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2008/01/07    来源:   字体:   打印



  制成品 manufactured goods 资本货物 capital goods 国际收支 balance of payments 经常项目 current account 有形贸易项目 visible trade account 无形贸易项目 invisible trade account 贸易顺差 trade surplus 贸易逆差 trade deficit

  易货贸易 barter 补偿贸易 compensation trade 反向贸易 counter-trade 组装生产 assembly manufacturing 工商统一税 industrial and commercial consolidated tax 合资企业 joint venture 延期付款 deferred payment 买方信贷 buyer credit 卖方信贷 supplier credit 软贷款 (低息贷款) soft loan 最惠国待遇 MFN treatment (Most Favored nation treatment)

  永久性正常贸易关系 PNTR(Permanent Normal Trading Relations) 国民收入 NI(National Income) 国民生产总值 GNP(Gross National Product) 国内生产总值 GDP(Gross Domestic Product) 国际复兴和开发银行 IBRD(International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) 国际开发协会 IDA(International Development Association) 国际金融公司 IFC(International Finance Comporation) 经济合作和发展组织 OECD(Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)

  国际清算银行 BIS(Bank for International Settlement) 欧洲经济共同体 EEC(European Economic Community) 欧洲联盟 EU(European Union) 外商直接投资 FDI(Foreign Direct Investment)


  substantially : dramatically, significantly, considerably

  subsequently: afterwards

  exacerbate: deteriorate, worsen; aggravate; make worse

  withdraw: cancellation

  theme: principle

  in return for: in exchange for

  disrupt: interrupt

  destined: designed

  pronounced: marked

  in the wake of: following; after with

  undue: too much; unbearable

  reverse: change to the opposite

  buoyant: brisk

  outcome: result

  boost: stimulate; promote; develop

  recover: rebound

  facilitate: make easy

  run-down: reduction

  mount exhibitions: hold exhibitions

  insofar as: to the extent

  bottlenecks: obstacles


  1. During the 1950s China exported agricultural products to the USSR and East European countries in return for manufactured goods and the capital equipment required for the country‘s industrialization programme which placed emphasis on the development of heavy industry.


  2. The growth of foreign trade was distrupted again during the Cultural Revolution when agricultural and industrial production fell sharply and transportation constraints became more serious.


  3. Exports grew much faster than imports during this period not only because of the strong emphasis placed on exporting by China‘s economic planners, but also because a number of industrial projects were postponed in 1979. Official recognition that foreign technology could play a major role in modernizing the Chinese economy has caused imports to rise by more than 50 per cent in 1978, placing undue strain on the national economy.


  4. Chinese official stress the importance of introducing advanced technology to domestic industry, but the need is for technology of varying degrees of sophistication,not necessarily for advanced technology as that term is understood in the West.


  5. There are no official statistics covering the invisible account of the balance of payments,but the size of the visible trade surplus during 1981-1983 and a pronounced increase in earnings from tourism suggest that the current account has been in surplus over the past few years.


  6. Goods are produced according to a sample provided by the customer,while strong encouragement is given to compensation trade whereby a foreign seller supplies raw materials and equipment and receives manufactured goods, produced by the equipment provided,in return .Compensation trade differs from barter or counter-trade insofar as there is a direct link between the equipment supplied from abroad and the manufactured product. Assembly manufacturing began in 1978 and particular forms of foreign trade are eligible for exemption from customs duties and taxation.


  7. The debt problems confronting a number of developing countries have reinforced China‘s determination to introduce foreign technology by means of direct investment and concessionary finance rather than by raising substantial sums of money on the international capital markets. The authorities do not consider it appropriate to incur large amounts of external debt until a number of practical bottlenecks in the economy, such as an inadequate transport network and energy constraints, have been tackled.


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