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自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(8)

2007-01-09 11:48   【 】【我要纠错

Unit4(第11讲—第13讲)

  3. Meaningfulness affects memory at all levels.

  affect 是动词,意思是“影响”。常常会有一些英语学习者把动词affect和名词effect混淆,请注意下面的句子:

  1) The drought would surely affect the harvest.(这场干旱肯定会影响到收成。)

  2) Excessive smoking affected his health, bad coughs often made it difficult to breathe.(过度吸烟影响了他的健康,严重的咳嗽使他难以呼吸。)

  3) Psychologists believe that colors have a definite effect on people.(心理学家认为颜色对人肯定有影响。)

  4) We could all see the effects of the illness on him.(我们都能看出那场病在的身上的影响。)

  5) 职务的变化使他的收入大受影响。(The change in position greatly affected his income.)

  6) 他的话对听众没有任何影响作用。(What he said had little effect on the audience.)

  4. Information that doesn't make any sense to you is difficult to remember.

  that引导的定语从句修饰information; 主句是Information is difficult to remember.

  不定式to remember 用在做表语用的形容词后面作状语。请看下面的句子:

  1) Einstein was easy to get along with.(爱因斯坦很容易相处。)

  2) To many foreigners, Chinese is hard to learn.(对许多外国人来说汉语很难学。)

  3) The water in this river is not fit to drink.(这条河里的水不适合饮用。)

  4) This question is very difficult to answer.(这个问题很难回答。)

  make sense 的意思是“有意义;可理解”。请看下面的句子:

  1) No matter how you read it, this sentence doesn't make any sense to me.(无论你怎么读,我都不理解这个句子。)

  2) What the writer wanted to express in his book doesn't make any sense to the readers.(读者们无法理解作者在书中所要表达的意思。)

  3) His explanation makes no sense to his students.(学生们不理解他的解释。)

  5. Organization also makes a difference in our ability to remember.

  动词不定式to remember在句中做定语,修饰名词ability.请看下面的句子:

  1) You should have confidence in your ability to fulfill the task.(你们应对自己完成认务的能力有信心。)

  2) He has kept the promise to come early in the morning.(他遵守了一大早来的诺言。)

  3) They have the determination to overcome all the difficulties.(他们有克服所有困难的决心。)

  4) We could see her anxiety to solve the problem.(我们能看出她急于解决这个问题。)

  make a difference 的意思是“有关系;有影响;起作用”。请看下面的句子:

  1) What he said would not make any difference in my decision-making.(他说的话不会对我做决定产生任何影响。)

  2) Your participation in the work will make a great difference.(你参与我们的工作,情况就不一样了。)

  3) Money won't make much difference to him.(钱对他起不了多大作用。)

  4) I didn't like the appearance of the house, but the location and price made all the difference.(我不喜欢那房子的外观,但它的位置和价格起了重要作用。)

  6. Material that is organized is better remembered than jumbled information.

  句中的better是副词well的比较级形式,意思是“更好地”。请看下面的句子:

  1) This story is better written than that one.(这个故事写得比那个好。)

  2) This room is better furnished than that one.(这间屋子装饰得比那间好。)

  3) This team is better trained than that one.(这个队训练得比那个队好。)

  4) This job is better paid than that one.(这份工作的报酬比那份高。)

  information是一个不可数名词,不能在其后加“-s”。请看例句:

  1) There are many ways of obtaining information.(获得信息的途径很多。)

  2) So far I haven't got any information about the game.(我至今还没有得到有关比赛的任何消息。)

  3) I am sure this piece of information will be of great value to them.(我肯定这一消息对他们会很有价值。)

  7. Chunking consists of grouping separate bits of information.

  在第一单元的Text B中我们已经对consist of有所了解。这一词组的意思是“由…组成”,它与be made up of;be composed of 的意思相近,但consist of 不用被动语态。请看例句:

  1) The United States consists of 50 states.(美国由50个州组成。)

  2) The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.(英国由大不立颠和北爱尔兰组成。)

  3) Their team is made up of 6 team members.(他们队由6名队员组成。)

  4) Our class is made up of 45 students.(我们班由45名同学组成。)

  a bit在句中的意思是“一点,一些”,它可以用在形容词的前面, 但是不能用在名词的前面。在名词前面必须用a bit of.请看下面的例句:

