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自考综合英语(二)下册详解第十五课上

2006-12-12 13:33   【 】【我要纠错

  1.Students taking business courses are sometimes a little surprised to find that lectures on business ethics have been included in their syllabuses of study.——(Students taking business courses sometimes wonder why their courses include the topic of business ethics.) 选修商业课程的学生多少感到惊讶地发现他们的课程中,还有关于商来道德方面的讲座。

  1) be surprise/pleased/delighted/glad/happy/sorry, etc.to do sth.:对……感到惊讶/高兴/兴奋/抱歉等。

  又如: Henry's friends were delighted to hear of his success.

  亨利的朋友听说他成功了,感到很高兴。

  I'm very sorry to tell you that you didn't pass the exam.

  我很抱歉地通知你,你考试没有通过。

  2) ethics: (plural) moral principles that control or influence a person's behaviours道德

  business ethics: moral rules or principles governing the behaviour of people involved in the business of selling and buying, which include fair play in conducting business, not operating dishonest practices, such as swindles, fraud, bribery syllabus: a list of the topics, books, etc. that students should study in a particular subject at school or college. 商来道德

  2. they may be tempted to bend their principles to get what they want.为了达到目的,他们可能会做出违心的事情。

  1) be tempted to do sth.: 受到吸引、诱惑而去做……。

  又如: The boy was tempted to play the computer games after class every afternoon.

  这个男孩每天下午放学后都被吸引去打电子游戏。

  He was tempted to take a well-paid job a big company had offered.

  他很想接受一家大公司答应给的一份高收入的工作。

  Nothing would tempt her to leave her aging parents alone in the countryside.

  她决不会把年迈的双亲单独留在乡下不管。

  2) bend one's principles: do things against one's principles rather unwillingly 勉强做违背自己原则的事情。

  Sometimes people will bend their principles to meet their desire for money and power.

  有时候人们会做一些违背原则的事情以满足他们对金钱和权力的欲望。

  注意以往学过的近似的意思: There would be no powerful will bending hers.

  (那时)再也没有人把自己(的意志)强加于她了。

  3) to get what they want 是目的状语,修饰谓语may be tempted to bend their principles.

  3 . ……bribery in various forms is on the increase in many countries and, in some, this type of corruption has been a way of life for centuries.——(……bribery in its various forms is increasing/becoming more and more common in many countries; in some this type of corruption has been the typical pattern of behaviour for hundreds of years.)在许多国家,形形色色的贿赂形式在增加;在有些国家里, 这类腐败现象几个世纪以来早已成了一种事的模式。

  1) on the increase: increasing增加。

  又如: Crime is on the increase in that country.

  那个国家的犯罪现象在增加。

  The unemployment in that country is on the increase.

  那个国家的失业在增加。

  2) a /one's way of life: 一种(或某人的)生活方式,一种正常的办事模式。

  又如: Early to bed and early to rise is his way of life.

  早睡早起是他的生活方式。

  Dinning out, especially on holidays, is a way of life for the people in big cities.

  在外面餐馆吃饭,特别是在节假日,是大城市许多人们的一种生活方式。

  Spending today what you will earn tomorrow is becoming a way of life for many young city people.

  今天花将来挣的钱逐渐成为城市里许多年轻人的生活方式。

  4. suppose you were head of a major soft-drinks company and you want to break into a certain overseas market where the growth potential for your company is likely to be very great indeed.——(……you want to sell your company's soft-drinks in a foreign country for the first time because you think in future these drinks will sell very well though at the present they may not be popular.) 假设你是一家重要软饮料公司的头头,你想打入某个对公司发展前景看好的海外市场。

  1) you were是虚拟语气。If you were… head of: 头头,…之首 head of state国家元首; head of government政府首脑; head of school一校之长;head of family一家之长

  2) break into: to become involved in a new business activity打进,侵占;破门;而入;突然… Some foreign companies are trying to break into the Chinese market. 一些外国公司想方设法打进中国市场。 He lost his keys, so he had to break into his house.他丢了钥匙,因此不得不破门而入。 The thief broke into running when he saw a policeman.这个小偷一看见警察拔腿就跑。

  3) potential (for): the possibility of sth. happening or being developed or used……可能性,有潜力,存在市场 The new product has a great potential for sales (could be sold in large quantities)。 这种新产品将来可能会卖得很俏。 Seeing the potential for nuclear attacks, the family built a shelter. 这家人认识到可能会发生核攻击之事,就修建了防空洞。 They all agree that the potential for conflict between the two parties is great. 他们一致同意两个派别发生冲突的可能性相当大。

  4) be likely to do / be: will probably do / be可能会发生(或成为)。

  He is likely to be our new manager.

