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自考“英语(一)”笔记(85)

2007-04-11 14:03   【 】【我要纠错

  Text A    American men don't cry

  本课主要语言点

  1.Weakness n. 软弱,薄弱;缺点,弱点;嗜好。

  Weakness 是形容词weak的名词形式。-ness这个名词后缀常用在形容词后面,构成名词。如:happiness,carelessness,sadness,uselessness等等。

  1) He was too weak to walk any further.(他没有力气再往前走了。)

  2) She was born with weak eyesight.(她天生视力差。)

  3) He is weak in maths.(他不擅常数学。)

  4) Weak leaders won't be able to cope with this situation.(软弱无力的领导人无法应付这一局面。)

  5) She recovered from her weakness after two week's rest.(经过两周的休息,她虚弱的身体得到了恢复。)

  6) His recovered from pressure would give his opponent some chance.

  (他在压力之下的软弱会给他的对手带来机会。)

  7) They saw a weakness in Robert's method.(他们在罗伯特的方法中看到了弱点。)

  8) He has a weakness for money.(他爱钱如命。)

  2. Childishness n. 幼稚

  同上一个单词一样,-ness这个名词后缀用在爱形容词后面,构成名词。

  I was annoyed at the childishness of her remark.(她孩子气的话语令我恼火。)

  请注意 childish 和childlike的异同之处:

  “childish” is used to describe a person who behaves in an immature way, or to describe

  something that is typical of a child. (childish用来形容某个行为不成熟的人或用来形容某件事似孩子般的。)

  “childlike” is used to describe a person who is like a child in appearance, character, or

  behavior. (childlike用来形容一个人的外貌、性格或举止像个孩子,天真,单纯。)

  1) She is a nice person but a bit too childish.(她人不错,只是太幼稚了一点。)

  2) She has a childish face.(她有张孩子气的脸。)

  3) The young woman has a childlike figure.(那个年轻妇人有着孩子般的体型。)

  4) It is childish to go into danger for nothing.(无谓地陷入危险是幼稚的行为。)

  3. dependence n. 依靠,依赖;信赖;隶属。

  -ence是常用的名词后缀,如:absence,confidence,innocence 等等。如果我们把后缀-ence变换成-ent,dependent则是个形容词;如果在dependence或dependent前面加上前缀in-,则表示相反意义,“独立”、“独立的”。

  1) All living thing depend on sunlight, air and water.(一切生命依赖于阳光、空气和水。)

  2) He doesn't want to live in dependence on his parents any longer.(他不想再依靠父母生活。)

  3) The old man s very dependent on his son.(那位老人什么都依赖他儿子。)

  4) India got its independence in 1946.(印度于1946年获得独立。)

  5) He is independent of his parents.(他不依赖父母而自立。)

  4. disapprove v. 不赞成。

  我们在第二单元中学习过approve,在第二十三单元中学习过approval.approve是disapprove的反义词,approval则是disapproval的反义词。

  disapprove和approve一样可以用作及物动词和不及物动词。用作不及物动词时,在其后需加介词of,然后才可以接宾语。如:

  1) He disapproved the arrangement for the wedding.(她不赞成婚事的安排。)

  2) Her parents disapproved her marriage to Jimmy.(父母不同意她与吉米的婚事。)

  3) The teacher disapproved of her students going camping.(老师不反对她的学生们去露营。)

  4)He disapproved of my method.(他反对我的方法。)

  5. discourage v. 使泄气,使沮丧;阻拦。

  上个单词disapprove中的dis-前缀表示“not”,discourage中的前缀dis-则表示“deprive of”。discourage的反义词是encourage.courage是名词,意思是“勇气”。

  1) He didn't have the courage to tell her the truth. (他没有勇气对她说实话。)

  2) We have to face the difficulties with courage. (我们得勇敢地面对困难。)

  3) Don't be discouraged by setbacks.(别因挫折而泄气。)

  4) The heavy rain discouraged us from going out.(大雨使我们无法出去。)