  1) I am a bit tired today.(我今天有点累。)

  2) He said he was bit hungry.(他说他有点饿。)

  3) Your article is a bit long for our paper. (你的文章对我们的报纸来说有点长了。)

  4) He gave the bird a bit of water. (他给了鸟儿一点水。)

  5) I would appreciate it if you could give me a bit of good advice.(如果你能给我一点宝贵建议我会很感激的。)

  6) I only know a bit of Spanish. (我只懂一点点西班牙语。)

  8. Categorizing is another means of organization.

  句中的means是一个名词,意思是“方式;手段”,它不是动词mean的第三人称单数。请看下面的例句:

  1) The quickest means of travel is by plane. (最快的旅行方式是乘飞机。)

  2) Bicycle is the most convenient means of transport. (自行车是最方便的交通工具。)

  3) Email is a modern means of communication. (电子邮件是一种现代通讯方式。)

  4) He means what he says. (他说话算数。)

  5) Forgetting the past means betrayal. (忘记过去就意味着背叛。)

  9. Many people will group them into similar categories and remember them as follows:

  group into在句中的意思是“把…分组;把…归类”。请看例句:

  1) We can group the animals into several types. (我们可以把这些动物归成几类。)

  2) Group the words into similar categories and they will be more easily to remember.(把类型相似的单词归类,记起来就更容易了。)

  as follows 的意思是“如下”,请看例句:

  1) The full text reads as follows: (全文如下:)

  2) The results are as follows: (结果如下:)

  10. Association refers to taking the material we want to remember and relating it tosomething we remember accurately.

  refer to这一词组的意思很多,我们在单词部分已做过讲解。该词组在本句中的意思是“涉及;指”。请看下面的句子:

  1) In the second chapter I will refer to this point again.(在第二章中,我还会提到这一点的。)

  2) The numbers in my article refer to the footnotes.(我文章中的数目字指的是注脚。)

  3) The author referred to his grandfather several times in his story.(作者在他的故事中几次提到他的祖父。)

  we want to remember 和we remember accurately都是省略了that的定语从句,前者修饰material,后者修饰something.请看例句:

  1) The book you gave me is very interesting.(你给我的那本书很有趣。)

  2) The news he told me disturbed all of us greatly.(他告诉我的那个消息使我们大家深感不安。)

  3) The information you gathered is of great help to me.(你收集的那些信息对我很有帮助。)

  句子中的it指的是the material.relate…to 在句子中的意思是“与…有关系”,请看例句:

  1) His talk mainly related to environmental protection.(他的讲话主要是关于环境保护的。)

  2) This regulation relates only to children under 12.(这一规则仅适用于12岁以下儿童。)

  11. Research has shown striking improvements in many types of memory tasks when people are asked to visualize the items to be remembered.

  striking在句子中做形容词用,意思是“显著的,引人注目的”,请看例句:

  1) They made a striking commercial success within 5 years.(在5年的时间里,他们在商业上取得了惊人的成功。)

  2) Helen's facial features bore a striking resemblance to her mother's.(海伦的面部特征与她的母亲十分相像。)

  3) I am not sure whether he can make it this time. I just feel he has a striking lack of confidence.(我不能确定他这次能否成功,其只是觉得他明显信心不足。)

  to be remembered不定式的被动形式做定语,修饰the items.请看例句:

  1) There are a lot of things to be done.(有很多事要做。)

  2) Are you going to the press conference to be held this weekend?(你准备参加本周末举行的记者招待会吗?)

  3) This was the first project to be designed John's brother. (这是约翰的哥哥设计的第一个工程。)

  12. In one study, subjects in one group were asked to learn some words using imagery, while the second group used repetition to learn the words.

  subject在本句中做名词用,意思是“受试者,实验对象”。Subject这个词的词义很多,请看例句,注意subject的词义:

  1) The subject of today's discussion is “Population and Education”。(今天讨论的题目是“人口与教育”。)

  2) The teacher explained in details the subject of the story to the whole class.(老师把故事的主题详细讲给全班同学听。)

  3) How many subjects are you taking this semester?(这学期你选几门课?)