  他很有可能成为我们的新经理。

  5. the Minister of Trade makes it clear to you that……贸易部长明确表示……

  make……clear: 明确表明,有三种不同的形式:

  1)make sth. clear,如: I think I've made my intentions very clear.

  我想我已经把我的意图表达清楚了。

  2)make oneself clear,如: I wonder if I've made myself clear.

  不知大家是否明白了我的意思。

  如果make的宾语是that从句,则在宾语的位置用it,将从句置于clear之后。

  3)(向某人)明确表示……。

  又如: The doctor made it clear to his family that the patient didn't have more than three days to live.

  医生毫不含糊地向家属表明病人最多还能活3天。

  6. ……you are also likely to avoid “bureaucratic delays”, as he puts it.

  (If you promise to pay this official a large sum of money)……

  同时,正如他说的那样,你还可能避免“因官僚主义而延误”的情况。

  (you will probably also manage to get things done smoothly without“bureaucratic delays”, to use his own words.)

  Because of unreasonable complicated official rules and processes before you can get sth. done or approved. For example, if you want to get permission from government officials to do something, you have to go through a lot of complicated processes and are likely to wait for a long time before you get it.

  1) be likely to do / be: will probably do / be可能会发生(或成为)

  2) as he puts it 是方式状语从句。

  7. Now, the question is: do you pay up or stand by your principle?现在的问题是:你是按数付钱,还是坚持你的原则?

  1) pay up: hand money to sb.向某人交钱,一般指“支付一切欠款”,此处指“向索贿者交付他想要的数目”。

  Unless you pay up, they'll cut off your gas supply.

  你要再不支付拖欠的煤气费,他们就要停止你的煤气供应。

  2) stand by sth.: be faithful to a promise, decision, principle, etc. 遵守诺言,信守决定,坚持原则等。

  又如: Once a decision is made, you've got to stand by it.

  一旦作出了决定,就要信守决定。

  I'll stand by every word I've said no matter what happens.

  无论发生什么事,我都会遵守诺言。

  8. Some time ago the British car manufacturer, the British car manufacturer, British Leyland, was accused of operating a “slush fund” , and of other questionable practices such as paying agents and purchasers with padded commission, offering additional discounts and making payments to numbered bank accounts in Switzerland.——(The British car manufacturer was said to have used a “slush fund” and other dishonest ways of doing business. These include paying their business partners (agents or buyers) commissions of more than depositing money into numbered, i.e. secret accounts in Swiss banks.) 被指控设有一笔用来支付非法事项的款子以及搞其他不正当做法,如向代理商和买方支付高额回扣、提供附加折扣以及向瑞士银行某些具体账号存款等。

  1) Be accused of (doing)sth. 被指控

  The manager was accused of taking bribes.

  经理被指控犯有受贿罪。

  2) slush fund: a fund used to make illegal or questionable payments/a sum of money kept for illegal purposes, esp. in politics. Slush is literally melting, often dirty snow

  一笔支付非法或不正当事物的款子。

  原意是正在融化的雪,往往很脏。

  3) questionable practices: dishonest ways of doing things不正当做法

  4) agent: a person whose job is to act for, or manage the affairs of other people in business代理商

  5) commission: an amount of money that is paid to sb. for selling goods and which increases with the amount of goods回扣,佣金 padded commissions: commissions that are higher than the normal amount/rate比率超常的回扣。正常的回扣是合法的,如5%,如果回扣过高如20%就不正常,padded的愿意是“填满了……的”。

  6) discount: a reduction in the cost of goods that you offer agents or buyers折扣

  7) numbered bank account: a bank account that is given a special number and not the name of the depositor

  具体账号存款,以上所列实质都是行贿,或是变相行贿。瑞士的银行是世界范围内犯罪分子洗钱首选之地,因此瑞士银行因接纳不义之财而受到批评。

  9. The company rejected these allegations and they were later withdrawn. 这家公司驳回这些指控,后来这些指控被撤消。

  1) Reject 拒绝,抵制;驳回,否决

  The board of Directors rejected my request of quitting.

