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自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(5)

2007-09-04 15:36   【 】【我要纠错

  6.sometimes … at other times 有时… ,而有时则 …

  a poor decision 一个不良决策

  第二部分

  Para.3

  Choice is the opportunity to select among alternatives. If there is no choice, there is no decision to be made. Decision making is the process of choosing, and many decisions have a broad range of choice. For example, a student may be able to choose among a number of different courses in order to implement the decision to obtain a college degree. For managers, every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like. These constraints exist at all levels of the organization.

  7.“选择”三个词的区别:

  alternative adj.两者或多于两者选一个,供选择的,n.替代物

  choice 选自己喜欢的,挑出,选出

  select 选出最好的,筛选、精选

  8.由 if 引导的条件状语从句, 主句中的不定式被动态 to be made作定语, 修饰decision

  9.range n. 范围 a broad range of choice 一个很广的选择范围

  10.For managers, every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like.

  本句中based on 是一个过去分词作定语修饰constraints.

  be based on 表示“建立在…基础上

  例:The book is based on a true story. 这本书是以一个真实的故事为依据的。

  He was the first to draw a map that was based on all available knowledge, rather than guess or imagination. 他第一个画出以当时所有的知识为基础的地图,而不是基于猜测和想象。

  and the like 意思是“等等 (之类的东西)”。

  例:He studied painting, music, English and the like. 他学习了绘画、音乐、英语等等。

  11.at all levels “在各个层次”

  Para.4

  Alternatives are the possible courses of action from which choices can be made. If there are no alternatives, there is no choice and, therefore, no decision. If no alternatives are seen, often it means that a thorough job of examining the problems has not been done. For example, managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion; this is their way of simplifying complex problems. But the tendency to simplify blinds them to other alternatives.

  12.from which 引导定语从句,修饰 courses of action 行动方针

  13.a thorough job of examining 一个彻底的考察工作

  a thorough job是主语,of examining the problems 修饰job,has not been done是句子的谓语。

  thorough a. 彻底的

  through prep. 通过,穿过

  though conj. 虽然,尽管 ( 同although )

  thought n. 思想

  14.For example, managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion :

  either /or 意思是“非此即彼;二者择一”。

  例:We fight, or we don't —— it's an either/or decision.

  我们战斗或不战斗-这是二者择一的决定。

  第三部分

  Para.5

  At the managerial level, decision making includes limiting alternatives as well as identifying them, and the range is from highly limited to practically unlimited.

  15.At the managerial level, decision making includes limiting alternatives as well as identifying them, and the range is from highly limited to practically unlimited.

  在as well as 结构中,强调前者 limiting alternatives ,不强调后者

  译为:作决策包括限定选择和识别选择,或者译成:不仅包括识别选择还要包括限定选择(除了包括识别选择外还有限定选择)

  practically ad. 实际上,事实上(在口语中译为,几乎,简直)在本文中是几乎的意思。例如:几乎是不可能practically impossible

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