  4) He became the subject for ridicule.(他成了人们取笑的对象。)

  5) Rabbits and mice are often subjects for medical experiments.(兔和鼠常被用作医学实验的对象。)

  6) He is a Chinese subject.(他是中国国民。)

  7) This sentence doesn't have a subject.(这个句子没有主语。)

  subject还常常做动词或形容词用,请看例句:

  1) The country was once subjected to foreign rule.(这个国家曾一度受外国统治。)

  2) Taipei was subjected to serious earthquakes last year.(台北去年遭受了严重的地震灾害。)

  3) We are all subject to the laws of nature.(我们都要受自然规律的支配。)

  4) The child is very subject to coughs.(这孩子动不动就咳嗽。)

  5) All men are subject to death.(人总有一死。)

  while 在句子中做连词用,意思是“而,然而”。while也是一个多义词,请注意下面例句中while 的意思:

  1) Strike while the iron is hot.(趁热打铁。)

  2) He listened to the radio while he was doing his homework.(他一边听收音机,一边做作业。)

  3) He is talkative while his twin brother is of few words.(他很健谈,而他的孪生兄弟则少言寡语。)

  4) While the old man is respected, he is not well liked.(这个老人很受尊敬,但不太受喜欢。)

  5) You will succeed sooner or later while you don't lose heart.(只要你不失去信心,你迟早会成功。)

  using imagery分词做状语,表示方式,请看例句:

  1) They stood there waiting for the bus.

  2) She had to work standing up.

  13. Thus forming an integrated image with all the information placed in a single mental picture can help us to preserve a memory.

  划线部分是该句的主要成分,forming an integrated image动名词短语做主语,can help做谓语,us to preserve a memory做复合宾语。

  斜体部分是一个“with + 名词 + 过去分词”的独立结构,做方式状语,修饰动名词短语forming an integrated image.

  不定式与名词或代词构成复合结构,做动词宾语的现象在英语中很常见,在前几讲中我们也遇到过。再请看几个例句:

  1) Would you like Tom to go with you?(你愿意汤姆和你一起去吗?)

  2) He wants you to see him in the afternoon.(他想让你下午去见他。)

  3) Father encouraged him to study harder.(父亲鼓励他更加努力学习。)

  4) I will get someone to help you.(我去找个人来帮你。)

  “with + 名词 + 过去分词”的独立结构在英语中也很常见,请看例句:

  1) With the problem solved, the plan is going on smoothly.(随着这个问题的解决,计划正顺利进行。)

  2) Standing there is a torture to her, with so many eyes fixed on her.(这么多人注视着她,于她而言,站在那儿是一种折磨。)

  本课主要词组及句型

  词组:

  1. focus on             2. a number of

  3. at all levels     4. make sense

  5. make a difference 6. in random order

  7. consist of         8. group into

  9. as follows         10. needless to say

  11. refer to         12. relate…to

  13. associate with     14. compare with

  句型:

  A.定语从句

  1) Psychological research has focused on a number of basic principles that helps memory.

  2) Information that does not make any sense to you is difficult to remember

  3) There are several ways in which we can make material more meaningful.

  4) Material that is organized is better remembered than jumbled information.

  5) Association refers to taking the material we want to remember and relating it to something we remember accurately.

  B. 动名词做主语

  1) Chunking consists of grouping separate bits of information.

  2) Categorizing is another means of organization.

  3) Forming an integrated image with all the information placed in a single mental picture can help us to preserve a memory.

  Text B   Short-term Memory

  短语表达

  1. at a later time

  Go ahead with your work, I will give you a call at a later time.

  I am not sure if I can remember all this at a later time.

  2. in contrast (with / to)

  Helen is very talkative. In contrast, her elder sister is silent.

  His rudeness was in striking contrast with Jack's thoughtfulness.

  3. look up

  I don't remember Tom's telephone number, will you please look it up in the telephone book for me?

  Look up the dictionary for the meaning of this new word.

  4. be unable to

  I am really sorry that I was unable to give you a call beforehand.

  He was unable to provide us with more information.

  5. be released from

  He was released from prison after he had been kept there for 5 years.

  He was released from a hospital last week after treatment for a disease.

  6. be rewarded with

  The winner was rewarded with gift of fruit and flowers.

  If the rat could find the right door, it would be rewarded with food.

本文转载链接:自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(8)

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