  董事会拒绝了我的辞职请求。 The court rejected her appeal.法院驳回了她的上诉。

  2)withdrawn 撤消,撤回,退出;取回,提取

  The demand was withdrawn at the meeting.

  这个要求在会议上被撤消了。

  I'm running out of money, I'll withdraw some from my bank account.

  我的钱快花完了,我要从我的银行帐户上取点钱。

  10. Who were prepared to say in private. 他们私下会这样说。

  1)be prepared to do sth.: 准备做……;愿意做……,又如: They're prepared to have a try though the chances of success are very small. 尽管成功的可能不大,他们准备试一试。

  2)in private: 私下,与之相对应的是in public(公开)。 The two drivers reached an agreement in private.这两个司机私下里达成了协议。

  11. “Look, we're in a wheeling-dealing business. ”——(“Look, in the business world, we're faced with a lot of complicated deals, so we have to use whatever means to gain profits.”/“In the business world, the competition is very fierce.”)看, 我们所干的事竞争异常激烈,往往需要不择手段。

  1)wheel and deal: (usually used in the progressive tenses wheeling and dealing) to do a lot of complicated deals in business or politics, often in a dishonest way /wheeling-dealing:(口语)在政治活动或生意中为了打垮对手而必须不择手段的。

  2)business 此处既可作“生意”解,也可作“事业”解。Go into business下海,经商; business hours营业时间; come down to business言归正传,着手做,it's none of your business不关你的事

  12. Every year we're selling more than a £ 1,000 million worth of cars abroad. If we spend a few million greasing the palms of some of the buyers, who's hurt? ——(It is worthwhile to bribe some of our buyers with a few million so as to secure contracts worth £ 1,000 million.)每年我们在海外要卖出价值10亿英镑的汽车,要是我们花上几百万贿赂买方,对我们的利益毫无损害。我们不这么做。别人也会干的。

  1) ……worth of sth.: 价值……的……,又如: ¥2,000 worth of chemical fertilizer价值2,000元人民币的化肥 $5,000 worth of books价值5,000美元的书 spend (an amount of money) doing sth.: 花……钱用来做……,又如: They spent ¥50,000 fixing their apartment. 他们花了5万元人民币修理单元住房。

  2) grease sb.'s palm: (old-fashioned, informal) to give sb. money in a secret or dishonest way in order to persuade them to do sth. for your benefit; to pay bribes ; give sb. money in order to persuade them to do something dishonest for one向某人行贿。 Cf. oil the wheels: (informal) to make things go more smoothly, esp. in business, sometimes by offering people illegal gifts or money

  3) Who's hurt?: We won't be hurt in the least.对我们来说,这只不过是小菜一碟。这是个修辞性疑问句,表示强调所说的话。 If we didn't do it……would do it注意此句包含一个虚拟条件句。

  14. It is difficult to resist the impression that bribery and other questionable payments are on the increase. Indeed, they seem to have become a fact of commercial life. ——(It is not difficult to see that bribery and other dishonest payments are becoming more and more widespread. In fact, bribery has become something we have to face and accept in business activities.)行贿和其他不正当的送钱的情况越来越多,这种印象很难磨灭。的确,这种情况好像已经成了商界无可争辩的事实。

  1) Resist 抵制 Many people couldn't resist the temptation of money and desire.许多人无法抵制金钱和权力的诱惑。

  2) on the increase

  3) a fact of life:a true thing that that cannot ignored, even if it is unpleasant.无可争辩的事实。