  5) Her husband encouraged her to complete her study.(她丈夫鼓励她完成学业。)

  6) They felt encouraged by their achievements.(他们因自己取得的成就而感到鼓舞。)

  7) He finished encouraged by their achievements.(尽管有许多令人灰心的挫折,他仍然完成了工作。)

  8) What he said just now is discouraging.(他刚才说的话令人泄气。)

  9) Children need more encouragement.(孩子需要更多的鼓励。)

  10) The results are encouraging.(结果令人鼓舞。)

  6. permissible adj. 容许的,准许的。

  permissible是permission的形容词形式,而permission是permit的名词形式。

  1)Smoking is not obtain permitted in public places.(不允许在公共场所抽烟。)

  2)Mother would not permit her to watch TV for too long.(妈妈不允许她看电视时间过长。)

  3)He could not obtain permission from the authorities.(他无法获得官方的许可。)

  4)You can't do it without permission.(没有得到许可,你不能做这件事。)

  5)It was permissible to ask a question.(提一个问题是准许的。)

  6)In many cases, it is permissible for a child to cry.(在许多情况下,孩子是准许哭的。)

  7. excusable adj. 可原谅地,可辩解的。

  同上一个单词中的后缀-ible一样,-able也是一个常用的形容词后缀。如:desirable(值得要的),irritable(易怒的),reasonable(合理的),noticeable(明显的)。

  excuse可以做名词用,意思是“借口,理由”,也可以一做动词哟功能,意思是“原谅,宽恕”或“免除”。

  1) You don't have to make any excuse.(你不用编任何借口。)

  2) There is no excuse for not giving them a chance.(没有理由不给他们机会。)

  3) Please excuse my carelessness.(请原谅我的粗心。)

  4) I could never excuse him for being so rude.(我永远也不会原谅他如此无礼。)

  5) She was excused from long hours' of practice.(她可以免除长时间的练习。)

  6) This is an excusable mistake.(这是个可原谅的错误。)

  7) In women, crying is excusable, but in men, crying is a mark of weakness.

  (女人哭是可以原谅的,而男人哭则是软弱的标志。)

  8. capacity n. 容量;能力。

  1) The theatre has a seating capacity of 3000.(这个剧院能容纳3000名观众。)

  2) The theatre was filled to capacity.(剧院里座无虚席。)

  3) The book is beyond the capacity of young readers.(这本书超出了少年读者的理解力。)

  4) The storage vessel has a capacity of 10,000 liters.(这个存储器的容积是1万升。)

  5) It is necessary to develop students' capacity for reasoning. (培养学生的推理能力很有必要。)

  9. incapacity n. 无能力,不能。

  1) He lived from hand to mouth because of his incapacity to work.(由于无力工作,他勉强对付着过日子。)

  2) Growing incapacity is coming with increasing age.(能力的丧失会随着年龄的增长而加剧。)

  10. organism n. 生物体,有机体。

  1) These creatures are descended from simpler organisms.(这些生物源于更低等的生物体。)

  2) Factories and cities are more complex organisms self-sufficient villages.

  (工厂和城市是比自给自足的村庄更复杂的机体。)

  11. restore v. 使恢复,使回复。

  1) The old building was restored by the people of the city.(城里的老百姓修复了那座古建筑。)

  2) The doctor restored him to health.(医生使他恢复了健康。)

  3) The relations between the two countries were restored to normal.(两国之间的关系恢复正常了。)

  4) The police restored a lost child to the parents.(警察把迷失的孩子交还其父母。)

  5) He was restored to his post after he had been proved innocent.(被证明清白后,他复了职。)

  12. dynamic adj. 动力的,动态的;有生气的,有力的。

  1) He gradually became accustomed to living in this dynamic city.(他渐渐习惯生活在这座生气勃勃的城市里。)

  2) A dynamic leadership is indispensable to the successful completion of this project.

