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自考“英语(一)”笔记(68)

2007-04-10 14:03   【 】【我要纠错

  15.Seal n. 海豹;印章  v. 封口

  1)Many Canadian seals wore killed to reduce the numbers to help the species to survive.

  (大量的加拿大海豹被猎杀是为了减它们的数量使该物种幸存下来。)

  2)The document bore an official seal.(这件上盖有官方大印。)

  3)She sealed the envelope and put it in the postbox.(她封上信封后把信放入邮筒。)

  16.By-product n. 副产品

  by-是一个前缀,表示“次要的”,“附带的”,如:by-channel(支渠),by-effect(副作用),by-lane(小巷);by-line(副业),by-work(第二职业);by-road(小路)等等。

  17.Conservation n. 保存;保护

  conserve v. save, preserve(保存,保护)

  1)People are paying more and more attention to the conservation of wildlife.(人们越来越重视野生动物的保护。)

  2)Conservation of water is of great importance.(节约用水非常重要。)

  3)He leaned against the tree quietly to conserve strength.(他静静地靠在树上以节省体力。)

  4) It is known to all that we should conserve natural resources.(众所周知,我们应该保护自然资源。)

  18.Reserve v. 保留;预计  n. 保留;储备物

  1)These seats are reserved for special quests.(这些座位是保留给特别的客人的。)

  2)We will reserve the plane ticket for you until tomorrow afternoon.(机票给你保留到明天下午。)

  3)I reserve the right to respond later.(我保留稍后作出回应的权利。)

  4)He reserved two tickets for tomorrows show.(他定了两张明天的演出票。)

  5)A bright future is reserved for you.(光明的前程正等待着你。)

  6)During the war, she always kept a reserve of tinned food in the house.

  (战争期间,她总是在家里储备听装食品。)

  7)Many animals use their fat reserves in their body to pull through the winter.

  (许多动物用体内储备的指肪熬过冬天。)

  8)The bank's cash reserves couldn’t meet the demand.(这家银行的现金储备满足不了需要。)

  19.Breed v. 繁殖;饲养;养育  n. 品种,种类

  1)Some animals will not breed when caged.(有些动物关在笼内就不产仔。)

  2)He was bred to be a gentleman.(他被作为绅士养育成人。)

  3)They are of the same breed.(他们是同一类人。)

  4)They raise many breeds of dog.(他们养着许多不同种的狗。)

  20.Provided conj. if (假如,若是)

  1)We will be there before 10, provided we don't waste time.

  (如果我们不浪费时间,我们就能在10点之前到那儿。)

  2)We will go provided that the weather is fine.(假如天晴,我们就去。)

  3)Provided that no objection is raised, we will set back the program.(如果没人反对,我们就把这个项目推迟。)

  请注意:provided不是过去分词,而是连词,作“假如,只要”解,在口语中常用providing. Provided that与if的不同在于:provided that所表示的“如果”,含有希望该条件实现的含义。

  21.Determination n. 决心,决定;结论

  determine v. 决定,决定

  1)He is a man of determination.(他是一个有决断力的人。)

  2)This strengthened his determination not to give in.(这更坚定了他不屈服的决心。)

  3)The doctor's determination was made after the blood test.(医生的结论是在验血之后作出的。)

  4)We haven't determined a date for the meeting.(我们还没有确定会议的日期。)

  5)He determined to study harder.(他决心更努力地学习。)

  6)They are determined to carry out the plan.(他们决心实施这一计划。)

  22.Clash n. 冲突    v. 发生冲突

  1)Thousands of demonstrators clashed with the police.(数千名示威者与警察发生了冲突。)

  2)They wanted to visit both places, but the dates clashed.(他们两个地方都想去,但日程有冲突。)

  3)They got into a verbal clash because of a misunderstanding.(由于误解他们产生了口角。)

  4)An armed clash is unavoidable.(武装冲突不可避免。)

  请注意区别crash,crush和clash.