  15. To take just one example, the Chrysler Corporation, third largest of the U.S. motor manufacturers, disclosed that it made questionable payments of more than $ 2.5 million between 1971 and 1976.仅以美国第三汽车制造商克莱斯勒公司为例,该公司透露说从1971至1976年他们就支付了超过250万美元的不正当的款项。

  1)to take just one example: 不定式短语,在句中是独立成分,又如: To tell the truth, I don't like the idea. 说老实话,我觉得这怎么样。 To be frank, I was thirsty like everyone else. 坦白说,我和其他人一样渴。

  2)disclose 透露,揭露 He wrote a letter to the Public Security Organ to disclose the mayor's scandal of taking bribes.他写了一封信给公安部门来揭露这个市长的受贿丑闻。

  16. By making this revelation, it joined more than 300 U.S. companies that had admitted to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission that they had made dubious payments of one kind or another——bribes, facilitating payments, extra discounts, etc. ——in recent years. 透露了这一秘密之后,该公司也加入了向美国证券交易署承认近年来曾经支付过各种不正当的款项——行贿、疏通费以及附加折扣等——的三百多家公司的行列。

  1)by……, sb./sth.join……: 通过做……,加入了……的队伍。

  2)the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission:美国证券交易署。

  3)……of one kind or another: 不同类的……,不是这种就是那种的……。

  4)facilitating payments: 为了事顺利而支付的款项。

  5)extra discounts: 超额折扣。

  17. For discussion purposes, we can divide these payments into three broad categories. 为了讨论便利起见,我们把这种款项分为三大类。

  divide……into: 把(人、事或物)分为……。

  又如: In oral classes, we divide the class into two groups.

  上口语课时,我们把全班学生分成两组。

  According to their political attitude, the faculty can be divided into three categories: the radical, the conservative, and the middle-of-the-roader.

  按其政治态度,教职人员可分为三类:激进派、保守派和中间派。

  18. The first category consists of substantial payments made for political purposes or to secure major contracts.——(The first type of bribery involves large amounts of money paid for political reasons, i.e., to a candidate who is running for political office or for obtaining major contracts.)为了政治目的,或是为了获得重大项目合同而付的巨款属第一类。

  1) consist of: 由……组成。

  又如: Their diet chiefly consists of rice and vegetables.

  他们日常的主要食物是大米和蔬菜。

  The delegation consists of students from all corners of the country.

  代表团由业自全国各地的学生组成。

  2) made for……major contracts 是分词短语,作定语修饰substantial payments,介词短语for political purposes和不定式短语to secure major contracts都是目的状语,修饰made.

  19. For example, the U.S. conglomerate ITT (International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation) offered a large sum of money in support of a U.S. presidential candidate at a time when it was under investigation for possible violation of the U.S. anti-trust law. ——(The U.S. conglomerate ITT, for example, once gave a U.S. presidential candidate a lot of money when it was in danger of being prosecuted for breaking the U.S. anti-trust law.) 例如,在调查美国ITT(国际电话电报公司)是否违反美国反托拉斯法案之际,该集团为支持一位美国总统候选人提供了大量资金。

  1) conglomerate: a large corporation formed by different firms/companies joining together集团

  2) in support of sb./sth.: supporting/in favour of sb./sth.支持,赞成。

  又如: He voted in support of an anti-dumping bill.

  他对一项反倾销法案投了赞成票。

  She spoke in support of anti-smuggling measures.

  她发言支持反走私措施。

  3) at a time when: 正当……的时刻。

  又如: She returned at a time when she thought she could best serve her country.

  她在她认为能最好为自己国家服务之际回来了。

  How can we call ourselves his friends if we stand by at a time when he desperately needs help?

  在他急需帮助之际,我们却袖手旁观,这够朋友吗?

  4) under investigation: being investigated在调查之中, 正受到调查。此处under表示“处于某种状况”,常见的短语有: (buildings) under repair/construction(建筑物)正在修复或施工之中 (matters) under consideration/discussion(事情或事件)正在考虑或讨论之中

  The case is still under investigation.

  案件仍在调查之中。

  5)anti-trust law: an American law intended to prevent companies form monopolizing certain products and unfairly controlling prices反托拉斯法

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