  (这项工程的成功完成离不开强有力的领导。)

  3) Words like “fly” and “run” are dynamic verbs.(像“飞”和“跑”这样的词是动态动词。)

  13. stability n. 稳定,稳定性;坚定,恒心。

  stability 是stable的名词形式,而stabilize则是动词。

  1) The new administration had to try hard to regain a stable economy and a stable currency.

  (新政府努力恢复经济稳定和通货稳定。)

  2) The stable political environment helped to bring about the economic prosperity.

  (政治环境的稳定有助于经济繁荣的产生。)

  3)The world needs stable peace.(世界需要持久的和平。)

  4)Internal arguments had threatened the stability of the government.(内部的争执已经威胁政府的稳定。

  5) The patient's condition began to stabilize.(病人的病情开始稳定。)

  6) They are taking measures to stabilize prices.(他们正在采取措稳定物价。)

  14.interference n. 干涉,干预;妨碍。

  在第十八单元中我们已经学过了动词interfere, interference是 interfere的名词形式。

  1)I couldn't hear the program because there was too much interference.(我听不清节目,因为干扰太大。)

  2)He wanted to do it on his own without any outside interference.(他想自己独立做那件事,不受任何外界干扰。)

  3)They didn't expect any interference from their parents.(他们没有料到会有来自父母的干预。)

  4)No country has the right to interfere in another country's internal affairs.(任何国家都无权干涉别国内政。)

  5)Misty weather interfered with the contact.(雾天妨碍联络。)

  15.damage n. 损害,损失;赔偿金。    v. 损伤,毁坏。

  1)Fortunately, the damage to the boat was not too serious.(所幸的是船的损坏不太严重。)

  2)I don't want to see the rumor do any damage to your reputation.(我不想看到这个谣传有害你的名誉。)

  3)He got $500 damages for the injury he suffered in the accident.(他因事故受伤而获得500美元赔偿金。)

  4)The buildings were seriously damaged by the earthquake.(地震使房屋受到严重毁坏。)

  5)Don't damage other people’s interests.(不要损害他人利益。)

  16.maintenance n. 维持,保持;维修;维护;抚养费。

  在第二十二单元中,我们已经学过了动词maintain,maintenance是maintain的名词形式。

  1)He spent a lot on the maintenance of his car.(他在汽车维护上花了不少钱。)

  2)Maintenance of order is no easy job at this time.(这时候要维持秩序可不是件容易的事。)

  3)How much maintenance does he pay his ex-wife?(他付给前妻多少抚养费?)

  4)He takes regular physical exercise to maintain health.(他定期进行体育锻炼以保持健康。)

  5)They have maintained correspondence for 20 years.(他们保持通信联系已有20年。)

  17. animated adj. 栩栩如生的;生气勃勃的。

  1)They are having an animated discussion.(他们正在进行热烈的讨论。)

  2)The animated pieced of sculpture attracted a lot of people.(栩栩如生的雕塑作品吸引了许多人。)

  3)He felt very excited when walking in the animated city street.(走在繁忙的闹市大街上,他感到很兴奋。)

  18. shed v. 流出,发出,散发。

  1)Roses shed their fragrance in the garden.(玫瑰的芳香散发在花园里。)

  2)The trees have shed all their leaves in winter.(冬天,树上的叶子全掉了。)

  3)She couldn't help shedding tears when she heard the story.(听了那个故事,她不禁流下了眼泪。)

  19. lessen v. 减少,减轻;缩小,贬低。

  我们曾讲过-en是一个常用的动词后缀,可以用在形容词或名词后面构成动词,如: shorten, broaden, brighten, worsen, lengthen, heighten等等。

  1)They are doing everything possible to lessen tensions between the two nations.(他们正在尽一切可能缓和两国之间的紧张局势。)

  2)I don't know what I can do to lessen his pain.(我不知道我能做什么来减轻他的痛苦。)

  3)He wanted to get the upper hand by lessening the achievements of his rivals.(他想用贬低对手成就的方式来占上风。)

本文转载链接:自考“英语(一)”笔记(85)

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