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自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(87)

2007-09-07 09:21   【 】【我要纠错

  (4)本句用了倒装语序,正常语序为A number of further facts may be added to these now familiar facts, some of them only recently recognized.这里使用倒装语序是为了与上文连贯。some of them only recently recognized 是过去分词的独立结构,作伴随状语。

  (5)该句中that 引导同位语从句修饰paradox,

  有这样一个似非而是的论点:造成老年人比率高的真正原因是出生人数而不是死亡人数。

  (6)本句是一句含有多个从句的长句,该句中that 引导同位语从句修饰 principle ,同位语从句的主语是There is the economic principle ,谓语是 is more advantageous ,破折号之间的部分是对于the dependency ratio 的解释。在这个破折号中的成分中含有3个从句,to which 引导一个定语从句修饰前面的名词degree, 后面的两个who 引导的从句分别修饰前面的代词those . 句中同位语从句的主要结构为“the dependency ration… is more advantageous in …。 than in…。” .句末的because 引导的是一个原因状语从句,修饰前面的主句。

  句意为:有这样一条经济原则:抚养率——即不能赚钱养活自己的人对能挣钱养家的人的依赖程度——在我们这样老龄化社会里比发展中世界的较年轻社会里要更有利,因为大量需要抚养的孩子与大批不能工作的老年人相比,更是一个负担。

  If “revolution” is a rapid resettlement of the social structure, and if the age composition of the society counts as a very important aspect of that social structure, then there has been a social revolution in European and particularly Western European society within the lifetime of everyone over 50.(7)Taken together, these things have implications which are only beginning to be acknowledged.(8)These facts and circumstances were well to the fore earlier this year at a world gathering about aging as a challenge to science and to policy, held at Vichy in France.(9)

  (7)句,该句是由两个有if 引导的条件从句加上一个主句。

  (8)句中taken together 是一个过去分词短语作状语;which 引导一个定语从句,修饰前面的名词implications.

  (9)句中about aging as a challenge to science and to policy,和 held at Vichy in France.都是

  a world gathering (世界大会)的后置定语,前者说明会议的主题(老龄化对科学与政策的挑战),后者说明会议的举办地点(法国维希)。

  There is often resistance to the idea that it is because the birthrate fell earlier in Western and Northwestern Europe than elsewhere, rather than because of any change in the death rate, that we have grown so old.(10)But this is what elementary demography makes clear. Long life is altering our society, of course, but in experiential terms. We have among us a very much greater experience of continued living than any society that has ever preceded us anywhere, and this will continue.(11)But too much of that lengthened experience, even in the wealthy West, will be experience of poverty and neglect, unless we do something about it.

  (10)句的主干结构是 “ There is often resistance to the idea…。” 其中idea有一个that 引导的同位语从句,而同位语从句本身又是一个强调句,即it is …。that … 结构,被强调的是一个原因状语从句。注意此句被强调部分较长。

  (11)句中among us 作谓语动词have 的状语,正常的语序为We have a very much greater

  experience of continued living among us than any society that has ever preceded us anywhere,

  and this will continue. 由于宾语过长,所以将状语among us 提前。

  译文为: 我们比以前任何一个社会更经历着长寿,这种情况还将继续下去。

  If you are now in your thirties, you ought to be aware that you can expect to live nearly one third of the rest of your life after the age of 60. The older you are now,of course, the greater this proportion will be, and greater still if you are a woman. Expectation of life is a slippery figure, very easy to get wrong at the highest ages. At Vichy the demographers were telling each other that their estimates of how many old there would be and how long they will live in countries like England and Wales are due for revision upwards.(12)

  (12)At Vichy 作地点状语;从that 到句子结束是一个宾语从句,作谓语动词tell的宾语;在宾语从句中还含有两句how 引导的宾语从句, “ how many old there would be” 和 “ how long they will live in countries like England and Wales”分别作介词of 的宾语。

  due :应付的

  dur for: Our salary scales are due for revision.

  People are now very happy on April 15, when the federal taxes are due.

  Text B Children‘s Self-esteem

  I.New Words

  title: esteem=respect 自尊心,尊敬

  1.esteem vt./n. 尊敬,尊重

  2.cope vi. 对付,妥善处理(with)

  3.parenting n. 父母对孩子的养育

  4.tone n. 1.音调,音色;2.腔调,语气;3.[语]声调,语调

  5.infant n. 婴儿,幼儿;a.婴儿的,幼儿的

  6.lovable a. 可爱的,讨人喜欢的

  7.manageable a. 易管理的

  8.unlovable a. 不可爱的;不讨人喜爱的

  9.worthless a. 1.无价值的,无用的;2.不足道的,不可取的

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