  Crash指因坠下或猛冲而砰地碰撞,如plane crash(坠机);crush指压碎,压坏,如crush a plot(粉碎阴谋);crush grapes(榨葡萄)

  本课简介

  当一个物种的死亡率高于出生率时,久而久之这个物种就会灭绝。自生命产生起的数百万年间,已有多个物种灭绝。无法适应环境变化的生物,难以与适应性更好、更强壮的生物相抗衡的生物,其最后的命运都将是消亡。在过去的几十年中,人为地猎杀动物或是改变其生息的自然环境已使得其些物种灭绝。如此事便不胜枚举。亚马逊地区自然环境的改变、植被的毁坏将使多个物种灭绝。盲目无度地猎杀动物使得北美的水牛几近灭绝。

  越来越多的人们开始关注野生动植物的保护。方法之一是将濒临灭绝的物种移进动物园和公园,使它们有可能繁衍足够多的后代将来能重返自然。方法之二是建立野生动物保护区,使动物在自然环境中得到照顾。

  本课语言点

  1. An animal species becomes extinct when it fails to produce enough young in each generation to keep pace with the death——rate.

  本句中become是连系动物, extinct是形容词,extinct 通常指动、植物的种灭绝,不再存在。句子中的it代指 (the) animal species.

  fail to do sth. 意思是“没能做到…”如:

  1)He failed to realize his dream of flying round the world.(他没能实现飞行世界的梦想。)

  2)I failed to persuade him to give up smoking.(我没能劝说他把烟戒掉。)

  3)Don't fail to live up to what your parents expect of you.(别辜负父母对你的期望。)

  4)Don't fail to wake me up.(不要忘记叫醒我。)

  Keep pace with 是一个常用词组,意思是“跟上”,如:

  1)He was too old to keep pace with the modern ideas of life.(他年纪大了,跟不上现代生活观念。)

  2)Earnings have not kept pace with inflation.(收入还没有与通货膨胀的速度保持同步。)

  2. We can tell from fossil evidence in rocks that many living species become extinct over the million of years since life began.

  本句中的tell不是“告诉”的意思,而是“断定”或“辨别”的意思。如:

  1)Can you tell her from her twin sister?(你能分得出她和她的孪生姐妹吗?)

  2)Can you tell which is right?(你能断定哪一人是对的吗?)

  that在句中引导宾主从句,做tell的宾语。

  1)He had had a bad cold over Christmas.(他在圣诞节期间得了重伤风。)

  2)They read a lot of books over the vacation.(假期里他们看了不少书。)

  3. …… extinction is the fate of any animal that has specialized too far to change when its environment changes, or has to compete with a better-adapted and more powerful animal.

  that在句中引导定语从句,修饰animal.

  specialize 通常指“专门研究,专门从事”,如:

  1)He specializes in medicine. (他专攻医科。)

  2)This shop specializes in cooking utensils.(这家商店专门经销饮具。)

  在本课文中specialize的意思是“专化,以特殊方式演化。”

  Animals and plants are specialized to fit their surroundings. (动植物是按照特殊方式演化以适应各自的环境的。)

  too…to…的意思是“太…以致于不能…”如:

  1)I was too disappointed to try again.(我太失望,不想再尝试。)

  2)He is too young to take care of himself.(他太年幼,照顾不了自己。)

  compete with 意思是“与…竞争”,也可用compete against.

  1)He didn't want to compete with others for this position.(他不想与别人竞争这个职位。)

  2)Sometimes animals have to compete against each other for the chance to survive.

  (有时,动物为了生存不能相互竞争。)

  better adapted意思是“适应得更好的”。better是副词well 的比较级形式,adapted 是过去分词做形容词用。这类表达形式在英语中十分常见,如:well-known,poorly-dressed,better-prepared等等。

  4. A number of examples can be given of the way in which natural environment are being rapidly changed……

  a number of 意思是“许多”,如:

  1)A number of proposals had been put forward at the meeting. (会上提出了许多建议。)

  2)A number of students have passed the exam.(已有许多学生通过了考试。)

  of在本句中的意思是关于,相当于about.如:

  1)They were not told of this new policy. (关于此项政策,他们没有被告知。)

  2)They wanted to know every detail of what had happened.(对于已发生的事,他们想知道每一个细节。)

  5. There is every likelihood that many species of animals will be made extinct because of these and similar clearances of natural vegetation.

  Likelihood是一个名词,意思是“可能”,相当于 possibility,that在本句中引导同位语从句,对 likelihood作进一步的补充说明。如:There is no doubt that he is a reliable person.(毫无疑问,他是一个可信赖的人。)

  Clearance 在本句中的意思是“(植被)砍伐殆尽;清除。”

  Clearances of vegetation will lead to the loss of water and soil.(砍伐植被会引起水土流失。)

本文转载链接:自考“英语(一)”笔记(68)

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