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自考英语语法复习资料(34)

2007-05-25 09:21   【 】【我要纠错

  9、如果名词词组的中心词是all,most,rest,some,neither,none,no等词,所指是复数意义,谓语动词用复数形式;反之用单数。如:

  Some of the pigeons have been missing. 一些鸽子已经不见了。

  Some of the ice has melted so far. 迄今已有一些冰融化掉了。

  All of the water in the area has been seriously polluted. 这地区所有的水都已受严重污染。

  All of the books have been sold out. 所有的书都已被卖完了。

  None of us have been there. 我们没人去过那里。

  None of the stolen money has been found yet. 被偷的钱至今一点也未找到。

  The rest of the students are watering trees. 其余的学生正在浇树。

  The rest of the wine has gone bad. 剩下的酒已经变质了。

  B. 由连接词连接的名词作主语

  1、用and或both…and连接并列主语,表示不同概念,谓语动词常用复数。如:

  You and he both stand up.    你和他都站了起来。

  Water and air are both important. 水和空气都很重要。

  Time and tide wait for no man. 岁月不待人。

  但并列结构充当主语表示整体概念时,即指的是同一人,同一事物或同一概念,谓语动词用单数形式,这时and后面的名词没有冠词。

  英语中并列结构表示整体概念的有:

  ⑴相关名词并列表示整体概念。如:

  iron and steel 钢铁  law and order 治安  bread and butter 黄油面包

  ⑵配套事物。如:

  a watch and chain 一块带链的表 a needle and thread针线 a coat and tie配有领带的上衣

  A knife and fork is needed for a western meal. 吃西餐时要用刀和叉。

  The cart and horse is coming.        马车来了。

  ⑶表示兼职或有多个称呼的人。如:

  the worker and poet  这位工人兼诗人

  The writer and teacher is speaking at the meeting. 这位教师兼作家正在会上发言。

  ⑷两个完全重合的概念并列。如:

  aim and end  目的         truth and honesty   真诚

  capacity and efficiency  效能    love and affection   情感

  To love and to be loved is the great happiness.      爱与被爱是幸福。

  Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit.   早睡早起是好习惯。

  2、当主语后面跟有as well as,as much as,no less than,along with,with,like,rather than,together with,but,except,besides,including,in addition to等引导的词组时,其谓语动词的单、复数按主语的单、复数而定。如:

  Your father as well as you is very kind to me. 不仅你而且你的父亲对我都非常好。

  He,like you and Xiao Li,is very clever. 他象你和小李一样非常聪明。

  Mr Robbins,together with his wife and children,is leaving London for Paris. Robbins先生明天将和妻子和孩子离开伦敦去巴黎。

  C. 代词作主语

  1、名词性物主代词作主语时,根据它所替代的是单数还是复数来确定谓语动词的单、复数。如:

  Theirs (their classroom) is a big classroom. 他们的教室是一个大教室。

  Your trousers are black and mine are brown. 你的裤子是黑色的,我的是棕色的。

  2、such,the same起指示代词作用,应根据其所指的内容来确定单、复数。如:

  Such is our plan. 这就是我们的计划。Such are my hopes. 这些就是我的愿望。

  3、关系代词which,who,that在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与其前的先行词的数保持一致。如:

  Those who want to go should sign your names here. 那些想去的人在这儿签上你们的名字。

  He is one of the students who are good at maths.  他是那些擅长数学的学生中的一位。

  He is the only one of the children who often speaks ill of others behind their backs. 他是这些孩子中唯一经常在背后讲别人坏话的人。

  4、疑问代词who,what,which作主语时,谓语动词可以根据说话人所要表达的意思决定单、复数。如:

  Who lives next door? It's Xiao Liu.

  Who live next door? It's Zhang and Liu.

  5、不定代词any,either,neither,none,all,some,more等作主语时,有以下两种情况:

  单独作主语,视其在文中的意义,动词可用单数或复数形式。例如:

  Now all has been changed. All are present at the meeting.

  either,neither单独作主语,谓语通常用单数。

  但是后接of时,若of的宾语为不可数名词,谓语动词当然用单数形式,若of的宾语为复数名词或代词时,动词可以是单数,也可以是复数,在正式文体中,单数形式的动词更为常用。如:

  Do (Does) any of them know English? 他们中有人懂英语吗?

  None of them like (likes) football. 他们中没人喜欢足球。

  D. 分数、量词作主语

  1、“分数或百分数+of+名词”构成的短语及由“a lot of,lots of,plenty of,half of,a heap of,heaps of +名词”构成的短语作主语时,谓语动词的数与短语中of后面的名词的数保持一致。如:

  More than 70 percent of the surface of ouor planet is covered by water. 我们星球的表面百分之七十多都被水覆盖着。

  One third of the students are girls in our group. 我们队三分之一的学生是女生。

  注意: a large quantity of 修饰可数名词或不可数名词,其短语作主语,谓语动词用单数,而(large) quantities of修饰可数名词或不可数名词,其短语作主语,谓语动词一般用复数。如:

  A large quantity of people is needed here.  这儿需要大批人。

  Large quantities of food have rotten away.  大量食物都已经腐烂了。

  短语in quantity,in large quanities意为“大量的”;in small quantities意为“少量的”。

  2、a great deal of/ a large amount of修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式,但large amounts of 修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词常用复数形式。如:

  A great deal of rice was taken from the country to the city by railway. 很多大米通过铁路从乡下运往城市。

  Large amounts of money were spent on the bridge.  许多前都花在这座桥的建设上了。

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