to do sth.：被派做……
eg：He was set to clean the corridor.
be set to sth.还有“决意做……”的意思
eg：She was set to win the championship.